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  • 1.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

  • 2.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Extending the Energy efficiency gap2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 392-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

  • 3.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundberg, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who invests in renewable electricity production?: Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 56, p. 568-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES-E investments according to least-cost high-profit criteria. We present empirical evidence to show that RES-E investments are made by a heterogeneous group of investors, that a variety of investors exist and that their formation varies among the different types of renewable sources. This has direct implications for our understanding of the investment process in RES-E and for the study of motives and driving forces of RES-E investors. We introduce a multi-dimensional framework for analyzing differences between categories of investors, which not only considers to the standard economic dimension which is predominant in the contemporary energy literature, but also considers the entrepreneurship, innovation-adoption and institutional dimensions. The framework emphasizes the influence of four main investor-related factors on the investment process which should be studied in future research: motives, background, resources and personal characteristics.

  • 4.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Motives to adopt renewable energy technologies: evidence from Sweden2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 106, p. 547-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 non-traditional RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that although environmental concerns, technology interest, access to a base resource and prospects to make money are important motives in general, RET adopters is a heterogeneous group with regard to motives: there are many different motives to adopt RETs, adopters differ in how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power) and between adopter categories (especially IPPs vs. individuals and diversified companies). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 41, p. 636-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way.

  • 6.
    Bladh, Mats
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy consumption and stocks of energy-converting artefacts2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 43, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of total energy consumption is important in a world with limited resources. It is the result of two basic tendencies working in opposite directions: growth in number and in use (such as more cars and driving more) and improvements in energy efficiency (such as more fuel-efficient engines). Since the 1970s growth of energy consumption has slowed down in Sweden. This means that increasing supply has been counteracted by measures improving overall energy efficiency to a larger degree than before. How can long-term development in energy consumption be analysed? This paper proposes a focus on stocks of energy-converting artefacts as a tool for such analyses. In order to show the fruitfulness of this approach, historical data on cars, dwellings and lamps in Sweden are used. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults from the cases in this paper show considerable gains of efficiency in fuel consumption in private cars and heating efficiency in multi-dwelling houses. Demographic factors are important for the outcome. The approach seems to promise a way to analyse energy efficiency that captures both promoting and counteracting factors at both the micro and macro level.

  • 7.
    Bladh, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Krantz, Helena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Towards a bright future? Household use of electric light: A microlevel study.2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 3521-3530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper addresses the problem of energy saving in the residential sector and its relation to behavior. However, we know little about the mechanisms explaining consumption and use. The aim is to explore the behavioral elements behind patterns of use, so that consumption can be explained and saving possibilities identified. The study is based on detailed, metered data from an ongoing monitoring study. A larger sample from that study made testing of two hypotheses possible. Yet, many factors remain hidden and must be traced among the habits of households. The major part of the article is devoted to an exploration into what other variables are at work. This was done by studying the electricity consumption of seven households closely. Here, different sources of information from each household were combined: detailed, metered data for each lamp or fixture; data from interviews regarding habits; and observations of natural light and lighting equipment at visits. This information from combined sources was used to detect meanings of use and relationships with consumption. What has been found here must be translated to measurable variables and tested on representative samples of populations. This study offers information on these variables identified and how to interpret them.

  • 8.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using industrial excess heat in District Heating (DH) networks reduces the need for primary energy and is considered efficient resource use. The conditions of Swedish DH markets are under political discussion in the Third Party Access (TPA) proposal, which would facilitate the delivery of firms' industrial excess heat to DH networks. This paper estimates and discusses the untapped potential for excess heat deliveries to DH networks and considers whether the realization of this potential would be affected by altered DH market conditions. The results identify untapped potential for industrial excess heat deliveries, and calculations based on estimated investment costs and revenues indicate that realizing the TPA proposal could enable profitable excess heat investments.

  • 9.
    Carlson, A
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy systems and the climate dilemma - Reflecting the impact on CO2 emissions by reconstructing regional energy systems2003In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 951-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues today. One step for the European Union to fulfil the Kyoto protocol, stating a worldwide decrease of emissions of greenhouse gases, is to treat the environment as a scarce resource by attributing costs for environmental impact. This accompanied with considering the European electricity market as one common market, where coal condensing power is the marginal production, lead to the possibility to reduce CO2-emissions in Europe by reconstructing energy systems at a local scale in Sweden. A regional energy system model is used to study possibilities to replace electricity and fossil fuel used for heating with biomass and how a reconstruction can affect the emissions of CO2. An economic approach is used where cost-effective technical measures are analysed using present conditions and by including monetary values of externalities. The analysis shows that, by acting economically rational, a large amount of electricity and fossil fuel should, in three Out Of four cases, be replaced leading to a substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Danestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stockholm CHP potential: opportunity for CO2 reductions?2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 4650-4660 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in Stockholm is large and a total heat demand of about 10 TWh/year can be met in a renewed large district heating system. This model of the Stockholm district heating system shows that CHP generation can increase from 8% in 2004 to 15.5% of the total electricity generation in Sweden. Increased electricity costs in recent years have awakened an interest to invest in new electricity generation. Since renewable alternatives are favoured by green certificates, bio-fuelled CHP is most profitable at low electricity prices. Since heat demand in the district heating network sets the limit for possible electricity generation, a CHP alternative with a high electricity to heat ratio will be more profitable at when electricity prices are high. The efficient energy use in CHP has the potential to contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Europe, when they are required and the European electricity market is working perfectly. The potential in Stockholm exceeds Sweden's undertakings under the Kyoto protocol and national reduction goals.

  • 11.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    National energy policies: obstructing the reduction of global CO2 emissions? An analysis of Swedish energy policies for the district heating sector2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 7775-7782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of national energy policies on a local Swedish district heating (DH) system has been studied regarding the profitability of new investments and the potential for climate change mitigation. The DH system has been optimised regarding three investments: biomass-fuelled CHP (bio CHP), natural gas-fuelled combined cycle CHP (NGCC CHP) and biomass-fuelled heat-only boiler (bio HOB) in two scenarios (with or without national taxes and policy instruments). In both scenarios EU’s tradable CO2 emission permits are included. Results from the study show that when national policies are included, the most cost-effective investment option is the bio CHP technology. However, when national taxes and policy instruments are excluded, the DH system containing the NGCC CHP plant has 30% lower system cost than the bio CHP system. Regardless of the scenario and when coal condensing is considered as marginal electricity production, the NGCC CHP has the largest global CO2 reduction potential, about 300 ktonne CO2. However, the CO2 reduction potential is highly dependent on the marginal electricity production. Demonstrated here is that national policies such as tradable green certificates can, when applied to DH systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the DH systems’ potential for global CO2 emissions reductions.

  • 12.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Socio-political prioritization of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 104, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limiting global warming to well below 2 °C requires the transformation of the global energy system at a scale unprecedented since the industrial revolution. To meet this 2 °C goal, 87% of integrated assessment models opt for using bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Without BECCS, the models predict that the goal will be either unachievable or substantially more costly to meet. While the modeling literature is extensive, studies of how key climate policy actors perceive and prioritize BECCS are sparse. This article provides a unique intercontinental mapping of the prioritization of BECCS for the long term transition of the electricity supply sector. Based on survey responses from 711 UN climate change conference delegates, the article reports the low prioritization of BECCS relative to alternative technologies, indicating an urgent need for studies of the socio-political preconditions for large-scale BECCS deployment.

  • 13.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Division of Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Driving forces and obstacles with regard to co-operation between municipal energy companies and process industries in Sweden2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1508-1519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating networks can technically enable energy-related co-operations between energy-intensive industries and municipal energy companies. The most common form of co-operation is to utilise industrial waste heat as the primary energy source in district heating networks. However, another type of co-operation is to jointly own a plant that produces both process steam for the industry and hot water for district heating. In this article, eight Swedish energy co-operations are studied and the main focus is on the process leading to co-operations of this kind. Different aspects of factors that facilitate or obstruct the start up and continuous daily operation of a co-operation are discussed. The main conclusion is that while the primary reasons for the foundation of such co-operations are favourable techno-economic factors, this is not enough for a co-operation to emerge. This study highlights the importance of people with a real ambition to co-operate in both parties in the co-operations.

  • 14.
    Gyberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Influencing households' energy behaviour - how is this done and on what premises?2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 2807-2813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the discourse that the idea of efficiency is built upon according to different actors trying to influence households’ energy behaviour in Sweden. The focus is on information from authorities as well as from interest organisations and energy companies. Information directed to households often contains a strong idea that the individual has to take responsibility for his/her own choices, and that it is through consumer choices the energy system will become more sustainable. The reasons given for changing one’s behaviour are motivated both by lower energy costs and a reduced impact on the environment. Common advice for energy reduction is to change to a more energyefficient apparatus. In this sense efficiency is a way of not changing lifestyle but instead changing technical equipment and user routines. Only the LA21 project questions the need for all the apparatus as well as the possibility to improve existing artifacts, pointing to a need to change our lifestyle. The strong belief in science and technology results in a definition of the problem as a lack of knowledge, where the only solution is to fill this gap.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bryngelsson, Mårten
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan - Kemiteknik.
    Expert opinions on carbon dioxide capture and storage: A framing of uncertainties and possibilities2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 2273-2282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the development of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS)—e.g., when it comes to costs, life-cycle effects, storage capacity and permanence. In spite of these uncertainties and barriers, the CCS research community is generally very optimistic regarding CCS’ development. The discrepancy between the uncertainties and the optimism is the point of departure in this study, which is based on interviews with 24 CCS experts. The aim is to analyse experts’ framings of CCS with focus on two key aspects: (i) the function and potential of CCS and (ii) uncertainties. The optimism among the CCS experts is tentatively explained. The interpretative flexibility of CCS is claimed to be an essential explanation for the optimism. CCS is promoted from a wide variety of perspectives, e.g., solidarity and peace, bridge to a sustainable energy system, sustaining the modern lifestyle and compatibility with the fossil fuel lock-in. Awareness of the uncertainties and potential over-optimism is warranted within policy and decision making as they often rely on scientific forecasts and experts’ judgements.

  • 16.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 2330-2350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased energy use is crucial for achieving sustainable energy solutions. This paper presents current and possible future electricity use in Swedish industry. Non-heavy lines of business (e.g. food, vehicles) that use one-third of the electricity in Swedish industry are analysed in detail. Most electricity is used in the support processes pumping and ventilation, and manufacturing by decomposition. Energy conservation can take place through e.g. more efficient light fittings and switching off ventilation during night and weekends. By energy-carrier switching, electricity used for heat production is replaced by e.g. fuel. Taking technically possible demand-side measures in the whole lines of business, according to energy audits in a set of factories, means a 35% demand reduction. A systems analysis of power production, trade, demand and conservation was made using the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which uses linear programming and considers the time-dependent impact on demand for days, weeks and seasons. Electricity that is replaced by district heating from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant has a dual impact on the electricity system through reduced demand and increased electricity generation. Reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cogeneration in Sweden enables increased electricity export, which displaces coal-fired condensing plants in the European electricity market and helps to reduce European CO2 emissions. Within the European emission trading system, those electricity conservation measures should be taken that are more cost-efficient than other ways of reducing CO2 emissions. The demand-side measures turn net electricity imports into net export and reduce annual operation costs and net CO2 emissions due to covering Swedish electricity demand by 200 million euros and 6 Mtonne, respectively. With estimated electricity conservation in the whole of Swedish industry, net electricity exports would be larger and net CO2 emissions would be even smaller.

  • 17.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 5242-5253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU′s ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument.

    Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST.

    The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods.

  • 18.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Dynamics, School of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson (Bergek), Anna
    Department of Industrial Dynamics, School of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technology: An Analytical Framework and Key Issues for Research2000In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 625-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades there has been a great deal of research on renewable energy technologies. It is commonly thought that very little has come out of this research in terms of commercially interesting technologies. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate that this perception is no longer entirely correct; in the 1990s there has been a double-digit growth rate in the market for some renewable energy technologies. The consequent alteration in the energy system, is, however, a slow, painful and highly uncertain process. This process, we argue, needs to be studied using an innovation system perspective where the focus is on networks, institutions and firms’ perceptions, competencies and strategies. The second objective of the paper is therefore to present the bare bones of such an analytical framework. A third objective is to identify a set of key issues related to the speed and direction of that transformation process which needs to be studied further.

  • 19.
    Jönsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers University.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden - Part 22008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 4186-4197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the systems energy efficiency by utilization of the mills excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases.

  • 20.
    Köhler, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Individual metering and debiting (IMD) in Sweden: A qualitative long-term follow-up study of householders water-use routines2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 108, p. 344-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) emphasises individual metering and debiting (IMD) of energy and hot water to reduce households usage. Householders respond in different ways to IMD. Studies on aggregated water demand before and after IMD show a range of results from about 15% increased usage to 50% less. Little is known of the long-term durability of routine change. This article describes and qualitatively analyses the short- and long-term impacts of IMD on householders water-use routines. A combination of time diaries, interviews, metering data and simple observations was used for the study of seven households. The households were studied at the introduction of IMD and after 5-17 months of experience; five of these households also participated in a follow-up study a decade later. The study shows that routines changed early, when households were informed about the new option that IMD provided and when getting billed. The routines were kept over time. Later changes in water usage related to changes in household composition and everyday activities and were not attributable to IMD. Implementers of IMD are advised to be careful in the introduction phase, e.g. when constructing debiting norms, performing information activities, and giving other feedback to the households.

  • 21.
    Leurent, Martin
    et al.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Jasserand, Frederic
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Locatelli, Giorgio
    University of Leeds, England.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rama, Miika
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Driving forces and obstacles to nuclear cogeneration in Europe: Lessons learnt from Finland2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 107, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear power plants generate electricity and a large amount of waste heat which is valuable for cogeneration. District heating (DH) is a suitable technology to decarbonize the European heat sector. By contrast with most of nuclear non-electric applications, nuclear district heating (NDH) has already been implemented in Europe, thus providing us with some valuable empirical insights. This paper investigates the forces and obstacles to nuclear cogeneration by looking at the Loviisa 3 NDH project in Finland. The key forces are energy efficiency, decarbonization of the heat sector, operational competitiveness of future nuclear technologies, and synergies with renewable energies. The key obstacles are split incentives, electricity prices volatility, inexpediency of business models and regulatory frameworks, electioneering of local authorities and pessimist expectations with regards to project financing. Policy makers should recognize nuclear plants alongside other utilities generating large amounts of wasted heat. International cooperation programs involving both nuclear and heat stakeholders should be encouraged. EU28 Member States wanting to promote nuclear cogeneration may consider providing support for the electricity generated by high-efficiency plants.

  • 22.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swedish district heating sector - A system in stagnation: Current and future trends in the district heating sector2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 48, p. 449-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that Sweden’s old and established district heating sector is heading into a stagnation phase. The aim is to analyse the factors influencing this development as well as the strategies used by involved parties to prevent stagnation. Using large technical system theory, I analyse internal and external factors potentially causing stagnation. The most obvious external factors are: an increase in the number of energy-efficient buildings, in response to stricter energy policies, which reduces the future potential for district heating in new and existing buildings; climate change; competition from other heating systems; and market saturation in the key sector, multi-dwelling buildings. The main internal factor is changed business strategies following electricity market deregulation, when energy companies were supposed to be run on businesslike terms. I also argue that stagnation can be defined as occurring when the key measure feature of a system, in this case, heat load is starting to stagnate or decline, even though the trend is positive in other areas. The strategies for avoiding stagnation are various forms of broadening scope, primarily by focusing more on electricity production by building combined heat and power plants, or using the alternative value of the technical system for new applications.

  • 23.
    Martensson, K.
    et al.
    Mårtensson, K., Centre for Technology and Science, Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    How to transform local energy systems towards bioenergy? Three strategy models for transformation2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 6095-6105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, the actors within the energy sector in Sweden-as well as in many other countries-have faced increasing demands to transform the energy system towards ecological sustainability. In Sweden these demands have led to numerous policies and economic incentives promoting the use of renewables (which in the Swedish discourse often also includes a connotation of "indigenous energy sources"), and especially the promotion of bioenergy. To be successful, however, these policies and economic incentives need to be interpreted and adapted to different local contexts and translated into actual transformation processes. In Sweden the municipal authorities have played an important role as interpreters of such institutional frameworks and implementers of local transformation processes. In this article, we re-construct three transformation processes implemented by local municipal authorities, chiselling out the different strategy models developed through them. We argue that such re-constructions help to make visible the different and complex interactions between national institutional frameworks and local contexts as well as interactions within such local contexts. We hope that the strategy models presented can contribute to the understanding of the different kinds of local actions that can foster a further implementation of bioenergy into the energy system. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Ornetzeder, Michael
    et al.
    Centre for Social Innovation, Austria.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Inter-University Research Centre for Technology, Work and Culture, Austria.
    User-led Innovations and Participation Processes: Lessons from Sustainable Energy Technologies2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will pose the question whether a higher level of user participation could be used as a strategy to improve the development and dissemination of sustainable energy technologies. We will especially focus on user-led innovation processes with a high involvement of individual end-users.

    In our argument we will draw on several case studies in the field of renewable energy technologies—in particular solar collectors and biomass heating systems—and sustainable building technologies. Users in these case studies were involved in the design or planning processes, sometimes in a very selective way and with limited influence, sometimes very active and for quite a long period of time. Especially in the case of renewable energy technologies self-building groups were highly successful and resulted in improved and widely disseminated technologies.

    Based on the empirical results of our case studies we will critically discuss the potential of user involvement (especially in self-building groups) for the development and promotion of sustainable energy technologies and outline technological and social pre-conditions for the success of such approaches.

  • 25.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emergency management in the Swedish electricity market: the need to challenge the responsibility gap2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 843-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A secure energy supply is a basic need of society. Along with electricity market deregulation, a responsibility gap has arisen, where private energy companies lack economic incentives to invest in an electricity distribution grid that is secured to the level desired by society. This article discusses the emergency management strategies of municipal authorities for securing the electricity supply, according to a networked, or “governance”, control and direction structure, and how this influences the relationship between electricity companies and Swedish municipalities. The Swedish electricity system has traditionally developed in a monopoly context. Since electricity market deregulation, the responsibility for electricity supply security has become unclear; field studies of Swedish municipalities indicate that all actors still seem to be seeking to find their proper roles in the deregulated market. Municipalities still expect to exercise influence over private energy company decisions regarding prioritization of emergency power deliveries. Energy companies vacillate between emphasizing their need to regard economic factors and their sense of responsibility for providing a secure electricity supply to vital municipal functions (even though municipalities may lack contracts specifying this).

  • 26.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The building process of single-family houses and the embeddedness (or disembeddedness) of energy2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, p. 762-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People building their own houses have, at least theoretically, substantial autonomy when choosing, for example, a heating system and windows. In this article, focus is on the process of building new single-family houses and how energy efficiency and energy-efficient technology are incorporated into the building process. The conclusions emphasize energy as only one factor in housing purchase decisions. It is a big challenge to make low-energy building important to consumers. Consumer preferences for new products are unlikely to fully develop unless individuals have the opportunity to interact with them. It is difficult for consumers to know what to ask for if they lack experience of energy-efficient technologies. In the studied cases, the building codes and established standards became extremely decisive for how energy issues were included in the process. There is a need to change the design of incentives so as to make the least energy-efficient choice the most expensive. The most energy-efficient solution should be standard, and if the buyer wants to depart from that standard and build using less energy-efficient construction, then that should cost more.

  • 27.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The public-private divide in household behavior. How far into the home can energy guidance reach?2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 2858-2864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems in the energy system often originate from everyday activities and choices. Everyday activities in the home are part of the private sphere that can be contested in relation to energy policies. This article discusses the public–private divide in energy policies and how Swedish municipal energy consultants understand the divide. By analyzing the actions of energy consultants and thei efforts to influence households, as well as how households perceive this guidance, I will discuss the public–private discourse in relation to energy policy and how this discourse can be a restriction for the energy consultants to reach their full potential.

    The consultants found it problematic to discuss behavioral issues because they did not know how to relate to people’s everyday life activities without intruding on private and personal matters. For the households tailored information and feedback was not perceived as the consultant trespassing in the private sphere. Instead, the householders highlight the possibilities of such mapping. Lessoned learned from Sweden is that state subsidies to local energy consultants is a good way to reach households, but that they need to develop their methods and use more tailored information.

  • 28.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solding, Patrik
    Swedish Foundry Association.
    Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 672-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

  • 29.
    Sandberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Industrial energy efficiency: the need for investment decision support from a manager perspective2003In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 1623-1634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global competition, commitment to the Kyoto Protocol and a deregulated, integrated European electricity market will in all probability increase the demand for energy efficiency on the part of companies in Sweden. Investment decisions are an important part of meeting the new demands, because they decide the future efficiency of industrial energy systems. The objective of this study is to investigate, from a managerial perspective, the need to improve decision support in some industries, which can help to facilitate and improve investment decisions concerning energy efficiency. This work has been conducted through in-depth interviews with representatives for a number of energy-intensive companies and non-energy-intensive companies from different sectors. One need that was identified was the improvement of working methods in order to support the decision-making process. Here, external players seem to be playing an increasingly important role. Access to correct information, better follow-up activities, and transparent, understandable calculations are also considered to be important. The study will form the foundation for subsequent work on decision support and energy efficiency in industry.

  • 30.
    Sjödin, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    Division of Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology, Chemical Engineering and Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Emissions accounting for use and supply of electricity in the Nordic market2004In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 32, no 13, p. 1555-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the deregulated Nordic electricity market, countries have varying kinds of power generation. In Norway, hydropower generation dominates, while the Swedish electricity production largely consists of equal shares of hydro and nuclear power production. There is a larger share of fossil fuel power generation in Finland and, especially, in Denmark. Cross-border trade between the countries is considerable. Increased use of electricity anywhere in the region may thus entail augmented emissions of greenhouse gases. The amount of increased emissions due to additional electricity usage will depend on the type of generation supplying the additional electricity. Similarly, a decrease in electricity usage may involve reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we discuss some different ways to account for changes in greenhouse gas emissions because of a changed use or supply of electricity. A comprehensive accounting scheme should provide an accurate link between various types of energy measures and their related emissions in order to facilitate cost-effective carbon dioxide mitigation procedures.

  • 31.
    Späth, Philipp
    et al.
    Institute of Forest and Environmental Policy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conflicting strategies towards sustainable heating at an urban junction of heat infrastructure and building standards2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 78, p. 273-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approaches to ‘sustainability transitions’ stress the possibility of aligning actors around a shared vision of the future, e.g. at the scale of a city. Empirical accounts reveal how difficult such coordination often is due to contradictory views involved. How can we better understand related processes of searching and negotiation? What does this mean for the organization of decision making processes regarding long-term infrastructural change? 

    We analyze a conflict which erupted in Freiburg, Germany when two strategies of reducing environmental impacts of space heating were to be applied in the Vauban ‘model district’: A) Efficient co-generation of heat and power (CHP) combined with district heating systems (DHS), and B) Reducing heat demand by low-energy designs and ambitious energy standards (‘passive house standard’). In order to understand the politics of infrastructure development, we unravel 1) enabling factors and driving forces of the conflict, 2) normative content of opposing viewpoints, 3) resources tapped into for settling the disagreement, and 4) the institutional setup of such decision making about energy policy priorities in the municipality. 

    We reflect on implications of such a perspective on how policies and how governance arrangements should ideally be shaped and take a brief outlook on further research needed.

  • 32.
    Summerton, Jane
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Midttun, Atle
    Loyalty or competition? A comparative analysis of Norwegian and Swedish electricity distributors' adaptation to market reform1998In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 143-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Sundberg, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Project financing consequences on cogeneration: Industrial plant and municipal utility co-operation in Sweden2003In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 491-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The liberalisation of the European electricity market influences investment decisions in combined heat and power plants. Energy companies modify their business strategies and their criteria for investments in power generation capacity. In this paper, the gains from a co-operation between a paper mill and municipal utility are studied. We find that a widened system boundary, including both the industrial plant and the district heating company, increases cost-effectiveness by 7-11%, compared to a situation with two separately optimised systems. Furthermore, optimal investments are strongly in.uenced by the actors' different required returns. With a relatively low required rate of return on energy investments, typical for a municipally owned utility, the most profitable investment is a wood chips-fuelled cogeneration plant. With a higher rate of return on capital, typical for a competitive industry, the optimal investment is mainly a heat-only steam boiler. Finally, some general influences on required rate of return caused by electricity market deregulation are observed. Whilst tending to increase companies' required returns, deregulation may, besides extending the outlet for locally generated electricity, also obstruct long-termhigh-cost investments such as cogeneration based on conventional technology. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 34.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Johanna
    Chalmers University.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers University.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden - Part 12008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 4178-4185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess heat from a kraft pulp mill can be used either internally to increase the level of efficiency in the mill, or externally for example as district heating. This paper presents an approach to investigate the competition between external and internal use through modelling the pulp mill and an energy company (ECO) within the same system boundary. Three different sizes of ECOs with different district heating demands are studied. To investigate the competitiveness of using industrial excess heat as district heating compared with other heat production techniques, the option of investing in excess heat use is introduced, along with the possibility for the ECO to invest in biomass combined heat and power (CHP), waste CHP and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC). To evaluate the robustness of the model, alternative solutions are identified and will be used as a comparison to the optimal solutions. The model has been verified by comparing the results with previous studies concerning kraft pulp mills and with related studies regarding district heating and real ECOs. Finally, the approach presented in this part of the study will be used in the second part in order to investigate the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat under different future energy market scenarios.

  • 35.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danestig, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 5774-5783 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

  • 36.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the formation of energy policies towards 2020: Challenges in the Swedish industrial and building sectors2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 42, p. 461-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases emissions which in turn is a consequence of in particular, the use of fossil fuels, has made EU decision makers to act decisively, e.g. the EU 2020 primary energy target of reducing primary energy use with 20% from 2005 to 2020. The aim of this paper is to present major challenges related to the development and formation of energy policies towards the Swedish industrial and building sector in order to fulfill the EU 2020 primary energy target. This paper is approaching the presented challenges by introducing the theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks (AEPSs), and addresses some key challenges which are of particular relevance for the fulfilment of the EU 2020 primary energy target for Member States like Sweden which from an energy end-use perspective substantially differs from the EU-25s energy end-use structure. In conclusion, overcoming AEPSs, and moving towards a more Long-Term Energy Policy Approach (LTEPA) will be of key importance for individual Member States, if the 2020 primary energy target is to be fulfilled.

  • 37.
    Ulsrud, Kirsten
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Muchunku, Charles
    Independent RE Consultant, POB 76406-00508, Kenya.
    Spatial transfer of innovations: South-South learning on village-scale solar power supply between India and Kenya2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 114, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents research on the transfer of sustainable energy innovations between countries of the global South from a socio-technical perspective. The analysis identifies factors important for how a deliberate transfer process may unfold. It is based on monitoring a case of South-South transfer of experiences with village-level solar power supply models from India to Kenya. This research shows that it is not so much stable technical solutions which travel between different spatial and cultural contexts, but that experiences with sustainable technologies in one country can provide important inspiration and knowledge for the development of new socio-technical designs based on local needs in a new socio-spatial context in a different country. Such learning processes can be especially effective between countries with similar problem situations, such as poverty and lacking access to electricity in rural areas. To achieve a successful transfer, strong emphasis must be put on mutual learning and exchange of knowledge, socio-technical experimentation, adaptation and social embedding. Learning from promising, innovative infrastructures in other geographical areas needs to capture the micro-level interactions between people, technology and socio-cultural contexts, while also taking into account larger processes of system innovation and emerging transitions.

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