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  • 1.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resilience and the temporal dimension: the chimera of timely response2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 110-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about ‘timely response’, and control versus the temporal organisation of a controlling system. By three empirical examples, we show how a controlling system can be described in terms of perception points, decision points and action points. Our conclusions are that (1) temporal expectancies shape our ability to exercise control at least as much our ability to understand relations and causality, but temporality is rarely part of approaches to modelling human or system performance, (2) temporal organisation of activities shape our ability to exercise control, (3) by utilising the temporal control framework, we can describe important properties of the temporal organisation of a socio-technical system, and (4) the capacity of modelling is limited to what can be known or imagined. Therefore, models describing resilience or stability should include temporality and be based on frameworks generic enough to be applied to a wide variety of situations.

  • 3.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Situation Awareness Systems, States and Processes: A holistic framework2015In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 447-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that state, system, and process descriptions of situation awareness (SA) are interdependent. Based on SA research from the last 30 years, the paper proposes a holistic SA framework. SA states emerge from processes of exploring situations through SA systems. Reflecting research on safety II (resilience), in describing SA states, the framework distinguishes frames (what situations are considered) from implications (regarding the situations) of objects on and of an event horizon. The paper describes and discusses SA system and process dependencies on SA states. It also describes SA system components as mediators and catalysts for SA, SA system properties (e.g. buffering SA), and dynamic SA system formation. Based on an analysis of four enactments of Air Traffic Control situations, the paper argues that what is domain-characteristic may not characterise all situations in a domain. The SA field could thus benefit from incrementally refining a nuanced cross-domain framework.

  • 4.
    Prytz, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.
    Scerbo, Mark
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.
    Changes in stress and subjective workload over time following a workload transition2015In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 586-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workload transitions present individuals with sudden changes in workload. These transitions may affect stress and coping behaviour. Two experiments were performed using a digit detection task that shifted between low and high workload levels to examine transition effects on performance, stress, and effort. The first experiment used a large magnitude transition and resulted in decreased estimates of task engagement and effort. Over time, the levels of subjective stress observed in the transitioned groups approached those of the non-transitioned control groups. The second experiment used a transition more moderate in magnitude. The results were similar to those from the first experiment except that the transition resulted in higher, sustained task engagement and effort. These findings indicate that over time, the perceived stress of transitioned individuals will approach those of non-transitioned individuals; however, the magnitude of the transition may influence individuals to either increase or decrease task-oriented, effortful coping.

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