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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 2.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Is there a pattern in European bus and coach incidents? A literature analysis with special focus on injury causation and injury mechanisms2005In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify and describe a pattern in bus and coach incident related injuries and fatalities, and to suggest possible future measures for improvement of bus and coach safety, a literature analysis was performed. The results formed a multi-faceted pattern, which briefly can be described as follows, women travelled more frequently by bus as compared to men. Injuries sustained predominantly affected women 60 years of age and older. Of all traffic fatalities in Europe, bus and coach fatalities represented 0.3-0.5%. In the OECD countries, the risk of being killed or seriously injured was found to be seven to nine times lower for bus and coach occupants as compared to those of car occupants. Despite the fact that fatalities were more frequent on rural roads, a vast majority of all bus and coach casualties occurred on urban roads and in dry weather conditions. Boarding and alighting caused about one-third of all injury cases. Collisions were a major injury-contributing factor. Buses and coaches most frequently collided with cars, but unprotected road users were hit in about one-third of all cases of a collision, the point of impact on the bus or the coach being typically frontal or side. Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe coach crashes. In this type of crash projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanisms and among those, ejection being the most dangerous. A 2-point belt may prevent passenger ejection, but in frontal crashes when the upper abdominal parts and the head hit the seatback in front, it could, however, contribute to head and thoracic injuries. Hence, a 3-point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale 8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337 s; split shift 0.347 s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 4.
    Bruce, C. R.
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Unsworth, C. A.
    La Trobe University, Australia; CQUniversity, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Dillon, M. P.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    RMIT University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    Gosforth Clin, Australia.
    Carey, L. M.
    La Trobe University, Australia; Florey Institute Neurosci and Mental Health Neurorehabil and, Australia.
    Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 109, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. Objectives: *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group.and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time. Methods: This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participants hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT). Findings: After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6 week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group. Conclusions: The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 5.
    Engström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. The National Society for Road Safety, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Young drivers: Reduced crash risk with passengers in the vehicle2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that the effect of passengers on accident propensity among young drivers is ambiguous—in some cases positive and some negative. In Sweden, various kinds of information are compiled in registers, including a national accident database and exposure data collected in a national investigation of the driving habits of license holders. Access to such data offers a good opportunity to study crash risks related to driving with and without passengers. This was done for drivers in three different age groups (18–24, 25–64 and >65 years) accompanied by one, two or three or more passengers. Differences in crash risk were estimated using incidence density ratios (IDRs) and 95% confidence intervals. The results show that passengers had an overall protective effect, that is, the crash risk was higher for those who drove alone, regardless of their age or gender. This protective effect increased with every extra passenger (up to eight), indicating that the more passengers in the vehicle, the safer the driving. The influence of passengers was weakest (albeit still positive) among the youngest drivers (ages 18–24 years), especially the males in that group. The protective impact showed the same pattern on all days of the week, but was most marked from Friday to Sunday for most of the drivers, regardless of age.

  • 6.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Perceived Risk Among Parents Concerning the Travel Situation for Children with Disabilities2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, p. 553-562Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nolén, Sixten
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Children's road safety and the strategy of voluntary traffic safety clubs1994In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the problem of traffic safety among children and the effectiveness of voluntary traffic clubs. General doubts are growing in regard to this traditional strategy of teaching and training children how to act in specific traffic situations. It has been shown that their knowledge and behavior improve, but the effect on accident risk is not clear. In this study, one model for traditional teaching of this type, a voluntary traffic safety club for children, is evaluated in terms of accident risk. The data have been collected through questionnaires to members and nonmembers of the club. Approximately 20% of Swedish children are members of the club. The results show that members do not have a lower accident risk than nonmembers. On the contrary, the risk in this nonexperimental study is found to be higher among members. The use of safety equipment is, however, higher among members. The results are discussed in terms of systematic differences between the groups, i.e. socioeconomics, and in terms of the possibility that the general strategy of the club leads to overestimation of the safety effect.

  • 8.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Peters, B
    Univ Helsinki, Swedish Sch Social Sci, Dept Psychol, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland Swedish Rd & Transport Res Inst, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Recent European research on older drivers2000In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 601-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses European research on older drivers published since 1985. It is not intended to be an exhaustive review, rather, the focus is on those issues that have been most topical during the past fifteen years. First, the paper deals with general efforts to integrate ageing into transport policy design. The emphasis is placed on differences in the European and American perspectives and discourse. Second, some research issues that have been topical in the European research agenda are reviewed, with a few examples of each. Third, a brief outline is given of newly emerging research issues of importance. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Hallvig, David
    et al.
    The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Johan G.
    Autoliv Dev AB, Sweden .
    Wande, Mattias
    Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Akerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Sleepy driving on the real road and in the simulator-A comparison2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 50, p. 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleepiness has been identified as one of the most important factors contributing to road crashes. However, almost all work on the detailed changes in behavior and physiology leading up to sleep related crashes has been carried out in driving simulators. It is not clear, however, to what extent simulator results can be generalized to real driving. This study compared real driving with driving in a high fidelity, moving base, driving simulator with respect to driving performance, sleep related physiology (using electroencephalography and electrooculography) and subjective sleepiness during night and day driving for 10 participants. The real road was emulated in the simulator. The results show that the simulator was associated with higher levels of subjective and physiological sleepiness than real driving. However, both for real and simulated driving, the response to night driving appears to be rather similar for subjective sleepiness and sleep physiology. Lateral variability was more responsive to night driving in the simulator, while real driving at night involved a movement to the left in the lane and a reduction of speed, both of which effects were absent in the simulator. It was concluded that the relative validity of simulators is acceptable for many variables, but that in absolute terms simulators cause higher sleepiness levels than real driving. Thus, generalizations from simulators to real driving must be made with great caution.

  • 10.
    Holmgren, Anita
    et al.
    Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping.
    Holmgren, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Kugelberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    High re-arrest rates among drug-impaired drivers despite zero-tolerance legislation2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 534-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A zero-tolerance law for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) in Sweden led to a 10-fold increase in the number of cases submitted by the police for toxicological analysis. The statutory blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving is 0.2 mg/g (∼0.02 g%). Methods: An in-house database (TOXBASE) was used to investigate re-arrests for impaired driving over 4 years (2001-2004), which comprised 36,799 cases. The age, gender, re-arrest rate of the offenders and the concentrations of ethanol and amphetamine in blood samples were evaluated. Results: We found that 44% of individuals (N = 16,277) re-offended 3.2 times on average (range 1-23 arrests). Between 85 and 89% of first-time offenders were men and there was also a male dominance among the recidivists (88-93%). The mean age of drunken drivers was ∼40 years compared with ∼35 years for driving under the influence of amphetamine, which was the drug identified in 50-60% of DUID cases, either alone or together with other licit or illicit drugs. The median BAC was 1.5 mg/g (∼0.15 g%), which suggests a dominance of heavy drinkers. The median BAC was even higher in recidivists (1.6-1.7 mg/g). The median concentration of amphetamine in blood was 1.0 mg/L in recidivists compared with 0.5 mg/L in the first-time offenders. About 14% of drunken drivers re-offended 1-10 times compared with 68% of DUID suspects, who were re-arrested 1-23 times. People with only a scheduled prescription drug in blood were re-arrested much less frequently (∼17%) compared with those taking illicit drugs (68%). Conclusions: The appreciable increase in number of arrests for DUID after a zero-tolerance law might reflect a heightened enthusiasm by the police authorities armed with knowledge that a prosecution is easier to obtain. Zero-tolerance laws do not deter people from impaired driving judging by the high re-arrest rates. During the sentencing of hardcore offenders, the courts should give more consideration to the underlying substance abuse problem. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Hughes, B. P.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Anund, A.
    Swedish Rd and Transport Research Institute, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety strategies2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 74, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as systems, but have not been related to the theory, principles and basis by which systems have been developed and analysed. Recently, road safety strategies, which have been employed for many years in different countries, have moved to a vision zero, or safe system style. The aim of this study was to analyse the successful Swedish, United Kingdom and Dutch road safety strategies against the older, and newer, Australian road safety strategies, with respect to their foundations in system theory and safety models. Analysis of the strategies against these foundations could indicate potential improvements. The content of four modern cases of road safety strategy was compared against each other, reviewed against scientific systems theory and reviewed against types of safety model. The strategies contained substantial similarities, but were different in terms of fundamental constructs and principles, with limited theoretical basis. The results indicate that the modern strategies do not include essential aspects of systems theory that describe relationships and interdependencies between key components. The description of these strategies as systems is therefore not well founded and deserves further development.

  • 12.
    Hughes, B. P.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Swedish Rd and Transport Research Institute, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    A comprehensive conceptual framework for road safety strategies2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 90, p. 13-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety strategies (generally called Strategic Highway Safety Plans in the USA) provide essential guidance for actions to improve road safety, but often lack a conceptual framework that is comprehensive, systems theory based, and underpinned by evidence from research and practice. This paper aims to incorporate all components, policy tools by which they are changed, and the general interactions between them. A framework of nine mutually interacting components that contribute to crashes and ten generic policy tools which can be applied to reduce the outcomes of these crashes was developed and used to assess 58 road safety strategies from 22 countries across 15 years. The work identifies the policy tools that are most and least widely applied to components, highlighting the potential for improvements to any individual road safety strategy, and the potential strengths and weaknesses of road safety strategies in general. The framework also provides guidance for the development of new road safety strategies, identifying potential consequences of policy tool based measures with regard to exposure and risk, useful for both mobility and safety objectives. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Hughes, B. P.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Newstead, S.
    Monash University, Australia.
    Anund, A.
    Swedish Rd and Transport Research Institute, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Shu, C. C.
    Neurodegenerat Disorders Research Pty Ltd, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    A review of models relevant to road safety2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 74, p. 250-270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into Safe Systems models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or models of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  • 14.
    Jones, AW
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Forens Toxicol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Alabama, Dept Justice Sci, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA Ctr Forens Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Liu, RH
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Forens Toxicol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Alabama, Dept Justice Sci, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA Ctr Forens Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lucas, DM
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Forens Toxicol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Alabama, Dept Justice Sci, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA Ctr Forens Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Professor R.F. Borkenstein (1912-2002) - Obituary2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 35, no 1Other (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Ahlstrom, Christer
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Evaluation of methods for the assessment of attention while driving2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to assess the current attentional state of the driver is important for many aspects of driving, not least in the field of partial automation for transfer of control between vehicle and driver. Knowledge about the drivers attentional state is also necessary for the assessment of the effects of additional tasks on attention. The objective of this paper is to evaluate different methods that can be used to assess attention, first theoretically, and then empirically in a controlled field study and in the laboratory. Six driving instructors participated in all experimental conditions of the study, delivering within subjects data for all tested methods. Additional participants were recruited for some of the conditions. The test route consisted of 14 km of motorway with low to moderate traffic, which was driven three times per participant per condition. The on-road conditions were: baseline, driving with eye tracking and self paced visual occlusion, and driving while thinking aloud. The laboratory conditions were: Describing how attention should be distributed on a motorway, and thinking aloud while watching a video from the baseline drive. The results show that visual occlusion, especially in combination with eye tracking, was appropriate for assessing spare capacity. The think aloud protocol was appropriate to gain insight about the drivers actual mental representation of the situation at hand. Expert judgement in the laboratory was not reliable for the assessment of drivers attentional distribution in traffic. Across all assessment techniques, it is evident that meaningful assessment of attention in a dynamic traffic situation can only be achieved when the infrastructure layout, surrounding road users, and intended manoeuvres are taken into account. This requires advanced instrumentation of the vehicle, and subsequent data reduction, analysis and interpretation are demanding. In conclusion, driver attention assessment in real traffic is a complex task, but a combination of visual occlusion, eye tracking and thinking aloud is a promising combination of methods to come further on the way. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Schelp, L
    Evaluation of inter-organizational traffic injury prevention in a WHO safe community2001In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 599-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of a community-based injury prevention program on traffic injuries. A population-based quasi-experimental design was used with pre- and post-implementation measurements in an intervention and a control area. The program was based on inter-organizational participation in detecting and taking action against traffic injuries. The total relative risk for traffic injury in the study area showed only a tendency to decrease following program exposure (odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.02). No change in relative risk was observed in the control area. The analyses of program impact on injury severity showed that the relative risk for moderate injuries in the study area was reduced by almost half (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.69), the risk for severe or fatal injuries remained constant (odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 0.80-2.02), and the risk for minor injuries increased (odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.59). The relative risk for moderate injuries was reduced by at least half for mopedists, cyclists, pedestrians, and those leaving or entering a motor vehicle. Community-based injury prevention can be a complement to national traffic safety programs. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 17.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What you find is not always what you fix-How other aspects than causes of accidents decide recommendations for remedial actions2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2132-2139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In accident investigation, the ideal is often to follow the principle "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix", an ideal reflecting that the investigation should be a rational process of first identifying causes, and then implement remedial actions to fix them. Previous research has however identified cognitive and political biases leading away from this ideal. Somewhat surprisingly, however, the same factors that often are highlighted in modern accident models are not perceived in a recursive manner to reflect how they influence the process of accident investigation in itself. Those factors are more extensive than the cognitive and political biases that are often highlighted in theory. Our purpose in this study was to reveal constraints affecting accident investigation practices that lead the investigation towards or away from the ideal of "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix". We conducted a qualitative interview study with 22 accident investigators from different domains in Sweden. We found a wide range of factors that led investigations away from the ideal, most which more resembled factors involved in organizational accidents, rather than reflecting flawed thinking. One particular limitation of investigation was that many investigations stop the analysis at the level of "preventable causes", the level where remedies that were currently practical to implement could be found. This could potentially limit the usefulness of using investigations to get a view on the "big picture" of causes of accidents as a basis for further remedial actions.

  • 18.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of So Denmark.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 45, p. 455-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation.

  • 19.
    Moller, M.
    et al.
    Møller, M., Danish Transport Research Institute (DTF), Knuth-Winterfeldts Allé, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Psychosocial function of driving as predictor of risk-taking behaviour2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relation between risk-taking behaviour while driving, the psychosocial function of driving, leisure time activities, car oriented peer group interaction and educational attainment. Two thousand four hundred seventeen drivers aged 18-25, randomly selected from the Danish Driving Licence Register, participated in the study. Data was collected through a mail survey. The response rate was 60.4%. A positive significant effect on risk-taking behaviour based on the score on the psychosocial function of driving was found (p < 0.001). A positive significant effect on risk-taking behaviour was also found based on driving related interaction with friends. Low structure/high impulsivity leisure time activities such as playing PC-games, doing body building and partying with friends were found to be related to increased risk-taking behaviour (p < 0.01). Although risk-taking behaviour is generally condemned by society results show that risk-taking behaviour while driving can also be functional in the lives of the young drivers. Consequently, other motives than safety motives are at stake when engaging in risk-taking behaviour. Implications for preventive efforts are discussed. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Morland, Jørg
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.
    Steentoft, Anni
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Section of Forensic Chemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wiese Simonsen, Kirsten
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Section of Forensic Chemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ojanperä, Ilkka
    Hjelt Institute, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Vuori, Erkki
    Hjelt Institute, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Magnusdottir, Kristin
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Kristinsson, Jakob
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Christophersen, Asbjørg
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.
    Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1920-1926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died within 24h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) blood samples were available for more than 70% of the drivers, allowing representative prevalence data to be collected. 60% of the drivers in single vehicle crashes had alcohol and/or drug in their blood samples, compared with 30% of drivers killed in collisions with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only - 40%; drugs only - 12%; alcohol and drugs - 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30-49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case, and psychoactive medicinal drugs were detected less frequently than in younger age groups. In 75% of single vehicle crashes, the driver was under 50 years. Thus, the majority of accidents where the drivers must be considered responsible, occurred with drivers who had recently used alcohol, or drugs, alone or in combination. The drugs involved were often illicit and/or psychoactive drugs with warning labels. Therefore a large proportion of single vehicle accidents appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after intake of alcohol and drugs can be implemented.

  • 21.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekman, Robert
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Science, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Science, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ryen, Linda
    Swedish Rescue Services Agency, National Centre for Learning from Incidents and Accidents (NCO), Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effectiveness of Community-Based Injury Prevention: Injury Rate Levels, Changes, and Trends for 14 Swedish WHO-Designated Safe Communities2007In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 267-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the injury rate levels, changes, and trends between 1987 and 2002 for the 14 Swedish municipalities designated as WHO Safe Communities. The injury rate was defined as the number of injured patients discharged from hospital per 1000 persons. Injury rates were age standardised. Each municipality was compared with its respective municipality group, according to a classification of Sweden's 288 municipalities into nine groups based on numerous structural parameters.

    The average injury rate levels for the 14 WHO-designated Safe Community municipalities ranged from 11.54 to 19.09 per 1000 population during the study period, which was defined as the time period during which a municipality's injury prevention program has been operational. Eleven of 14 municipalities had higher levels than their corresponding municipality groups. Five of the 14 municipalities “outperformed” their respective municipality groups and achieved a greater relative injury rate decrease during the study period. The trends for the 14 municipalities in relation to their municipality groups showed an inconsistent pattern, with only four municipalities exhibiting overall favourable trends for the study period.

  • 22.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Nordqvist, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Frequency of heavy episodic drinking among nonfatal injury patients attending an emergency room.2007In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 39, p. 757-766Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nyberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden.
    Practicing in relation to the outcome of the driving test2007In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a written and a driving test must be passed for licensure, and these two examinations are the only means of verifying that learner drivers have acquired the competencies stipulated in the national curriculum. The present study investigated 18–24-year olds regarding the effects of personal background and mode of driver education instruction on the outcome of the driving test. This was done by analysing the following for individual subjects: data on practicing obtained using a questionnaire, and test results of license tests. The results suggest that among the candidates under study, there are equal opportunities in the context of obtaining a driver's license independent of a person's background. The rate of passing was higher for those who started behind-the-wheel training at 16 and applied to take the driving test via a driving school, than for those who started the training at an older age and applied to take the test in person. It was also found that the probability of passing the test was greater if there is successful cooperation between learner and driving school instructor, and if a large proportion of the training been devoted to the task speed adaptation.

  • 24.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The effect of different delineator post configurations on driver speed in night-time traffic: A driving simulator study2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 72, p. 341-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how different delineator post configurations affect driver speed in night-time traffic. In addition, the potential speed effect of introducing a secondary task was investigated. The study was carried out in a car simulator on a road stretch including straight road sections as well as curves with different radii. Fourteen drivers participated in the study and the results show that absence of delineator posts leads to reduced speed. However, provided that there are delineator posts continuously present along the road, the overall driver speed is basically the same, regardless of the spacing between the delineator posts. The results also imply that to reduce driver speed in curves with small radius, using more compact spacing of posts in these curves as compared to in curves with a larger radius, could be a potential strategy. Additionally, the speed reducing effect of a secondary task was only prevailing where the task was initiated.

  • 25.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1348-1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eighty-five volunteer drivers, 65-85 years old, without cognitive impairments impacting on their driving were examined, in order to investigate driving errors characteristic for older drivers. In addition, any relationships between cognitive off-road and on-road tests results, the latter being the gold standard, were identified. Performance measurements included Trail Making Test (TMT), Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA), Useful Field of View (UFOV), self-rating driving performance and the two on-road protocols P-Drive and ROA. Some of the older drivers displayed questionable driving behaviour. In total, 21% of the participants failed the on-road assessment. Some of the specific errors were more serious than others. The most common driving errors embraced speed: exceeding the speed limit or not controlling the speed. Correlations with the P-Drive protocol were established for NorSDSA total score (weak), UFOV subtest 2 (weak), and UFOV subtest 3 (moderate). Correlations with the ROA protocol were established for UFOV subtest 2 (weak) and UFOV subtest 3 (weak). P-Drive and self ratings correlated weakly, whereas no correlation between self ratings and the ROA protocol was found. The results suggest that specific problems or errors seen in an older persons driving can actually be "normal driving behaviours".

  • 26.
    Stenbacka, Marlene
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Leifman, A
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jansson, B
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Early predictors of injury mortality among Swedish conscripts: a 35-year cohort study2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 228-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries represent an important cause of mortality among young adults. We studied the associations between adolescents' family, psychological, behavioural and drug-related risk factors in relation to unintentional injury death. A population-based cohort of 49,411 Swedish conscripts aged 18-20 years was followed for 35 years. The end-point of study was injury death up to 2004. The relationship between two family, four psychological and eight behavioural risk factors and injury death were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analyses and X(2) tests. Among 485 unintentional injury deaths, 40% occurred in subjects aged 25 years or under. The incidence per 1000 person years was 0.29 (95% CI, 0.26-0.31) and the mean age of death was 33 years. Problem drinking at both adolescent and adulthood was more strongly associated with injury death (HR=5.40) than illicit drug use (HR=2.70) even after adjusted for behavioural risk factors: (HR=3.43) and (HR=1.75), respectively. Adolescent risk factors such as contact with police and juvenile authorities, low emotional control, conduct problems at school and low social maturity were significant predictors of injury death in multivariate analyses. Young adults with social, behavioural and psychological problems and especialla alcohol and drug use at both adolescent and adulthood have a high mortality rate due to road traffic injuries and all kind of injuries. Early identification of vulnerable groups of adolescents with psychological and behavioural problems including alcohol and drug use at local levels could make a difference.

  • 27.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Decis Research, Eugene.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholm University.
    Braking from different speeds: Judgments of collision speed if a car does not stop in time2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 45, p. 487-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of speed limits is to keep driving speed low enough for drivers to be able to pay attention to relevant information and timely execute maneuvers so that the car can be driven in a safe way and stopped in time. If a driver violates a speed limit or drives too fast she or he will not be able to stop as quickly as from a slower speed. We asked participants to imagine that they themselves had driven a car outside a school at a speed of 30 km/h when a child suddenly had rushed into the street. From this speed it was possible to stop the car just in front of the child after braking as quickly and forcefully as possible. We then asked the participants to imagine that they drove the same street at a higher speed of 50 km/h and the child appeared at the same place as before. At what speed would the car hit the child after braking in the same way as before? This kind of problems were presented in three studies and the results showed that the judged speeds of collision were always underestimated in different hypothetical driving context scenarios by judges differing in numerical skills. This indicates an overly optimistic view on the possibilities to reduce speed quickly if the driving speed is too fast, which is an important component of attitudes towards speed limits, their legitimacy and recommended driving speeds. Further implications of the results were discussed last.

  • 28.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Decis Research, OR USA .
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mertz, C K.
    Decis Research, OR USA .
    Debiasing overoptimistic beliefs about braking capacity2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 58, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated, using questionnaires, different strategies for removing drivers overoptimism (Svenson et al., 2012a) about how fast their speed could be decreased when they were speeding compared with braking at the speed limit speed. Three different learning groups and a control group made collision speed judgments. The first learning group had the distance a car travels during a drivers reaction time for each problem. The second group had this information and also feedback after each judgment (correct speed). The third group judged collision speed but also braking distance and received correct facts after each problem. The control group had no information at all about reaction time and the distance traveled during that time. The results suggested the following rank order from poor to improved performance: control, group I, group 3 and group 2 indicating that information about distance driven during a drivers reaction time improved collision speed judgments and that adding stopping distance information did not add to this improvement.

  • 29.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling of relative collision safety including driver characteristics2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 909-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new mathematical model for relative collision safety in cars. Our present research is restricted to head-on crashes between two cars and we try to determine how much of the injury risk in a crash depends on the car make. Previous work shows that a person’s age and sex influence the injury risk in accidents that are otherwise similar. To explore the relative risks between different car makes we build a model where we let the car mass, change of speed, design of the car and the driver’s age and sex explain the injury outcome in the crashes. The mathematical model we use is a birth process where the states correspond to the injury classes. A database containing police reported traffic accidents and hospital information is used to explore the relationships in our model. Different models are compared and the “best” model is chosen by a likelihood ratio test. The estimated relative risks compensated for the driver’s age and sex are compared to the relative risks with the driver population included. The uncertainties of the different estimates are studied by a bootstrap analysis.

  • 30.
    Vogel, K
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    A comparison of headway and time to collision as safety indicators2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two safety indicators "headway" and "time to collision (TTC)" are discussed and compared with respect to their usefulness in determining the safety of different traffic situations, like different locations in a junction. Over a 6-day-period traffic flow measures were taken in a four-way junction with stop signs on the minor road. It was found that for vehicles in a car following situation headway and TTC are independent of each other. The percentage of small headways is relatively constant across different locations in the junction, while the percentage of small TTC values varies between different locations. It is recommended to use headway for enforcement purposes, because small headways generate potentially dangerous situations. TTC, on the other hand, should be used when a certain traffic environment is to be evaluated in terms of safety, because it indicates the actual occurrences of dangerous situations. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31. Vogel, K.
    et al.
    Kircher, A.
    Alm, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Nilsson, L.
    Traffic sense - Which factors influence the skill to predict the development of traffic scenes?2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 749-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to evaluate the skill to predict the development of traffic situations. A stop-controlled intersection was filmed over several days, and 12 scenes with varying traffic complexity were selected. In half of the scenes, the traffic rules were violated, in half of the scenes, the rules were observed. A total of 36 participants were asked to watch the scenes and predict how the scene would most likely develop in the 2s after the film was paused. Additionally, the participants rated how certain they were about their prediction, and how complex and dangerous they assessed the scenes to be. With the method used here, experienced drivers were not found to make more correct predictions of situational development, and no difference in skill to predict could be found between genders. Nevertheless, more experienced drivers were more certain in their judgements and evaluated the situations on average as less complex and dangerous than did less experienced drivers. Scenes in which the traffic rules were violated were more difficult to predict correctly. The scenes in which the participants predicted violations were rated as more complex and dangerous. It is concluded that the low-cost method used here is more useful for examining which scenes are generally easy or difficult to predict and how they are experienced subjectively than to investigate differences in performance for different driver categories. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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