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  • 1.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 2.
    Edquist, Charles
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Eriksson, Marie-Louise
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Sjogren, H.
    Characteristics of collaboration in product innovation in the regional system of innovation of East Gothia2002In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 563-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is on product innovations introduced by firms (establishments) and the collaborations they enter into with other firms and organizations in carrying out this activity. The theoretical framework combines innovation theories with the literature on regional innovation systems and the knowledge-based economy. Empirically we have investigated characteristics of collaboration among manufacturing establishments in the region of East Gothia in Sweden, with specific focus on the number of employees involved in the innovation projects, mechanisms of knowledge transfer between organizations, as well as financing and patenting in relation to product innovations.

  • 3.
    Engstrand, Åsa-Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sätre-Åhlander, Ann-Mari
    Uppsala University.
    Collaboration for local economic development: Business networks, politics and universities in two Swedish cities2008In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 487-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we want to show how conceptions about collaboration for local eocnomic development in Sweden are constructed on national and local levels. We also show how these conceptions have been realized in two different company networks, in the city of Östersund ("Odenskog företagsstaden") and in the city of Karlskrona ("Telecom City"). In politics and research, local collaboration or cluster formation are viewed as important tools and levers for local economic development. However, we argue that the local labour markets and unemployment rates in our case studies do not differ significantly, despite very different strategies for collaboration. Therefore, we suspect that the political focus on collaboration is a way of legitimizing the change in regional policy rather than a delegation of real power to the local level. If this continues, we fear that the current regional policy is reduced to a discourse of popular concepts rather than a real instrument for local economic development.

  • 4.
    Feldman, JM
    et al.
    Natl Inst Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden Ctr Innovat & Entrepreneurship, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Medium-sized firms and the limits to growth: A case study in the evolution of a spin-off firm2000In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 631-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores potential barriers to growth in key areas which can become increasingly problematic for some smaller to medium-sized firms (SMEs) as they grow and evolve from their early status as small scale spin-offs. These potential growth barriers can occur in: finance, competition from new firms or products and organizational integration of resources. Finns that fail to properly plan, manage and allocate resources will encounter difficulties in each area. Such firms are said to have poor 'governance systems'. While not proposing a universal theory about small firm behaviour, we argue that firms can encounter the same problems associated with poor communication, bureaucracy and loss of entrepreneurial spirit that plague large firms. We also show that the routines used to promote growth based on collaboration can sometimes create problems for firms as they ignore new challenges. We elaborate various theories on the limits to growth by examining the case of IV, a university spin-off.

  • 5.
    Feldman, Jonathan
    Department of Economic History, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    The Managerial Equation and Innovation Platforms: The Case of Linköping and Berzelius Science Park2007In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1027-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the political and economic origins of a science park in Linköping, Sweden. It shows how different “innovation platforms” emerged to develop the medical industrial sector. An innovation platform is a foundation for growth corresponding to a given set of organizations or networks that incubate and sustain innovative teams tied to a given sector. Large firms and incubator-linked science parks represent different kinds of innovative platforms. The paper centres on the concept of the “managerial equation”, arguing that growth projects like science parks build on coalitions and networks linking innovative resources, acquired knowledge tied to a given sector and power linked to decision-making power and financial resources. Changes within these elements of the equation explain the rise and fall of innovative platforms. Failures in learning in one platform lead to the rise of another. An absence of power (such as supporting resources) can also account for platform changes. Regional development decisions do not simply reflect path dependent specializations as regions use related capacities to break into “new” sectors. Commitments to Triple Helix formations linking universities, corporations and the government reflect changes within each branch of the Helix and political decision-making creating a diversity of development pathways.

  • 6.
    Germain-Alamartine, Eloïse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Moghadam-Saman, Saeed
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Aligning doctoral education with local industrial employers’ needs: a comparative case study2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctoral education was primarily designed to answer the human resources needs of academia. However, nowadays, increasing numbers of doctorate holders seek employment outside academia. Accordingly, doctoral education can be one of the means by which universities take part in the development of industry in their regions. This study explores whether and how doctoral-level skills are being adapted to the needs of local industrial employers in two different contexts. Two research and science parks situated next to research-intensive universities in Sweden and Spain were chosen as cases for an exploratory and comparative study. In these parks, local industrial employers conduct R&D activities that make them potentially attractive destinations for doctoral graduates. Similarities in the cases were found regarding the process of adaptation of doctoral education at the adjacent universities to meet the industrial employers’ needs in the parks. Discrepancies are also highlighted regarding stages of development, institutional settings, geography and culture. Implications for several stakeholders are formulated to improve the process analysed in the study concerning better alignment of doctoral education with industrial employers’ need for generic skills.

  • 7.
    Germain-Alamartine, Eloïse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Moghadam-Saman, Saeed
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Aligning doctoral education with local industrial employers needs: a comparative case study2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctoral education was primarily designed to answer the human resources needs of academia. However, nowadays, increasing numbers of doctorate holders seek employment outside academia. Accordingly, doctoral education can be one of the means by which universities take part in the development of industry in their regions. This study explores whether and how doctoral-level skills are being adapted to the needs of local industrial employers in two different contexts. Two research and science parks situated next to research-intensive universities in Sweden and Spain were chosen as cases for an exploratory and comparative study. In these parks, local industrial employers conduct Ramp;D activities that make them potentially attractive destinations for doctoral graduates. Similarities in the cases were found regarding the process of adaptation of doctoral education at the adjacent universities to meet the industrial employers needs in the parks. Discrepancies are also highlighted regarding stages of development, institutional settings, geography and culture. Implications for several stakeholders are formulated to improve the process analysed in the study concerning better alignment of doctoral education with industrial employers need for generic skills.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Municipalities as intermediaries for the design and local implementation of climate visions2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a sustainable society requires the development of visions paving the way for socio-technical changes. In recent years, the literature on sustainable transitions and urban planning has highlighted the intermediation role of municipalities to implement international and national goals and visions at a local level. Yet, empirical research studying municipalities from the lens of the intermediation theory are sparse. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of what strategies municipalities use when intermediating between and within different scales of governance (i.e. local, national and international), and what factors influence the choice of strategies. Through semi-structured interviews and document studies, three Swedish municipalities are studied. Results show that these municipalities translate the visions through local experiments, task delegation and coalitions. Additionally, the analysis indicates that the local circumstances, rather than the relations between the local level and the higher levels of governance or the guidance of national policies, influence the choice of intermediation strategy. Particularly, whether the management approach is centralized or decentralized, result- or process-oriented, participative or exclusive, is determinant. Results also indicate that municipalities perform both top-down and bottom-up intermediation, i.e. closing the loop from the local to the national and/or international levels.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    ÅF infrastructure, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategic spatial planning -a missed opportunity to facilitate district heating systems based on excess heat2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic spatial planning is important for developing long-termvisions and strategies towards regional and local sustainability.This paper explores if and how strategic spatial planning could beuseful for overcoming some barriers related to new sustainableways of heating residential areas, using district heating systemsbased on industrial excess heat. This longitudinal study builds oninterviews with municipal and private actors in six Swedishmunicipalities. It highlights that important barriers can beovercome by influencing the design and location of residentialdistricts and industrial activities. Further, it identifies missedopportunities in local spatial planning practice as stakeholders areinvolved late in the planning when much is set, leaving littlespace for stakeholders to have an impact. Consequently, theremight be a lack of knowledge and expertise in how such issuescould enhance planning. Strategic spatial planning could facilitateconditions for excess heat-based systems of district heating as itimplies a broader systems perspective which could enhance abroader planning scope. Plan programs could bring about morestrategic spatial planning processes as these require earlystakeholder involvement. If taking stakeholder involvement onestep further to stakeholder collaboration or co-production, aneven broader planning scope would be achieved.

  • 10.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    et al.
    University of Wales.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Universities and local economic development: The case of Linköping1997In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing focus by policy‐makers on links between industry and academic institutions, universities have become important for local economic development in generating new and applied knowledge which can be used by indigenous high‐technology industry. As a number of studies have demonstrated, the stimulation of small technology‐based firms is one of the more relevant methods of undertaking efficient technology transfer from university to industry. This paper examines an example of this type of technology transfer in the Linköping region of Sweden, looking at the relationship between SMIL (a local association of small technology‐based firms) and the Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIE) at Linköping University. The conclusion that can be drawn in the case of CIE‐SMIL is that a university, through a policy and strategy of delegating various tasks to smaller internal departments with focused activities, can successfully devote itself to external activities.

  • 11.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kairento, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nygårds, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Export of environmental technologies by publicly-owned companies: Approaches, drivers and obstacles among Swedish municipal companies2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 2175-2196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the export of environmental technology by publicly-owned companies. The export of such technologies has the potential to contribute to economic competitiveness and environmental sustainability. However, research on this emerging topic has so far largely focused on privately-owned SMEs compared to publicly-owned companies. Using interviews with twelve Swedish municipally-owned companies which develop such systems and a survey with thirty-six others, we analyse their approaches, drivers for and obstacles to export. These companies use a combination of different approaches such as subsidiaries, independent projects, licensing and private-public partnerships to engage in export. However, in contrast to private companies which are often driven by internal factors such as extra sales, these municipally-owned companies are largely motivated by external factors such as customer requests and opportunities to contribute to environmental sustainability. Furthermore, their main export barriers relate to differences between the business culture and political systems in their home and target markets. Their export experiences are influenced by their municipal ownership, the types of technologies they develop and the institutional contexts within which they operate. This study reveals an actor type struggling to find a balance between domestic obligations and commercialization in international markets.

  • 12.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Catching regional development dreams: a study of cluster initiatives as intermediaries2012In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1909-1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on actors and activities of cluster initiatives which are intermediaries within clusters of similar and related firms. A case study method is used; the cases show that their success and longevity depend to a large extent on their actors sharing a common vision. It is proposed that actors involved in cluster initiatives can be categorised according to a typology consisting of key players, target and support groups. Managing cluster initiatives requires striking a balance between well-developed and anchored targeted activities and experimental activities exploring future needs. This requires some openness and flexibility within the shared vision. Cluster initiatives can therefore be viewed as dream-catchers that rather than control and govern the clusters perform a more subtle role of gathering and visualizing potential opportunities in regional contexts and articulating and realizing them through an entrepreneurial process.

  • 13.
    Parks, Darcy
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy efficiency left behind?: Policy assemblages in Sweden’s most climate-smart city2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 318-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart city experiments have the potential to reshape urban climate change governance. Smart city initiatives have been supported by international technology companies and the European Union for many years and continue to be promoted by national and municipal governments. In relation to sustainability and climate change, such initiatives promise more efficient use of resources through the use of information and communications technology in energy infrastructure. Experiments with smart city technologies such as urban smart grids have shown the potential to restructure relationships between energy utilities, energy users and other actors by reconfiguring the dynamics of energy supply and demand. But do urban experiments lead to institutional change? The aim of the article is to provide a better understanding of how smart city experiments reshape the urban governance of building energy use. Hyllie, a new city district in Malmö, Sweden, was home to two smart city experiments that contributed to the institutionalization of urban smart grid technology. However, the analysis of Hyllie’s policy assemblages shows that this institutional change could redefine sustainability at the expense of energy efficiency.

  • 14.
    Späth, Philipp
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Rohracher, Harald
    University of Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Local Demonstrations for Global Transitions—Dynamics across Governance Levels Fostering Socio-Technical Regime Change Towards Sustainability2012In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 461-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Which role do spatial dimensions play in the transformation of socio-technical regimes, in particular the energy system, towards more sustainable configurations? Concepts such as the multi-level perspective on socio-technical change have not given sufficient attention to space and place so far.

    We develop our considerations around the case of an ‘Energy Region’ in Austria where people try to bring about a substantive shift in their local energy supply structure and have the ambition to contribute to a general transition towards sustainable energy systems. However, if this ambition is to stand the test of reality, what are the mechanisms and processes through which regional governance can have a broader impact on the transition of the energy system? What are the resources it can draw upon? What are the linkages with other governance levels?

    We investigate in detail how one regional showcase for the feasibility of a non-fossil, sustainable energy system was set up in Murau, a remote, alpine district of Austria. Starting from the multi-level framework for the modelling of niche-regime interaction we put particular emphasis on the formation of discourse coalitions and dynamics of multi-level governance. Our findings support the view to pay considerably more attention to the interplay of local and non-local discourses and the dynamic relations between local initiatives and non-local networks which can provide specific opportunities for the legitimization and entrenchment of alternative socio-technical configurations. 

  • 15.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Sometimes Climate Adaptation is Politically Correct": A Case Study of Planners and Politicians Negotiating Climate Adaptation in Waterfront Spatial Planning2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 2268-2286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, spatial planning isexpected to deliver climate adaptation and to manage, merge and balance varioussocietal interests and priorities. To what extent proactive shaping of changeis enabled by spatial planning practice is less explored. This paperillustrates how the ideals and ambitions of climate adaptation are manifestedin waterfront spatial planning via a case study of Norrköping, Sweden. Based oninterviews with spatial planners and politicians responsible for strategicurban development planning, our study identifies a divergence in ambitions,approaches and positions. In local development plans, the position taken hasless to do with climate risk severity than with an area’s perceived politicaland economic attractiveness. When perceived attractiveness is low, precautionaryclimate adaptation serves as a pretext not to develop, whereas high perceivedattractiveness leads to negotiated pragmatism allowing continued waterfrontexploitation. We also identify a fragmentation in spatial planning, with weakinterplay between municipal comprehensive planning and local development plans,resulting in ad hoc, case-by-case planning. Furthermore, different planningactors are organizationally compartmentalized, creating unfortunate intra-sectoralsilos. We conclude that the integrative, proactive and reflexive potentials of spatialplanning to deliver climate adaptation have yet to be realized.

  • 16.
    Svensson, Peter
    et al.
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    Human Sciences and Technologies Advanced Research Institute (H-STAR), Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
    An Entrepreneurial University Strategy for Renewing a Declining Industrial City: The Norrköping Way2012In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 505-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norrköping, a small urban area formerly dependent upon old labour-intensive industries, has developed a knowledge-based renewal strategy inspired by ideas emanating from its superseded local economy. Using a longitudinal case study, this paper explicates the dynamics of change among a triple helix of university, industry and government actors that involved building consensus within the city and with its neighbouring city of Linko ̈ping. The keys to success have been cross-institutional entrepreneurship, aggregating regional and national resources to realize a unique, locally generated strategy rather than adopting the usual list of hot high-tech topics such as information technology, biotechnology or alternative energy, and striking a balance between intra-regional competition and collaboration in order to achieve common objectives and avoid any stasis arising from hyper-competitiveness. This paper utilizes a triple-helix “spaces” framework and makes comparisons with other relevant cases to develop a theoretical model of regional renewal through the hybridization of old and new industrial and knowledge elements.

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