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  • 1. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Free water surface wetlands for wastewater treatment in Sweden: Nitrogen and phosphorus removal2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In South Sweden, free water surface wetlands have been built to treat wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Commonly, nitrogen removal has been the prime aim, though a significant removal of tot-P and BOD7 has been observed. In this study, performance data for 3-8 years from four large (20-28 ha) FWS wetlands have been evaluated. Two of them receive effluent from WWTP with only mechanical and chemical treatment. At the other two, the wastewater has also been treated biologically resulting in lower concentrations of BOD7 and NH4+-N. The wetlands performed satisfactorily and removed 0.7-1.5 ton N ha-1 yr-1 as an average for the time period investigated, with loads between 1.7 and 6.3 ton N ha-1 yr-1. Treatment capacity depended on the pre-treatment of the water, as reflected in the k20-values for N removal (first order area based mode). In the wetlands with no biological pre-treatment, the k20-values were 0.61 and 1.1 m month-1, whereas for the other two they were 1.7 and 2.5 m month-1. P removal varied between 10 and 41 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was related to differences in loads, P speciation and to the internal cycling of P in the wetlands. © IWA Publishing 2005.

  • 2. Biswas, AK
    et al.
    Shady, A
    Lundqvist, Jan Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Takahashi, K
    Workshop 3 (synthesis): water, poverty alleviation and social programs2003In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 129-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poverty is a complex issue, which must be understood in a holistic manner. Low and variable income is certainly a key element, but it is far from enough to portray poverty. The various characteristics of poverty and their relative strength are determined through contextually specific circumstances, in terms of history, environmental preconditions, socio-cultural traits, etc. Much of this context is made up of local and national circumstances. The consequences of globalisation must, however, increasingly to be taken into account. At a larger scale, it is also relevant to mention that climate change will have a negative, although largely unpredictable, impact for the people in some parts of the world. For those who are already living on marginal lands or who are exposed to water problems, climate change is likely to create considerable adverse effects.

  • 3.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Safaric, Luka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Substrate and operational conditions as regulators of fluid properties in full-scale continuous stirred-tank biogas reactors - implications for rheology-driven power requirements2018In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 814-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding fluid rheology is important for optimal design and operation of continuous stirred-tank biogas reactors (CSTBRs) and is the basis for power requirement estimates. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the applicability of total solid (TS) and/or total volatile solid (TVS) contents of CSTBR fluids as proxies for rheological properties. Thus, the present study investigates relationships between rheological properties of 12 full-scale CSTBR fluids, their substrate profiles, and major operational conditions, including pH, TS and TVS contents, organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, and temperature. Rheology-driven power requirements based on various fluid characteristics were evaluated for a general biogas reactor setup. The results revealed a significant correlation only between the rheological fluid properties and TS or TVS contents for sewage sludge digesters and thermophilic co-digesters (CD), but not for mesophilic CD. Furthermore, the calculated power requirements for pumping and mixing, based on the various fluid characteristics of the studied CSTBRs, varied broadly irrespective of TS and TVS contents. Thus, this study shows that the TS and/or TVS contents of digester fluid are not reliable estimators of the rheological properties in CSTBRs digesting substrates other than sewage sludge.

  • 4.
    Buhl-Mortensen, Lene
    et al.
    Institute of Marine Research, Bergen Norway.
    Myhr, Anne
    Norwegian Institute of Gene Ecology, Tromsö Norway.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society.
    Carbon sequestration, the precautionary approach and the responsibility of scientists2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews problems connected to the use of the deep-sea and sub-sea geological formations for carbon sequestration. We will focus on the risks and dangers involved in using this kind of large-scale engineering approach, which is not yet fully tested, to combat global warming. We will not provide a complete discussion on the technologies involved, but concentrate on a few principal questions, such as the responsibility of environmental scientists involved in this research. We will also discuss carbon sequestration in relation to the precautionary approach. We argue that there may be a place for large-scale engineering attempts, but this should be the last rather than the first option. © IWA Publishing 2005.

  • 5.
    Claeys, Filip H. A.
    et al.
    BIOMATH, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Fritzon, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vanrolleghen, Peter
    BIOMATH, Ghent University, Belgium; Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Generating efficient executable models for complex virtual experimentation with the Tornado kernel2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual experimentation is a collective term that includes various model evaluation procedures such as simulation, optimization and scenario analysis. Given the complexity of the models used in these procedures, and the number of evaluations that is required to complete them, highly efficient model implementations are desired. Although water quality management is a domain in which complex virtual experimentation is often adopted, only relatively little attention has thus far been devoted to the automated generation of efficient executable models. This article reports on a number of promising results regarding executable model generation that were obtained in the scope of the Tornado kernel, using techniques such as equiv substitution and equation lifting. © IWA Publishing 2007.

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The feasibility of trace element supplementation for stable operation of wheat stillage-fed biogas tank reactors2011In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 320-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trace element supplementation on operation of wheat stillage-fed biogas tank reactors. The stillage used was a residue from bio-ethanol production, containing high levels of sulfate. In biogas production, high sulfate content has been associated with poor process stability in terms of low methane production and accumulation of process intermediates. However, the results of the present study show that this problem can be overcome by trace element supplementations. Four lab-scale wheat stillage-fed biogas tank reactors were operated for 345 days at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days (37 degrees C). It was concluded that daily supplementation with Co (0.5 mg L(-1)), Ni (0.2 mg L(-1)) and Fe (0.5 g L(-1)) were required for maintaining process stability at the organic loading rate of 4.0 g volatile solids L(-1) day(-1).

  • 7.
    Holzwarth, F
    et al.
    Fed Minist Environm, D-53048 Bonn, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Jan Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Workshop 3 (synthesis): catchment-based governance - compromise building and institutional arrangements2002In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 145-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catchment-based approach is widely recognised as essential to deal properly with water resources issues. For this to succeed political will and a widely based commitment are needed, these can best be developed by the participatory process, but for the developed consensus to lead to a successful outcome it must be based on sound technical appraisals and advice.

  • 8.
    Jonsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Alkan-Olsson, Johanna
    Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Lund, Sweden.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Lund, Sweden.
    How participatory can participatory modeling be? A discussion of the degree of influence and stakeholder and expert perspectives in six dimensions of participatory modeling2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors are involved in a project aiming at the development of a methodology for participatory modeling as a tool for public participation in water resource management. In this paper, some examples of different degrees of stakeholder influence in six key dimensions of participatory modeling are identified and discussed. Arnstein's (A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1969, 4, 216–224) critical discussion of different degrees of “real” decision-making power is taken as a point of departure to assess possible degrees of stakeholder influence. Can we as participatory modelers be sure that we are really inviting our research objects to an equal communicative relationship where local perspectives, knowledge and priorities are respected to the same extent as central and/or expert perspectives? This paper presents an approach that could be used as a tool for structured reflection to avoid unreflective tendencies towards expert knowledge dominance and low degree of stakeholders' real influence over the process.

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vavilin, V.A.
    Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina 3, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phthalate hydrolysis under landfill conditions2006In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data from a study using a landfill simulation reactor were used to develop and calibrate a one-dimensional distributed model of co-digestion of municipal solid waste and three phthalic acid diesters with different water solubilities. The three diesters were diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Two types of municipal solid wastes were assumed, easily degradable and recalcitrant. The model considered inhibition of hydrolysis of the recalcitrant fraction and phthalic acid esters, and also methanogenesis at acidic pH. The results indicated that the prolonged steady-state concentrations of the diesters in the leachates could be explained by equilibrium between physicochemical desorption and sorption processes for the three diesters. When methanogenic conditions were induced in the acidogenic landfill simulation reactor, inhibition of both hydrolysis of recalcitrant MSW and of phthalic acid esters ceased.

  • 10.
    Jägerskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    The power of the sanctioned discourse - a crucial factor in determining water policy2003In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 161-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Drinking water off-flavour caused by the formation of short-chain fatty acids in slow sand filters1995In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 49-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study carried out at a municipal drinking water treatment plant in southern Sweden showed that the formation of short-chain fatty acids in slow sand filters can result in severe off-flavour problems. When an extract of the headspace of the surface layer of a sand filter was subjected to gas chromatographic analysis with sensory detection (GC sniffing), several strong, rancid odours were detected. Mass spectrometric analysis of the same extract, before and after methylation, showed that substantial amounts of butyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were present in the analysed sample. The off-flavour caused by these compounds was removed by repeated shock chlorination of the malfunctioning slow sand filter. Analysis of fatty acid esters may provide an early warning of the described off-flavour problem.

  • 12.
    Magnusson, Björn
    et al.
    Scandinavian Biogas, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Combining high-rate aerobic wastewater treatment with anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at a pulp and paper mill2018In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 77, no 8, p. 2068-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The activated sludge process within the pulp and paper industry is generally run to minimize the production of waste activated sludge (WAS), leading to high electricity costs from aeration and relatively large basin volumes. In this study, a pilot-scale activated sludge process was run to evaluate the concept of treating the wastewater at high rate with a low sludge age. Two 150 L containers were used, one for aeration and one for sedimentation and sludge return. The hydraulic retention time was decreased from 24 hours to 7 hours, and the sludge age was lowered from 12 days to 2–4 days. The methane potential of the WAS was evaluated using batch tests, as well as continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) in 4 L reactors in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Wastewater treatment capacity was increased almost four-fold at maintained degradation efficiency. The lower sludge age greatly improved the methane potential of the WAS in batch tests, reaching 170 NmL CH4/g VS at a sludge age of 2 days. In addition, the continuous AD showed a higher methane production at thermophilic conditions. Thus, the combination of high-rate wastewater treatment and AD of WAS is a promising option for the pulp and paper industry.

  • 13. Matsui, S
    et al.
    Oatridge, J
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Workshop 2 (synthesis): water pollution abatement within the industrial sector2003In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 115-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This workshop aimed at demonstrating and discussing how effective abatement of water pollution can be achieved through introducing cleaner technologies, recycling and reuse of water, and implementing new public policy measures.

  • 14.
    Milburn, A
    et al.
    Ambourne Environments.
    Blomqvist, A
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Workshop 8 (synthesis): managing urban development and industrial growth from a drainage basin perspective2004In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 211-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban development and industrial growth give rise to the two problems of insidious and growing pollution, and an over-exploitation of water resources. To solve these problems, various solutions have been promoted, such as multi-stakeholder dialogues, establishment of river basin committees, strong regulation, compensation for water-exporting basins and convincing politicians and the public of the need for change.

  • 15.
    Sjömander Magnusson, Therese
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Summary and conclusions from the SIWI Seminar for Young Water Professionals - Food and urban security - breaking the urban/rural division in water management2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 187-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the Seminar for Young Water Professionals, a group of young people from different parts of the world met to discuss and debate: the interface between the urban and rural environment - how can water management see to the interest of both the farmer and the urban citizen; how the spatial boundaries within water resources management will develop in the future due to changing population patterns. Three key themes crystallized during the day: the challenges of the urban/rural interface, the need for new boundaries in water resources management and the importance of site-specific, appropriate solutions in relation to water re-use.

  • 16. Stålnacke, P
    et al.
    Vandsemb, S.M.
    Vassiljev, A
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Statistics .
    Jolankai, G
    Changes in nutrient levels in some Eastern European rivers in response to large-scale changes in agriculture2004In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the late 1980s, the use of commercial fertilisers in most Eastern European countries has decreased at an unprecedented rate. We examined the impact of this dramatic reduction in agricultural inputs on concentrations of nutrients in four rivers in Eastern Europé: the Emajogi and Õhnejogi (Estonia), the Daugava (Latvia), and the Tisza (Hungary). Time series of nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P) concentrations and data on runoff were selected to represent catchments with substantial areas of agricultural land and available time series of sufficient length and frequency. The study period was 1987-1998. We detected downward trends in nitrate-N and phosphate-P in only two of the four rivers. Our results imply that the response to the extensive decrease in agricultural intensity since the late 1980s has been slow and limited in many rivers. Corresponding results in the literature are inconclusive and comprise several examples of both decreasing and non-decreasing nutrient concentrations. Our findings, along with similar data from other studies, indicate that large cuts in nutrient inputs do not necessarily induce an immediate response, particularly in medium-sized and large catchment areas. Moreover, the difference we noted between nitrogen and phosphorus suggests that factors other than reduced fertiliser application influenced the inertia of the water quality response.

  • 17.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Potential nitrification and denitrification and the corresponding composition of the bacterial communities in a compact constructed wetland treating landfill leachates2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands can be used to decrease the high ammonium concentrations in landfill leachates. We investigated nitrification/denitrification activity and the corresponding bacterial communities in landfill leachate that was treated in a compact constructed wetland, Tveta Recycling Facility, Sweden. Samples were collected at three depths in a filter bed and the sediment from a connected open pond in July, September and November 2004. Potential ammonia oxidation was measured by short-term incubation method and potential denitrification by the acetylene inhibition technique. The ammonia-oxidising and the denitrifying bacterial communities were investigated using group-specific PCR primers targeting 16S rRNA genes and the functional gene nosZ, respectively. PCR products were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and nucleotide sequencing. The same degree of nitrification activity was observed in the pond sediment and at all levels in the filter bed, whereas the denitrification activity decreased with filter bed depth. Denitrification rates were higher in the open pond, even though the denitrifying bacterial community was more diverse in the filter bed. The ammonia-oxidising community was also more varied in the filter bed. In the filter bed and the open pond, there was no obvious relationship between the nitrification/denitrification activities and the composition of the corresponding bacterial communities.

  • 18.
    Wendland, F
    et al.
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol E, STE, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Stat, Dept Math, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Kunkel, R
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol E, STE, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Stat, Dept Math, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Statistics .
    Kronvang, B
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol E, STE, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Stat, Dept Math, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Muller-Wohlfeil, DI
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol E, STE, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Stat, Dept Math, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Model system for the management of nitrogen leaching at the scale of river basins and regions2001In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the EU-project RANR (Regional analysis of subsurface nitrogen retention and its impact on the nitrogen export from land to sea) a model system was developed to estimate groundwater-borne nitrogen inputs into river systems. The core of this model system is composed of a soil nitrogen leaching model (SOIL-N) and a groundwater residence time/denitrification model (WEKU). The application of the model system was carried out for the study catchment areas of the Uecker basin (ca. 2400 km(2), Germany) and the Gjern basin (ca. 200 km(2), Denmark). For both catchment areas, the modelled average nitrogen loads leached into the groundwater were about 40 kg N/ha a, while the remaining groundwater-borne nitrogen intake to rivers was quantified to an average of about 2 kg/ha a. The comparision with observed groundwater-borne riverine nitrogen loads showed a very good agreement, proofing the key role nitrogen retention in groundwater plays in the two catchment areas. With regard to the generalisation and transfer of the SOIL-N/WEKU model concept we assume that the model can be applicated in catchment areas in the European Pleistocene Lowland, which ranges from the Netherlands in the west to the Baltic States and the Ukraine in the east.

  • 19.
    Wendland, F
    et al.
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol Evaluat, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Math, Div Stat, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Kunkel, R
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol Evaluat, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Math, Div Stat, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Statistics .
    Kronvang, B
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol Evaluat, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Math, Div Stat, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Muller-Wohlfeil, DI
    Res Ctr Julich, Programme Grp Syst Anal & Technol Evaluat, D-52425 Julich, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Math, Div Stat, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden NERI, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    The SOIL-N/WEKU model system - a GIS-supported tool for the assessment and management of diffuse nitrogen leaching at the scale of river basins2002In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 285-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SOIL-N/WEKU model system was developed to estimate groundwater-borne nitrogen inputs into river systems. The core of this model system is composed of a soil nitrogen leaching model (SOIL-N) and a groundwater residence time/denitrification model (WEKU). The application of the model system was carried out in the framework of the EU-project RANR (Regional analysis of subsurface nitrogen retention and its impact on the nitrogen export from land to sea) for a macroscale study river basin in Germany (the Uecker basin, ca. 2,400 km(2)) and a mesoscale study catchment area in Denmark (the Gjern basin, ca. 200 km2). For both catchment areas, the,modelled average nitrogen loads leached into the groundwater were about 40 kg N/ha a, while the remaining groundwater-borne nitrogen intake to rivers was quantified to an average of about 2 kg/ha a. The comparison with observed groundwater-borne riverine nitrogen loads showed a very good agreement, proving the key role nitrogen retention in groundwater plays in the two catchment areas.

  • 20.
    Westrell, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Schonning, C
    Stenström, Thor-Axel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Ashbolt, NJ
    QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse2004In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 23-30Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was applied for identifying and controlling exposure to pathogenic microorganisms encountered during normal sludge and wastewater handling at a 12,500 m(3)/d treatment plant utilising tertiary wastewater treatment and mesophilic sludge digestion. The hazardous scenarios considered were human exposure during treatment, handling, soil application and crop consumption, and exposure via water at the wetland-area and recreational swimming. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), including rotavirus, adenovirus, haemorrhagic E coli, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was performed in order to prioritise pathogen hazards for control purposes. Human exposures were treated as individual risks but also related to the endemic situation in the general population. The highest individual health risk from a single exposure was via aerosols for workers at the belt press for sludge dewatering (virus infection risk = 1). The largest impact on the community would arise if children ingested sludge at the unprotected storage site, although in the worst-case situation the largest number of infections would arise through vegetables fertilised with sludge and eaten raw (not allowed in Sweden). Acceptable risk for various hazardous scenarios, treatment and/or reuse strategies could be tested in the model.

  • 21.
    Westrell, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schönning, C.
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Stenström, T. A.
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Ashbolt, N. J.
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse2004In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was applied for identifying and controlling exposure to pathogenic microorganisms encountered during normal sludge and wastewater handling at a 12,500 m3/d treatment plant utilising tertiary wastewater treatment and mesophilic sludge digestion. The hazardous scenarios considered were human exposure during treatment, handling, soil application and crop consumption, and exposure via water at the wetland-area and recreational swimming. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), including rotavirus, adenovirus, haemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was performed in order to prioritise pathogen hazards for control purposes. Human exposures were treated as individual risks but also related to the endemic situation in the general population. The highest individual health risk from a single exposure was via aerosols for workers at the belt press for sludge dewatering (virus infection risk = 1). The largest impact on the community would arise if children ingested sludge at the unprotected storage site, although in the worst-case situation the largest number of infections would arise through vegetables fertilised with sludge and eaten raw (not allowed in Sweden). Acceptable risk for various hazardous scenarios, treatment and/or reuse strategies could be tested in the model.

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