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  • 1.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).
    Finnveden, Göran
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost–benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 2.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Ecology, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden / Ragn Sells AB, Sollentuna, Sweden.
    Brandt, Nils
    Division of Industrial Ecology, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lysenkova, Mariya
    Rampage Consulting Ltd., Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Niklas
    Division of Industrial Ecology, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 3.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

  • 4.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do standardised environmental management systems (EMS) lead to improved environmental performance? This depends on to what extent these systems lead to changes in important flows of material and energy, which for manufacturing companies, in turn, mean that the product development process is important. Consequently, it appears vital to investigate the connection between EMS and ‘Design for the Environment’ (DFE), i.e. the connection between these management systems and concepts that deal with environmental issues in product development.

    This paper presents product-oriented environmental management systems (POEMS), including characteristics of existing models, experiences from projects where these models have been tested and experiences concerning the product connection in ‘normal’ EMS. It includes a discussion of important factors influencing to what extent DFE activities are integrated into EMS and/or the outcome of such integration.

    There are many motives for integrating the two concepts. Firstly, DFE thinking might enrich EMS by contributing with a life-cycle perspective. If EMS encompassed products' life cycles to a greater extent, they would be a better complement to the often facility-oriented legal requirements and authority control. Secondly, EMS might remove the pilot project character of DFE activities and lead to continuous improvement. Thirdly, integration could lead to successful co-operation, both internally and externally. However, existing studies show that there is a mixed picture concerning the extent ‘normal’ EMS currently encompass products.

  • 5.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 417-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For standardized environmental management systems (EMS) to be environmentally effective tools, they should affect important environmental aspects related to flows of materials and energy, which for manufacturing companies are closely connected to their products. This paper presents how external environmental auditors interpret and apply important product-related requirements of ISO 14001 at manufacturing companies in Sweden.

    The results indicate that the link between EMS and products is rather weak. Products are seldom regarded as significant environmental aspects and are therefore not within the main scope of many EMS, which are mainly focused on sites. However, all of the interviewed auditors require that some kind of environmental considerations be incorporated into product development, but these considerations are to large extent site oriented; how they are prioritized in relation to other factors such as economics and other customer priorities appears to be up to the companies.

    The paper includes some recommendations to strengthen the role of products within the framework of standardized EMS.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergstrand, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A study of the comparability of energy audit program evaluations2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 2133-2139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy. Governmental industrial energy audit programs subsidizing the companies to conduct an energy audit are the most common policy in trying to overcome the energy efficiency gap. Evaluation studies have been carried out to gain knowledge about the success of a completed energy audit policy program. The evaluations were made in different ways and in addition focused on different performance indicators and used different ways of categorizing data. In this article, a literature review has been made of five evaluation studies from different energy audit programs, where the problems of the present incomparability between programs due to differences are discussed. The policy implication of this paper is that new energy audit policy programs must distinguish a harmonized way of categorizing data, both regarding energy efficiency measures and energy end-use. Further, a proposition for a standard for how to evaluate energy audit policy programs is suggested. Conclusions from this study are that important elements, such as the free-rider effect and harmonized energy end-use data, should be defined and included in evaluation studies. A harmonized standard for evaluating audit programs is not least needed within the EU, where member states are obliged to launch audit programs for large enterprises, and preferably also for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper serves as an important contribution for the development of such a standard in further research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 883-895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-10 14:54
  • 8.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Support your future today: enhancing sustainable transitions by experimenting at academic conferences2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major societal changes which challenge societal functions and actors activities are needed to enhance sustainable development. Thus sustainable transitions research emphasizes co-evolutionary approaches involving a multitude of actors including the business sector, the government, and academia. Academic research can catalyse sustainable transitions by critically analyse current societal trends to develop and disseminate new knowledge. At research conferences, researchers and practitioners meet to network and discuss recent research findings providing arenas for testing and evaluating ideas to enhance sustainable transitions. This however requires some modifications of the standard design of a research conference. Here we report learning outcomes from experimenting at the 18th international Greening of Industry Network conference during 21-24 October 2012 in Linkoping, Sweden. The conference was a combination of a traditional conference structure with different interactive elements such as sustainability jam-sessions to discuss future challenges of six companies and clusters of companies at their site. The intention of doing so was to enhance learning outcomes both for visiting conference delegates and among actors in the host region. This was perceived by the participants as an innovative approach fostering both problem solving and creation of new ideas. Four out of the six companies continued dialogues about sustainable production fields or bio-refineries with Linkoping University. In addition we introduce and summarize research findings presented at the conference which were further developed into research articles. The essence of these articles covers sustainable industry management; cleaner production; industrial ecology; cooperation between industry, governments and academics; dissemination of concepts and technologies; methods and tools for modelling and measuring of industrial symbiosis, CO2 performance and eco-efficiency.

  • 9.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    et al.
    Erasmus Centre for Sustainable Development and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Boons, F. A.
    Erasmus Centre for Sustainable Development and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    An industrial ecology project in practice: exploring the boundaries of decision-making levels in regional industrial systems2004In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 12, no 8-10, p. 1073-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology is a label under which many linkages between production and consumption processes are grouped. This article is based on a social science approach, ranging from organisational learning to the analysis of industrial districts, in reflection to the techno-economic approach of the developments in the industrial ecology projects ‘INES 1994–1997 and INES Mainport 1999–2002’ in the Rotterdam harbour and industry complex. In relation to the growing attention for regional types of industrial ecology, the article aims to provide a useful social science analytical framework for investigating regional industrial ecology, and to develop a prescriptive approach that can stimulate such industrial ecology. Regional industrial ecological systems meet with static and dynamic issues as a result of specific system boundaries of their decision-making levels. The analytical framework provides insight into these issues through a focus on three phases of (regional) industrial ecology, the production of collective goods, and governance mechanisms. We find that the INES Mainport project is still in the first phase of industrial ecology. To go beyond this phase, the Rotterdam harbour and industry region faces the limits of system boundaries of the decision-making levels within the regional management.

  • 10.
    Baas, Leenard. W
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, The Netherlands.
    Huisingh, D.
    Erasmus University, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, The Netherlands.
    Hafkamp, W. A.
    Erasmus University, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, The Netherlands.
    Four years of experience with Erasmus University's “International Off-Campus PhD programme on cleaner production, cleaner products, industrial ecology and sustainability”2000In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 425-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the first four years' experiences with Erasmus University's “International Off-Campus PhD Programme on Cleaner Production, Cleaner Products, Industrial Ecology and Sustainability.” The proposal for this innovative, off-campus programme was made in 1992, in response to expanding needs for providing environmental professionals the opportunity to continue their employment and to simultaneously work toward fulfilling the requirements of a PhD.

    After receiving approval and initial financial support from the Board of Deans of Erasmus University, the first INTENSIVE (INTENSIVE is the term used to describe the annual, two-week long training programme within which the new PhD candidates, as well as those who have been in the programme for a year or more, meet to learn more about the rapidly evolving areas addressed by the programme and to report on progress made in each candidate's PhD thesis research. The Erasmus faculty and invited supportive co-advisors and other visiting scholars contribute to the scholarly input and candidate guidance.) of the new International PhD Programme was held in October 1995. Since then the programme has expanded and progressed. As of the academic year 1998/1999, twenty-one PhD candidates from eleven countries in five continents were actively pursuing their PhD research and thesis development within the Programme. Six new candidates were admitted during the November 1999 INTENSIVE.

  • 11.
    Baas, Leo
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    Cleaner production and industrial ecosystems, a Dutch experience1998In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 6, no 3-4, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article opens briefly with the recent discussions about the effectiveness of pollution prevention. As pollution prevention and cleaner production are important elements of industrial ecology, the different definitions and approaches of industrial ecology as a term also need clarity. The major part of this article reflects the first results of the cleaner production and industrial ecology concepts, applied in an industrial ecosystem project (INES) in the Rotterdam harbour area. In this industrial area with many refineries and (petro)chemical facilities, the possibilities for companies to reuse waste streams, by-products and energy from each other was researched. The project was initiated by an industrial association. Sixty-nine members of the industrial association joined the INES project and provided confidential information about their resources, products and waste streams to the research team. Based on this information, 15 projects were designed. The selected three projects for further feasibility studies showed the potency to reduce the use of energy, water and bio sludge significantly.

  • 12.
    Baas, Leo
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus Centre for Sustainability and Management, The Netherlands.
    To make zero emissions technologies and strategies become a reality, the lessons learned of cleaner production dissemination have to be known2007In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 13-14, p. 1205-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With respect to the philosophy of the preventive approach, the bottom line has often been illustrated with the saying: ‘…a gram of prevention is better than a kilogram of cure…’ But you cannot manage a problem that you do not know. In case of cleaner production, the approach is not to solve the problem but to prevent it. This is a deduction in two ways. Firstly, a new problem has to be present in order to be recognised, also for prevention. Secondly, the problem that has to be prevented is connected to the life-cycle of the capital and technology investments in production processes, products and services. A dilemma for new concepts in general is that pilot studies never meet the full conditions that are needed. When the obstacles of routines are overcome, often the momentum for fully conditioned approaches is passed and watered-down definitions and applications are introduced.

  • 13.
    Baas, Leo W.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Cleaner Production: beyond projects1995In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 55-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research has revealed that, despite the positive results of many Cleaner Production case studies, in practice relatively little spontaneous spreading of the application of Cleaner Production approaches occurs. A new paradigm must replace the one used over the past 25 years of environmental protection activities, which focused upon carrying on the 'normal' ways of production and adding 'cleaning' technologies later, as needed. In many companies, this 'normal' practice still goes on today, while the new Cleaner Production awareness, which demands new practices and a new paradigm, has not been accepted by them or by most government officials. This paper reflects on the developments in Cleaner Production and Products research within the past few years.

  • 14.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klaus, Fichter
    Borderstep Institute/Oldenburg University, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Sustainability-profiled incubators and securing the inflow of tenants – the case of Green Garage Berlin2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 157, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is an attention in research and practise on entrepreneurial ecosystems, and how these, often using incubators, could support sustainable development through new firm start-ups. Despite the popularity of incubators in the literature and practise, few studies have focused on sustainable incubators in general or, more specifically, on processes that ensure a steady flow of tenants. Thus, this paper investigates how sustainable incubators ensures their inflow of tenants, how they organize their activities and whether the incubator environment affect tenant recruitment. A case study approach analysing the sustainability oriented incubator Green Garage Berlin have been used to generate an understanding of selection and recruitment processes as well the influence of external environments. The results show that regional and inter-regional co-operation, together with a well-planned, structured pre-incubation process, are requirements for securing an inflow of tenants to sustainable incubators. Incubator reputation and sufficient long term funding is also a key to success. A good practice case as Green Garage cannot simply be replicated, but require openness to continue the learning process and adapting the knowledge to be transferred to local conditions.

  • 15.
    Ben Amor, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Laboratory of ECSTRA, Economic Department, HEC of Carthage, Carthage University, Carthage, Tunisia.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hafedh, Ben Abdennebi
    Laboratory of ECSTRA, Economic Department, HEC of Carthage, Carthage University, Carthage, Tunisia.
    Revisiting Industrial Organization: Product Service Systems Insight2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 96, p. 1459-1477Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review puts forward a comparison between the traditional seller, usually represented by classic Industrial Organization (IO) models, and system providers, which are illustrated by Product Service System (PSS) models. A multidisciplinary systematic literature review, that compares PSS and IO models, is conducted, and ends up in to define PSS as a technology. It highlights the differences and similarities between classic IO and classic PSS and evaluate the weakness and strengths of different models. In total, 148 articles from different disciplines have been investigated, and a different understanding of PSS is provided. A new IO framework, that considers classic sellers and PSSs providers, is established to preserve PSS specificities and stress the role of policy maker and competition for PSSs expansion.

  • 16.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toward sustainability with the coordinated freight distribution of municipal goods2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 194-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities play an important role in the development of sustainable societies, particularly by way of public procurement. Within this area, municipal governments can significantly impact the environment by placing environment-conscious demands on the products and services purchased. At the same time, municipalities are largely responsible when it comes to decreasing the fastest growing source of CO2 emissions in urban areas: road transport. Yet, while much has been done to curb the environmental impact of passenger transport, freight transport seems to have been nearly forgotten. Some Swedish municipalities have set a good example by coordinating the distribution of goods to their facilities and by separating the purchases of goods from those of distribution services. Although municipalities claim that cooperation and knowledge dissemination are central to developing sustainability management, it remains unclear how such should be applied to coordinated urban freight distribution. This paper thus aims to describe and analyse activities in Swedish municipalities' developmental processes of promoting the coordinated freight distribution of goods, in order to identify which activities of knowledge dissemination and collaboration should be prioritised. Empirical data were gathered from interviews, the Internet, and brochures for initiatives taken by Swedish municipalities. Results indicate that the initiatives demonstrate several similarities and differences, as well as provide examples of how knowledge can be integrated into municipal organisation. Above all, results indicate a need for increased collaboration among actors to make freight transport in Swedish cities more efficient, as well as that increased knowledge transfer can help municipalities to overcome several of their weaknesses.

  • 17.
    Boons, F. A. A.
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Policy and Organization Sciences, Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Baas, L. W.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Types of industrial ecology: The problem of coordination1997In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology initiatives have in common the fact that they cross company boundaries, necessitating the coordination of the activities of several economic actors. This article focusses on this coordination problem. Based on organizational sociological concepts, four types ofindustrial ecology activities are distinguished. Each has its own characteristic coordination problem. From this typology, conclusions are drawn concerning the way in which industrial ecology initiatives can, and should, be stimulated.

  • 18.
    Borén, Sven
    et al.
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Ny, Henrik
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Robért, Karl-Henrik
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development – part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. In the first paper of this tandem publication, the authors propose a new generic process model embedding the Framework of Strategic Sustainable Development. The purpose of applying it in an action-research mode as described in this paper was twofold: (i) to develop a vision for sustainable regional transport and a coarse roadmap towards that vision, and, while doing so, (ii) get additional empirical experiences to inform the development of the new generic process model. Experts from many sectors and organizations involved in the GreenCharge project provided vital information and reviewed all planning perspectives presented in Paper 1 in two sequential multi-stakeholder seminars. The results include a sustainable vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden within a sustainable regional transport system within a sustainable global society, as well as an initial development plan towards such a vision for the transport sector. The vision is framed by the universal sustainability principles, and the development plan is informed by the strategic guidelines, of the above-mentioned framework. Among other things, the vision and plan imply a shift to renewable energy and a more optimized use of areas and thus a new type of spatial planning. For example, the vision and plan implies a lower built-in demand for transport, more integrated traffic modes, and more multi-functional use of areas for energy and transport infrastructures, for example. Some inherent benefits of electric vehicles are highlighted in the vision and plan, including near-zero local emissions and flexibility as regards primary energy sources. The vision and plan also imply improved governance for more effective cross-sector collaboration to ensure coordinated development within the transport sector and between the transportation sector and other relevant sectors. Meanwhile, the new generic process model was refined and is ready to be applied and further tested in the GreenCharge project and in other projects within the transport sector as well as other sectors. The study confirmed that the new generic process model suggested in support of sustainable transport system and community development is helpful for giving diverse stakeholders, with various specialties and perspectives, a way of working that is goal-oriented and builds on effective, iterative learning loops and co-creation.

  • 19.
    Brunke, Jean-Christian
    et al.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Empirical investigation of barriers and drivers to the adoption of energy conservation measures, energy management practices and energy services in the Swedish iron and steel industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish iron and steel industry is focused on the production of advanced steel grades and accounts for about 5% of the countrys final energy consumption. Energy efficiency is according to the European Commission a key element for the transition towards a resource-efficient economy. We investigated four aspects that are associated with the adoption of cost-effective energy conservation measures: barriers, drivers, energy management practices and energy services. We used questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews to collect data from members of the Swedish steel association. The heterogeneous observations implied a classification into steel producers and downstream actors. For testing the significance, the Mann Whitney U test was used. The most important barriers were internal economic and behavioural barriers. Energy service companies, in particular third-party financing, played a minor role. In contrast, high importance was attached to energy management as the most important drivers originated from within the company. Energy management practices showed that steel companies are actively engaged in the topic, but need to raise its prioritisation and awareness within the organisation. When sound energy management practices are included, the participants assessed the cost-effective energy conservation potential to be 9.7%, which was 2.4% higher than the potential for solely adopting cost-effective technologies.

  • 20.
    Byers, Steven
    et al.
    College of Business, Idaho State University, USA.
    Groth, John
    Texas A & M University, USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using portfolio theory to improve resource efficiency of invested capital2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 156-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited literature provides concrete, theory-based methods for quantifying the effects of sharing capital. This paper describes the potential contribution of portfolio theory to quantify the effects and optimize the employment of capital (human, tangible, financial, and service employing capital) in a theoretical and quantitative manner in the context of sustainability. Insights illustrate how portfolio principles can yield benefits, including the fulfillment of needs using fewer resources, consistent with sustainability. In particular, “pooling” assets to meet uncertain demands from different users of an asset pool may yield benefit from diversification effects. Suggests future research avenues such as the management of high-value, critical-value, and expiring resources to support sustainability.

  • 21.
    Cao, Cejun
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China; Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Congdong
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China; Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Qin
    Sichuan Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Qu, Ting
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    A novel multi-objective programming model of relief distribution for sustainable disaster supply chain in large-scale natural disasters2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 174, p. 1422-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To save lives and reduce suffering of victims, the focus of this paper is to design the strategies of relief distribution regarding beneficiary perspective on sustainability. This problem is formulated as a multi objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model to maximize the lowest victims perceived satisfaction, and minimize respectively the largest deviation on victims perceived satisfaction for all demand points and sub-phases. Then, genetic algorithm is proposed to solve this mathematical model. To validate the proposed methodologies, a case study from Wenchuan earthquake is illustrated. Computational results demonstrate genetic algorithm here can achieve the trade-off between solution quality and computation time for relief distribution with the concern of sustainability. Furthermore, it indicates that the methodology provides the tools for decision-makers to optimize the structure of relief distribution network and inventory, as well as alleviate the suffering of victims. Increasingly, this paper expects to not only validate the proposed model and method, but also highlight the importance and urge of considering beneficiary perspective on sustainability into relief distribution problem. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

    A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

    We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

    Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

  • 23.
    Chen, Lujie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Applying GRI reports for the investigation of environmental management practices and company performance in Sweden, China and India2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between environmental management practices (EMPs) and company performance hasrecently been debated in literature and is of interest for both industrial managers and political decisionmakers.This paper investigates the relationship between EMPs and firm performance in manufacturingcompanies in Sweden, China and India. With the content analysis of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)reports and financial reports of sample companies, the levels of EMPs and the companies’ financialperformances were coded. Further statistical assessment was conducted in order to identify patterns andcorrelations. The results indicate that only selected EMPs have been employed differently in threedifferent countries. Most EMPs clearly do not have a positive correlation with the financial performance;i.e. employing EMPs does not necessarily improve the economic consequence of companies. Nevertheless,a number of EMPs do have a strong correlation with improving innovation performance in variouscompanies. It is also interesting to note that a negative correlation exists between the Environmentalstandard for suppliers and Sales growth. This is possibly due to increasing operational costs and a delay inmarket acceptance. This research illustrates the possibility of using standard environmental data fromGRI reports as a resource for future studies of EMPs. In order to improve long-term financial performance,this study also suggests that innovation should gain a substantial amount of attention when EMPsare employed.

  • 24.
    Chen, Lujie
    et al.
    Xian Jiaotong Liverpool Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jia, Fu
    Univ York, England.
    The moderating role of supplier involvement in achieving sustainability2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 235, p. 245-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we aim to explore the role of the involvement of suppliers while firms execute sustainable initiatives. We have based the entire study on a survey covering 101 Swedish manufacturers. The structural equation models of partial least squares are adopted to analyse their responses, examining the relationship among the constructs, stakeholders influence, sustainable practices, sustainable performance, and supplier involvement. We find that, in the firms, the effects of stakeholder influence on the sustainable practices is both significant and positive; the sustainable practices of sampled firms are to a great extent facilitating the sustainable performance. In addition, intensely participating in the initiatives related to environmental protection (e.g., cleaner production) by the suppliers, helps reinforce the relationship of sustainable practice and sustainable performance in the firms, however the moderating effects of suppliers involvement in economic and social activities is not significant. This has significant implications to firms decision regarding where to invest in sustainability. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 25.
    de koning, jotte Ilbine Jozine Charlotte
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Design Engineering, Design for Sustainability, Landbergstraat 15, 2828CE Delft, The Netherlands.
    Ta, Thu Huong
    Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Room 228B Ta Quang Buu E-Library, No.1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
    Crul, Marcel R. M.
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Design Engineering, Design for Sustainability, Landbergstraat 15, 2828CE Delft, The Netherlands.
    Wever, Renee
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Design Engineering, Design for Sustainability, Landbergstraat 15, 2828CE Delft, The Netherlands.
    Brezet, Johannes C.
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Design Engineering, Design for Sustainability, Landbergstraat 15, 2828CE Delft, The Netherlands/ Aalborg University, Department of Development and Planning, Fredrik Bajers Vej 5, P.O. Box 159, DK - 9100 Aalborg, Denmark.
    GetGreen Vietnam: towards more sustainable behaviour among the urban middle class2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, no part A, p. 178-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Vietnam, the middle class is expected to grow from 12 million to 33 million people between 2012 and 2020. The growth causes an increase as well as a shift in consumption. Products that were not accessible or affordable before will become increasingly so, such as cars, dishwashers, meat products and air-conditioning. In urban areas the changes are most prominent and so are the side effects: increased amounts of waste, smog, pollution and use of fossil energy or pesticides.

    The main objective of this study was to identify sustainable behaviour that followed or did not follow from the intervention project GetGreen Vietnam. 604 urban middle class consumers participated in a series of sustainable consumption trainings. Before, during and after the trainings, quantitative and qualitative data was collected on 90 sustainable actions.

    64% of the participants self-reported to be engaged in a sustainable action before the intervention and this percentage increased to 80% after. The group environment and activity-based meetings of GetGreen Vietnam project (GGVN) were critical for the success of the intervention. Participants reported that before GGVN certain actions were already habitual as a money saving strategy (e.g. sparse electricity use or food leftovers re-use) or due to past scarcity (e.g. sparse water use). Many participants reported the intention to buy sustainable products but fewer participants took action to do so.

    A powerful strategy toward more sustainable consumption in Vietnam can be to create more group-based activities around the themes of energy and shopping for food. A twofold approach is needed that both installs new sustainable consumption patterns and keeps old habits rooted in daily rituals. Role models should set an example for the young population and consumers and (Vietnamese) producers should be better connected to increase mutual trust and transparency.

  • 26.
    Ding, Huiping
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Hua
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable supply chain collaboration with outsourcing pollutant-reduction service in power industry2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 215-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries, coal power plants still play a major role in the power sector and they are considered as a major emission source of air pollution. Strict regulations have compelled the coal power plants to improve environmental performance by reducing carbon emissions and the emission of pollutants. However, due to cost disadvantages, the coal power plants often lack motivation to internalize environmental externalities through investing in green technology. This situation raises a question: is there any alternative to reduce pollutants in operations economically? With a focus on service supply as well as a consideration of government policies, this paper develops a model to investigate the opportunity of outsourcing a pollutant-reduction service to meet the environmental constraint. The service supply chain consists of a coal power plant (end user) and a pollutant-reduction service provider, with the former outsourcing the service to the latter. We study the policy for improving the profit of this service supply chain whereas the benefit allotment is adjusted through outsourcing price negotiation between the two partners. The results show that the green service outsourcing price is interrelated with the government incentive policy which defines the shares of the two partners. Our key contribution lies in integrating the complex factors affecting the supply chain collaboration such as green service, financial feasibility, environmental constraint, government policies, outsourcing price negotiation, and profit sharing. Our research findings have the following implications; considering environmental externalities, the government should motivate the collaboration between supply chain partners; the economic scale of output and sales price subsidy of electricity generation are the primary factors affecting the price of outsourcing green service and, consequently, the allotment of supply chain profits. The study results indicate the collaboration is potentially effective in improving environmental performance. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well.

    In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced.

    Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

    The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%.

  • 28.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied.

    Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer–Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

  • 29.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, p. 552-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

  • 30.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    No zero burden assumption in a circular economy2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the products life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with "zero burden", by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-08 11:32
  • 31.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Towards a sustainable socio-technical system of biogas for transport: the case of the city of Linköping in Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the development of biogas for transport in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, is studied in order to contribute to a better understanding of the conditions for socio-technical transitions towards sustainability. Linköping municipality, 1976 [kommunfullmäktige] Motion om utredning angående eldrivna fordon. Dnr 1976.278. Using concepts from multi-level perspectives and socio-technical perspectives on system builders, the study focuses on three time periods: During the first time period (1976–1994), a niche for biogas developed amongst dedicated actors in small networks representing energy and public transport within the municipality. That is, biogas was entirely connected to the vision of a ‘green’ public transport. Second, between the years of 1994 and 2001, the biogas producing company acted as a system builder and initiated a large-scale biogas production through close cooperation in networks with other actors. As a result, biogas reached a phase of technological maturity and also gained some support from national investment programs. Finally, from 2001 the expansion of biogas became clearer as the biogas production spread into a regional arena but also reached for new customers, like personal cars. Unforeseen spin-offs like the formation of new private companies and development of research were important results of the transition. Thereby, the transition is a move towards a new socio-technical regime. A conclusion from the study is that the development of biogas was highly influenced by national support and pressure, but was mainly driven by local actors – system builders – that could steer the processes and had endurance as well as capability to mobilize resources in order to fulfill their purposes.

  • 32.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

  • 33.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

  • 34.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five municipalities, do these municipalities include stakeholders in the process, if so how, and do the stakeholders influence the content of strategies? Results suggest that a number of factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders not only have been involved but also felt included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; and the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about factors influencing municipal energy planning and also contribute to a discussion on benefits and problems of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

  • 35.
    Forslind , Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does the financing of extended producer responsibility influence economic growth?2009In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how the financing of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the overall performance of the economy is important as products covered by EPR comprise an increasing part of the economy. in this paper, an Overlapping Generations (OLG) model with endogenous growth is applied to the case and a comparison between two financing schemes, an insurance solution and a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solution, is made with respect to the effect on the level of production, the growth rate, the impact of a productivity shock and the risk exposure. It is found that in the case of a funded solution, both the level of production and the growth rate in production is higher than in the PAYG case, and the short-run effect of productivity shock is bigger. The policy indication is clear: EPR should be attached to a financing scheme if welfare is to be maximised.

  • 36.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management and stakeholder participation in local strategic energy planning – Examples from Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to improving energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, municipalities are important actors. The Swedish Energy Agency initiated a program called Sustainable Municipalities to support strategic energy activities at the local level. Participating municipalities were mandated to develop local energy and climate strategies. This study gives a general overview of how the 60 participants in the Sustainable Municipalities program developed and used energy strategies. The paper focuses on analyses of whether energy plans or strategies are present, and if present, how the municipalities address the issues, what actors are involved, and whether follow-up of the strategies is pursued. The empirical data were collected using structured telephone interviews and other studies. The paper elucidates local energy strategies from a management perspective, discuss whether and how the composition of actors influences suggested goals and measures, and explore whether there were plans for implementation and follow-ups. The theoretical ambitions are to integrate theories on how to manage efficient strategic energy planning with theories on how to achieve successful participation of stakeholders. These theories are used to discuss weaknesses and strengths in existing municipal energy planning practices and potential improvements.

    The results from this paper show that only 75% of the municipalities adopted local energy strategies. In addition, it was revealed that the processes to develop the strategies generally included several municipal actors although other stakeholders were rarely represented. The strategies resulted in concrete measures; however, there were no clear correlations between included actors, suggested measures, and identified themes in the strategies. The rather limited participation in the process could affect the impact and legitimacy of the strategies.

  • 38.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Piscicelli, Laura
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, 3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Business model diversification in the sharing economy: The case of GoMore2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 215, p. 1059-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper improves our understanding of the rise of the sharing economy by shedding light on the current trend in the mobility sector for new firms to operate different business models simultaneously. A shared mobility platform is used as a case study to examine the underexplored process of diversification into a business model portfolio, and test the theoretical proposition that successful business model configurations maximize the existing resources of a firm to establish hard-to-imitate capabilities and create sustainable competitive advantage. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants from the platform management team and a document analysis. The analysis shows the evolution, diversification, and expansion of the sharing economy startup from a non-profit ridesharing website to a for-profit matchmaking platform offering peer-to-peer (P2P) mobility solutions (ridesharing and short-term car rental) alongside business-to-consumer (B2C) access-based services (long-term leasing). The analysis suggests that each new service subsequently offered by the case firm aimed to increase the supply of peer providers in its existing P2P business models. The business model portfolio relies on six key resources (member community, platform technology, user data, customer support, local management teams, and partners) and three key capabilities (leverage of the community’s assets, technological improvement, and user engagement), which are shared and redeployed across business models and geographic locations to improve matchmaking quality, enable growth, and increase profits.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-01 10:34
  • 39.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blumenthal, Alyssa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

  • 40.
    Hjalmarsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas as a boundary object for policy integration - the case of Stockholm2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy integration between autonomous policy sectors is a tool for managing interdependent technical systems to avoid suboptimization. Biogas, regarded as a renewable energy carrier usable in the energy and transport systems, is produced from organic material such as municipal organic waste (MOW). It is connected to a number of systems and policy sectors, making biogas management an instructive case for studying policy integration processes. Swedish biogas production has increased in recent years, and in the Stockholm region there has been enormous interest in biogas production for vehicle use since the early 2000s. In this paper biogas will be discussed in the perspective that it is or has potential to be a vital part of three systems: waste, energy, and transportation. The aim is to analyse whether policy integration occurs between the systems and to explore if boundary objects can play a role when understanding policy integration processes. In examining the biogas development process, regional policy documents and interviews with stakeholders in the biogas process are used. The results indicate consensus among regional actors that biogas should be used in vehicles and that MOW should be collected for this purpose, indicating congruence of understanding of biogas. Biogas functions as a boundary object in these cases and contributes to high policy integration between the energy and waste systems. Despite consensus that biogas should be used in the transport system, there is little policy integration between the energy and transport sectors. The policy sectors of transport infrastructure and spatial planning are not concerned with fuel or biogas issues. Public transport policy focuses on the use of biogas for their vehicles, but even if biogas serves as a boundary object it is not developing into policy integration processes. The conclusion is that biogas development has resulted in integrated policymaking between the energy and waste sectors and biogas has served as a strong boundary object which has spurred that development. Between the energy and transport sectors there is little policy integration, and biogas is not a boundary object in the cases of transport infrastructure and spatial planning policy sectors. What this case shows is that if there is a lack of presence of a boundary object it suggests no preconditions for policy integration processes to start.

  • 41.
    Hojer, M.
    et al.
    Höjer, M., Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlroth, S.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dreborg, K.-H.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekvall, T.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 5302, SE-400 14 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Finnveden, G.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Hochschorner, E.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, M.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Kräftriket 2B, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, V.
    Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden, Box 24300, SE-104 51 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scenarios in selected tools for environmental systems analysis2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 18, p. 1958-1970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of different tools for analysing environmental impacts of different systems have been developed. These include procedural tools such as strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and environmental management systems (EMS) as well as analytical ones such as life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the system of economic and environmental accounts (SEEA) including input-output analysis (IOA). Descriptions or scenarios of the future are typically relevant elements in these tools, since they are often used to describe impacts in the future. For futures studies a number of different approaches and techniques have been developed. In an earlier paper we have presented a typology of different types of scenarios that respond to different types of questions. These include predictive scenarios, explorative scenarios and normative scenarios. The aim of this paper is to explore connections between selected tools for environmental systems analysis and different scenario types. Although there is a clear need for futures studies in several tools for environmental systems analysis, it is interesting to note that the literature on methodologies for and case studies of combinations of futures studies and environmental systems analysis tools is rather limited. This suggests that there is a need for further research in this area including both methodology and practical case studies. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Johansson, G.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, PO Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Organising for environmental considerations in complex product development projects: implications from introducing a "Green" sub-project2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 15-16, p. 1368-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a case study of a product development project in which environmental performance requirements were introduced. Focus is set on how the project was organised in order to ensure that the environmental performance requirements were considered. A specific "Green" sub-project was included in the project organisation. The analysis shows that such a sub-project can: (1) serve as a means to put environmental considerations on the agenda, (2) introduce a risk for confusion regarding who is responsible for fulfilling the environmental performance requirements, (3) act as an arena for communication about the environmental performance requirements, (4) serve as a platform for environmental champions to be active, and (5) serve as a means for environmental specialists to become part of established contact networks in the product development organisation. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Glenn
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean and green product development: two sides of the same coin?2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, p. 104-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and contrasts the lean product development (LPD) and green product development (GPD) concepts through a systematic literature review including 102 journal publications. The review resulted in 14 findings that were organised according to four dimensions: general, process, people and tools/techniques. A number of similarities between the concepts were found. For example, implementation of both concepts calls for a systems perspective where the dimensions of process-people-tools/techniques are linked holistically. Differences between the LPD and GPD concepts lie in: their goal and focus, value construct, process structure, performance metrics, and tools/techniques used. The findings do not unambiguously support that "green thinking is thinking lean" and consequently it cannot be argued that LPD and GPD are two sides of the same coin, meaning that LPD automatically leads to greener products or that GPD ensures improvements and efficiency in the product development process. However, it is reasonable to conclude that LPD and GPD belong to the same "currency". That is, the concepts share a number of similarities that indicate a synergistic relationship. This synergistic relationship has been accentuated by a nine propositions where the potential for cross-field learning is shown.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

  • 45.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    del Río, Pablo
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A technological innovation systems approach to analyse the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1136-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on intermediaries faces challenges regarding how to conceptualise and empirically demonstrate the system-level impact of intermediaries. Thus, researchers and policy analysts may experience difficulties in grasping the potential contributions of intermediaries beyond individual projects and firms to aggregate levels of an innovation system. This article combines innovation intermediary and technological innovation systems literature to develop fundamentals of an approach for analysing how organisations acting as intermediaries support firms in eco-innovation and potentially contribute to technological innovation system functions. The operationalisation of the analytical approach is illustrated using case studies on a total of eight support organisations acting as intermediaries in the region of Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. For researchers and policy analysts, the analytical approach presented in this article offers the opportunity for a step-by-step, comprehensive and transparent analysis of different types of intermediaries, their roles, and potential contributions to innovation system functions.

  • 46.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clausen, Jens
    Borderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 205, p. 1006-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation is an approach to environmental sustainability. However, the process of eco-innovation can be challenging especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs might seek external support to tackle some of their challenges in eco-innovation. In this article, we focus on one type of organization providing and also assisting SMEs to access support, intermediaries, i.e. an organization or body that acts as an agent or broker in the innovation process. Intermediaries support firms in the innovation process through various generic and customised activities. To identify such activities and describe the roles intermediaries take in eco-innovation, we conducted interviews and documentation analysis on selected intermediaries in two regions – Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The identified roles among our cases include: (i) forecasting and road mapping, (ii) information gathering and dissemination, (iii) fostering networking and partnerships, (iv) prototyping and piloting, (v) technical consulting, (vi) resource mobilisation, (vii) commercialisation, and (viii) branding and legitimation. In relation to the specific characteristics of eco-innovations, the intermediary roles such as prototyping and piloting, information gathering and dissemination, and branding were directly targeted at validating the environmental benefits of eco-innovations to tackle their “double externality” challenge. However, we found little intermediation activities from our cases directed explicitly at policy change for eco-innovation. For policy makers, our results suggest a complementary use of different types of intermediaries to support eco-innovation.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-17 10:56
  • 47.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

  • 48.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

  • 49.
    Kant, Marvin
    et al.
    Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Innovation intermediaries: What does it take to survive over time?2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 229, p. 911-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation intermediaries are recognised as crucial actors that can facilitate the innovation process, support eco-innovation and contribute to sustainable entrepreneurship. However, little is known about the temporal dimension of innovation intermediaries and how they change over time to survive, which is crucial if intermediaries are to contribute to long term sustainability-oriented transformations. An in-depth case study design with a comparative approach was chosen to examine four innovation intermediaries at different development stages in the related fields of CO2 utilisation and Carbon Capture Storage technology in Europe, the USA, and Australia. This study sheds light on the survival of innovation intermediaries over time: Firstly, by describing the dynamics in an intermediary's (a) characteristics, (b) scope, (c) objectives, and (d) roles and activities. Secondly, by identifying at least four interrelated factors influencing an intermediary's survival: (i) neutrality, (ii) technological context, (iii) shared consensus, and (iv) internal value creation. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by highlighting the complexity and tensions in the survival of intermediaries through an analysis of both internal and contextual factors, as opposed to previous literature which has mainly focused on how intermediaries change their roles and activities over time to survive.

  • 50.
    Kantola, Jussi
    et al.
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Peura, Pekka
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    de Leeuw, Tim
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Naaranoja, Marja
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Segev, Aviv
    Korea Adv Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, TN USA.
    Innovative products and services for sustainable societal development: Current reality, future potential and challenges2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, p. S1-S10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special volume originates from the International Conference on Innovation and Management held at University of Vaasa in Finland in 2014. Talks with the key note speaker and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Cleaner Production led to an idea to develop a special volume about innovative products and services according to the themes of the conference. Thus, the purpose of this special volume is to explore different viewpoints of how innovative products and services may support sustainable societal development. There are five thematic areas with papers that describe new advancements in different industries and organizations. The included papers cover relevant theoretical background and present case studies and practical results. This special volume shows that great progresses are being made in different thematic areas but also that there are so much more waiting to be done for sustainable societal development. This volume indicates that cross-disciplinary approach is truly needed to achieve societal sustainable development. This requires people to change their mindsets and genuinely co-operate towards better future. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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