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  • 1.
    Alenljung, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson Ranada, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Liedberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Struggling with everyday life after mild stroke with cognitive impairments - The experiences of working age women2019In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore how women of working age who have had a mild stroke resulting in cognitive impairment experience and manage their everyday lives. Method Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The participants consisted of 10 women of working age who had sustained cognitive impairment after a mild stroke. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three main categories appeared: The everyday is affected by the symptoms, Living strategies, and The social environment effects and changes. Participants feel insecure about their abilities and capabilities, experience anxiety and fear in relation to work, and find it hard to live up to demands and expectations. They are required to plan their daily activities in a new way and to prioritise chores that benefit the family, rather than follow their own interests and social activities. In order to cope with everyday life, they need to allocate chores to other family members. Conclusions The constant impact of fatigue and cognitive impairments affects everyday life. The women said that they had to learn to continuously manage their limitations through their experience of everyday life, something that can be facilitated with occupational therapy.

  • 2.
    Egilson, Snaefridur
    et al.
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    School participation of pupils with physical and psychosocial limitations:  a comparison2009In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 144-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several features in the school environment affect pupils with disabilities, serving as either supports or barriers to their school participation. The purpose of this study was to investigate and look for differences in the pupil-environment fit of students with physical and psychosocial limitations, using the School Setting Interview (SSI). The SSI is a client-centred instrument, which focuses on school activities where adjustments need to be made to accommodate pupils with disabilities and to enable their participation. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were employed to compare the fit of the two groups and their school environment.

     The results reveal that, in order to participate actively, both groups of pupils required adjustments to many school settings. Pupils with physical limitations frequently need adjustments, but their needs were met by the schools to a more satisfactory extent than were the needs of pupils with psychosocial limitations.

     The findings support the usability of the SSI for pupils with various types of limitations. They also stress the importance of eliciting the perspectives of the pupils themselves in order to facilitate the planning and implementation of client-centred occupational therapy interventions in school.

  • 3.
    Haglund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fältman, Susanne
    Psykiatri Skåne, Lund, Sweden .
    Activity and Participation - self-assessment according to the International Classification of Functioning: a study in mental health2012In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 412-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of this exploratory study was to discover if a fifth qualifier in the domain of Activity and Participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICE) could highlight the experience of satisfaction and enjoyment in the everyday life of people with severe mental illness. It also investigated the correlation between the assessment made by an occupational therapist and nursing staff based on performance, and the assessment made by the clients themselves. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: Twenty-nine clients with schizophrenia or other forms of psychosis participated, using a self-assessment. The performance was investigated by using the first qualifier in the ICF, domain Activity and Participation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFindings: The Major life area was rated with the most dissatisfaction and displeasure by the clients. Communication and General task and demands also had low ratings. Self-care was rated with the most satisfaction and enjoyment. There was a correlation between the assessments made by the occupational therapist and the nursing staff, but their assessments differed from those made by the clients. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: The study indicates the importance of using self-assessment when understanding everyday life as presented in the ICE, and the importance of using different assessment methods to gain a broad picture of clients.

  • 4.
    Holstein, Jane
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Liedberg, Gunilla M.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Öhman, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Validity and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument2019In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 82, no 7, p. 422-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Global migration as well as migration to Sweden has increased during the last few decades. A self-rating instrument that measures cultural competence could support occupational therapists' professional knowledge when they encounterclients from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content validity and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument among occupational therapists. Nineteen occupational therapists participated in four focus groups.

    Method: Qualitative analysis was used to evaluate content validity and utility.

    Results: The results revealed that all 24 items of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument were valid, even though six of the items were in need of reformulations and exemplifications. The category Interactions with clients showed that the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument – Swedish version could be utilised individually to raise awareness on cultural issues inpractice. The category Workplace and its organisational support showed that the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument – Swedish version had potential for use in different workplaces, and indicated the importance of organisational support in the development of communications and cultural competence.

    Conclusion: The evaluation indicated positive content validity for the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument – Swedish version, and that it had the potential to be utilised in the Swedish context.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Maria M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Maintaining health-related quality of life from 85 to 93 years of age despite decreased functional ability2019In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 348-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The oldest-old is the most rapidly growing age group in Sweden and in the western world. This group is known to be at great risk of increased functional dependency and the need for help in their daily lives. The aim of this research was to examine how the oldest-old change over time regarding health-related quality of life, cognition, depression and ability to perform activities of daily living and investigate what factors explain health-related quality of life at age 85 and 93 years. Methods In this study, 60 individuals from the Swedish Elderly in Linkoping Screening Assessment study were followed from age 85 to 93 years. Measurements used were EQ-5D, Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination and ability to perform activities of daily living. Nonparametric statistics and regression analyses were used. Results Although the individuals had increased mobility problems, decreased ability to manage activities of daily living, and thus had increased need of assistance, they scored their health-related quality of life at age 93 years at almost the same level as at age 85 years. No depression and low dependence in activities of daily living speaks in favour of higher health-related quality of life. Conclusions Health-related quality of life can be maintained during ageing despite decreased functional ability and increased need of assistance in daily life.

  • 6.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Utilization of the Swedish version of the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills2016In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 79, no 4, p. 228-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills, which is based on the Model of Human Occupation, is used when observing a client’s skills to communicate and interact with others while performing an occupation. The utility and psychometric status of an assessment is critical for treatment planning in occupational therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine the utility of the Swedish version of the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills from the perspective of occupational therapists working in the field of mental health, considering its clinical relevance and potential for implementation.

    Method Eight occupational therapists performed 116 assessments. Most of the 58 clients had affective or anxiety disorders. Descriptive and qualitative analysis were performed.

    Results In 76% of the assessments, the occupational therapists perceived that they had obtained a deeper knowledge of the client’s communication and interaction skills. This supports the clinical relevance of the assessment. Concerning the implementation potential and time required for using the assessment, all occupational therapists considered it reasonable.

    Conclusion The Swedish version of the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills is appropriate to use in the field of mental health for supporting occupational therapists in the treatment planning process.

  • 7.
    Källdalen, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Interests among older people in relation to gender, function and health-related quality of life2013In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Introduction: Older people should have opportunities to be active participants in society as aspects such as lifestyle, physical and social environment and physical and mental status have influence on active ageing. The purpose was to explore the interests pursued by 85-year-old people living in ordinary housing in relation to gender, cognition, depression and health-related quality of life.

    Method: A sample of 240 participants completed a postal questionnaire including the EuroQoL health-related quality of life measurement. Additional instruments used during a subsequent home visit were the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression scale.

    Results: Women experienced poorer health than men, lived alone to a greater extent and used more mobility devices. Compared to men, women had a larger number of interests within household management, but no gender differences in the leisure area. Lower number of interests in active recreation was associated with lower cognitive function, poorer health-related quality of life and a higher risk of depressive symptoms.

    Conclusion: The main finding is that engaging in active recreation interests is associated with better cognition, less depression and higher health-related quality of life in these 85-year-old people and is therefore a concern of occupational therapists.

  • 8.
    Liedberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Gothenburg University.
    Occupational therapy students choice of client activities: does patients gender matter?2011In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In order to achieve a fairer system of health care, it is important that the research and education of health professionals, as well as the organisation of health care, takes into account the gender perspective. The gender order influences womens and mens lifestyles and living conditions and, through this, their health, quality of life and daily activities. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of gender in occupational therapy students in their choice of activities: do students choose activities according to traditional roles? Method: The method was a fictional case study containing 16 activities. Each student was given a copy of one of the versions of the case, Eric or Erica. The students were told to underline the three activities regarded as being of most benefit for the actual patient. Eight male and 99 female students participated. Results: The most chosen activities were cooking, visits to cafeterias and gardening, and the least chosen were spinning, laundry and computer work. The results showed that the students made choices based on traditional gender roles. Conclusion: Extended knowledge is needed about how gender is constructed in occupational therapy, and about whether gendered choices contribute to a prolonged period of treatment or rehabilitation, or the opposite.

  • 9.
    Nord, Catharina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eakin, Pam
    London South Bank University.
    Astley, Phil
    London South Bank University.
    Atkinson, Andy
    London South Bank University.
    An exploration of communication between clients and professionals in the design of home adaptations.2009In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored communications between the people involved in the design of home adaptations, including clients and carers, occupational therapists, surveyors and builders. The aims were to explore (i) what constituted good communication in this context and (ii) how communication occurred. One London borough was selected as a case study. All participants lived or worked within the borough and had been involved in the adaptation process. Nineteen individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with six clients, four occupational therapists, six grant surveyors and three builders.

     

    The findings suggest that the professionals constituted a 'community of practice' (Wenger 1998) within which communication was good. The professionals used plan drawings to support communication between them. However, the study found that client involvement in the design was limited and that plan drawings were not effective tools in communication with them. The clients relied on the occupational therapist to represent their interests in the design process. Occupational therapists' communication with clients on the design of adaptations may be enhanced by the development and use of more sophisticated visualisation tools to replace the plan drawings. This would enable clients to become more engaged in the adaptations process.

  • 10.
    Pereira, Eugenia
    et al.
    occupational therapy department, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
    La Cour, Karen
    University of Southern Denmark, Institute of public health, Odense, Denmark.
    Jonsson, Hans
    Institutionen för neurobiologi, vårdvetenskap och samhälle, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The participation experience of children with disabilities in Portuguese mainstream schools2010In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 73, no 12, p. 598-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This explorative study aimed to chart the participation experiences of children with disabilities enrolled in mainstream schools.<p>Method: The participants were 14 students with disabilities, with good communication skills, aged between 8 and 11 years and attending school in Portugal. The data were collected through open-ended interviews and analysed employing a psychological phenomenological method.</p><p>Findings: The findings suggest that participation at school took three forms: equal participation, special task participation and onlooker participation. Those three forms contrasted with situations of non-participation, in which the children felt completely excluded. Each form of participation and non-participation presented different performance characteristics and was influenced by the social environment.</p><p>Conclusion: The findings of this study provide insights that enhance the understanding of childrens inclusion in mainstream schools, as well as the individuals experience of participation.</p>

  • 11.
    Rustner, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Results from a cognitive group rehabilitation programme from an occupational performance perspective2016In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 79, no 12, p. 734-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used for treatment planning and to evaluate the effect of a cognitive group rehabilitation programme. The aim was to identify occupational performance problems defined as important and to analyse the outcome, and to link those problems to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set for traumatic brain injury and stroke.

    Method: A retrospective design was used, including an analysis of COPM data recorded before and two months after the programme. COPM data from 124 clients were linked to the ICF core sets.

    Results: A clinically important difference of 2 COPM scores was reached in 32% of the clients for occupational performance and in 47% for satisfaction with occupational performance. A majority of the problems identified (62%) were classified within the activities and participation component in the ICF, and 38% in body functions. All occupational performance problems could be linked to the ICF; just one of the 36 categories (caring for household objects) was not found in any of the ICF core sets.

    Conclusion: By linking the COPM data to the core sets, occupational therapists can be confident in addressing the typical problems of the group of clients identified.

  • 12.
    Ryd, Charlotta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Malinowsky, Camilla
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Öhman, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmo Univ, Sweden.
    Nygard, Louise
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Older adults experiences of daily life occupations as everyday technology changes2018In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 81, no 10, p. 601-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Knowledge is lacking of how technological development has affected occupational engagement and performance. Changes in the environment, for example, new technology, are likely to create changes in the dynamics of occupations and exploring this among older adults is especially important. This study aimed to explore what can drive and hinder the incorporation of everyday technology into occupations and how new technology affects occupational engagement and performance among older adults. Method A constructivist grounded theory methodology was applied. Data were collected by individual interviews with six women and five men between the ages of 67 and 92 years old. Participants also varied as regards their cognitive function and living conditions. Results The findings concerned the match between technology and the participants perceptions of occupational purposes, needs of control and safety, and the kind of technology user they strived to be. A good match was a driving force for technology usage and satisfaction with the altered occupations and vice versa. Conclusion Occupational engagement and performance in relation to technology use can be facilitated, which is useful knowledge for stakeholders developing and implementing new technology, as well as those who encounter older adults with the needs or desire to use technology in their daily occupations.

  • 13.
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Modig-Arding, Ingalill
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Driving after an injury or disease affecting the brain: an analysis of clinical data2018In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 376-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Traffic safety may be affected if a licence holder has experienced illness or injury that may have an impact on cognition. Occupational therapists are involved in assessing cognitive functions that might affect a patients ability to drive a car using different evaluation tools in different countries and settings. The aim of this study was to look at the predictive value of some of the assessment tools available to occupational therapists for making judgements about resuming driving after cognitive impairment due to brain trauma or disease. Method: A retrospective study based on clinical data from 204 patients referred to a specialist department for recommendations on ability to drive after brain injury or disease. All patients underwent three assessments: stroke drivers screening assessment, useful field of view and simulated driving skill. In addition, an on-road assessment was added in 76% of the sample. Results: Useful field of view had the highest sensitivity (78%) and, combined with the results from the simulator, the sensitivity was 87 degrees/o. The specificity for the two methods was 55%. Conclusion: The results from useful field of view and a simulator test combined best predicted the final recommendation from the multi-professional team discussion on which clients should be recommended not to resume driving.

  • 14.
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Turning evidence into practice: Barriers to research use among occupational therapists2015In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Research has demonstrated that occupational therapists generally have a positive attitude regarding the use of evidence in their daily practice and decision-making. In addition, occupational therapists are expected to implement evidencebased practice, which is often understood as equivalent to research. However, evidence-based practice might be difficult to reconcile with occupational therapy from a client-centred focus. This study examines what occupational therapists perceive as barriers to research use and discusses the challenge of clinical implementation.

    Method: This study uses a descriptive cross-sectional design. The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale questionnaire was mailed to 807 randomly selected Swedish occupational therapists. The response rate was 59%.

    Findings: The occupational therapists identified three main barriers to the use of research: insufficient facilities (82%); lack of time to read research (77%); difficulty understanding statistical analyses (75%). Degree of education was shown to affect results; occupational therapists with higher education levels indicated a higher use of research.

    Conclusion: Implementing research in clinical practice is a challenge. Occupational therapists are interested but they lack the optimal prerequisites and time.

  • 15.
    Vessby, Karin
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Participation in occupational therapy research: a literature review2010In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation is a concept that is used and discussed, both within the field of occupational therapy and in other areas. The concept of participation is included in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the Model of Human Occupation. The aim of this study was to investigate how the concept of participation has been used in studies published in peer-reviewed journals. A literature review was performed using the search terms 'occupational therapy' and 'participation'. Papers published in peer-reviewed journals during the period 2004-2006 were included (n = 38). Content analysis was used when analysing the data.

     

    The results show that interview is the most common method of data collection and that the physical field is the clinical field that is most frequently represented in these papers. Three different categories were identified with regard to how the concept of participation has been used. These were client-centredness (n = 11), involvement in the environment (n = 19) and meaningfulness (n = 23). The three categories represent three dimensions of participation and are interpreted as occurring on micro or macro levels. Further research is needed and this review contributes to this development.

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