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  • 1.
    Petersson, A.
    et al.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Garle, M.
    Department of Pharmacology, Huddinge University Hospital, Doping Laboratory, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology .
    Druid, H.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Krantz, P.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Thiblin, I.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjöds v 17, S-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Toxicological findings and manner of death in autopsied users of anabolic androgenic steroids2006In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 241-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim to characterize patterns in toxicological profile and manner of death in deceased users of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), a retrospective autopsy protocol study of 52 deceased users of AAS was undertaken. The AAS users were compared to 68 deceased users of amphetamine and/or heroin who were consecutively tested and found to be negative for AAS. Use of AAS was in the majority of cases (79%) associated with concomitant use of psychotropic substances. AAS-related deaths differed in several respects from deaths among users of heroin or amphetamine, most strikingly with regard to: (a) the median age at death, which was significantly lower for AAS users (24.5 years) than for users of heroin and/or amphetamine (34 and 40 years, respectively), (b) the manner of death, with AAS users dying significantly more often from homicide or suicide than users of other drugs, and (c) the body mass index (BMI), with AAS users exhibiting significantly higher BMI than users of other drugs. These results support the earlier reported association between use of AAS and use of other psychoactive substances. In addition, the data suggest that AAS users are more likely to become involved in incidents leading to violent death and have a higher risk of dying at a younger age than users of other drugs. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Sells, Joanna R.
    et al.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; Uniformed Serv University of Health Science, MD 20814 USA.
    Waters, Andrew J.
    Uniformed Serv University of Health Science, MD 20814 USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie L.
    NIAAA, MD 20814 USA.
    Kwako, Laura E.
    NIAAA, MD 20814 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    George, David T.
    NIAAA, MD 20814 USA.
    Ramchandani, Vijay A.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Characterization of comorbid PTSD in treatment-seeking alcohol dependent inpatients: Severity and personality trait differences2016In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 163, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with alcohol dependence (AD), but little is known about the characteristics of AD treatment-seeking inpatients with PTSD. We examined differences between treatment-seeking alcohol dependent inpatients with and without comorbid PTSD. We hypothesized that those with AD and PTSD would have higher levels of: (1) alcohol use and AD severity; (2) anxiety and mood disorders; (3) neuroticism. Methods: Individuals (N = 411, mean age = 41.7 +/- 10.0 years) with AD were monitored over 30 days in a suburban inpatient alcohol treatment setting. Patients were evaluated to identify AD and comorbid PTSD, mood and anxiety disorders, alcohol use and dependence severity, personality, and aggression. Results: Those with PTSD (19% of the sample) did not differ in the amount of alcohol consumed, but had greater: (1) severity of AD (p = 0.001, d = 0.44); (2) diagnosis of anxiety (p = 0.000, OR = 3.64) and mood (p = 0.000, OR = 4.83) disorders; and (3) levels of neuroticism (p amp;lt; 0.001, d = 0.67) and aggression (p amp;lt; 0.001, d = 0.81). Conclusions: AD patients with comorbid PTSD present a more severe phenotype across AD severity, frequency of anxiety and mood disorders, and levels of neuroticism and aggression. This group may benefit from concurrent treatment of both AD and PTSD. Future research can investigate neuroticism as a potential treatment target. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 3.
    Tjäderborn, Micaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Anna K.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research.
    Zverkova Sandstrom, Tatiana
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hägg, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Regional Jonköping County, Sweden.
    Non-prescribed use of psychoactive prescription drugs among drug-impaired drivers in Sweden2016In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 161, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of non-prescribed drug use among subjects suspected of drug impaired driving with a psychoactive prescription drug, and to identify associated factors. Methods: Subjects investigated for drug-impaired driving in Sweden during 2006-2009 with a confirmed intake of diazepam, flunitrazepam, tramadol, zolpidem or zopiclone were identified using the Swedish Forensic Toxicology Database. Information on dispensed prescription drugs was retrieved from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Non-prescribed use was our outcome, defined as a psychoactive prescription drug intake confirmed by toxicological analysis in a subject by whom it was not dispensed in the 12 months preceding the sampling. Prevalence proportions were calculated for each drug and logistic regression was used to identify associated factors. Results: In total, 2225 subjects were included. The median age (range) was 34 (15-80) years and 1864 (83.8%) subjects were male. Non-prescribed use was found in 1513 subjects (58.7%); for flunitrazepam 103 (76.3%), diazepam 1098 (74.1%), tramadol 192 (40.3%), zopiclone 60 (29.7%), and zolpidem 60 (21.2%) subjects, respectively. Younger age and multiple-substance use were associated with non-prescribed use, whereas ongoing treatment with other psychoactive drugs was negatively associated with non prescribed use. Conclusions: Non-prescribed use of psychoactive prescription drugs was common in subjects suspected of drug-impaired driving and was more frequent for benzodiazepines and tramadol compared to zolpidem and zopiclone. The young and multi-substance users were more likely, whereas subjects with ongoing prescribed treatment with other psychoactive drugs were less likely, to use non-prescribed drugs.

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