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  • 1.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    At-sea observation of the spring migration and pair bonding of ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea) around Svalbard and East Greenland.2011In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 30, no 6421, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of logistical constraints little previous information exists on ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea) in the waters around Svalbard and the east coast of Greenland in late winter/early spring. The Swedish Arctic Ocean 2002 expedition investigated these areas at that time of year and in this paper I report on the observations of ivory gulls made during the expedition. The ivory gull was essentially absent from open waters but was the most common seabird in areas with pack ice, showing behavioural differences depending on local conditions. Generally, the number of ivory gulls was low when there was little plankton in the water. Ivory gulls followed the ship depending on the availability of food items in the wake and also depending on competition from other species, particularly glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Although ivory gulls were present in most of Fram Strait and the northern part of the East Greenland Current during 6 and 19 May, sightings were few and correlated to the amount of plankton in the water. Aggregations of several hundred were seen on the ice where copulation and other social interaction took place. A previously undescribed pair bonding behaviour during which females seemed to select between two competing males was observed north of Svalbard on 30 April - 1 May. Off Scoresby Sound on 25 May, more than 700 birds were seen migrating north, while farther south along the Greenland coast on 30 May there was little indication of migration although many ivory gulls were seen.

  • 2.
    Kylin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University; Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hammar, Johan
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Mowrer, Jacques
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bouwman, Henk
    North West University, South Africa.
    Edelstam, Carl
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Olsson, Mats
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholms universitet.
    Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collectedduring the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic2015In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 34, article id 21129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34), glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8), common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10), Brünnich’s guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9), ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2) were collected. With the exception of Brünnich’s guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich’s guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5), the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5), but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30). Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich’s guillemot (n=7), glaucous gull (n=2) and polar bear (n=2) were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

  • 3.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Institute for Biogeochemistry and Marine Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiencke, Christian
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany.
    Release of reactive organic halogens by the brown macroalga Saccharina latissima after exposure to ultraviolet radiation2010In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brown macroalga Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) C.E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl & G.W. Saunders (formerly Laminaria saccharina [L.] Lamouroux) was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the mW UV-A and mW UV-B range in the laboratory for up to 28 days. The release rates of volatile organohalogens, such as chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, were determined. From these rates, the total emission of reactive organic halogens was calculated. The results revealed that exposure to UVR significantly affected the emission of reactive organic halogens by the macroalga under investigation. An increase in the release of reactive organic iodine was observed for the algal species. In contrast, for reactive organic bromine and reactive organic chlorine, a decrease in emission by the macroalga was observed. Apparently, the potential for increased levels of UVR resulting from further ongoing destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer may increase the importance of marine macroalgae in atmospheric reactions involving organic halogens.

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