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  • 1.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Stord Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Lundervold, Astri
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Posserud, Maj-Britt
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Stable associations between behavioral problems and language impairments across childhood - the importance of pragmatic language problems2014In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 943-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated language function associated with behavior problems, focusing on pragmatics. Scores on the Children’s Communication Checklist Second Edition (CCC-2) in a group of 40 adolescents (12–15 years) identified with externalizing behavior problems (BP) in childhood was compared to the CCC-2 scores in a typically developing comparison group (n=37). Behavioral, emotional and language problems were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and 4 language items, when the children in the BP group were 7–9 years (T1). They were then assessed with the SDQ and the CCC-2 when they were 12–15 years (T2). The BP group obtained poorer scores on 9/10 subscales on the CCC-2, and 70% showed language impairments in the clinical range. Language, emotional and peer problems at T1 were strongly correlated with pragmatic language impairments in adolescence. The findings indicate that assessment of language, especially pragmatics, is vital for follow-up and treatment of behavioral problems in children and adolescents.

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Fears, hyperacusis and musicality in Williams syndrome2006In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 668-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the prevalence of fear and hyperacusis and the possible connections between fear, hyperacusis and musicality in a Swedish sample of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). The study included 38 individuals and a cross-sectional design, with no matched control group. Two persons, who knew the participant well, completed a questionnaire. On reported fears, 58% of the participants scored higher than +2S.D., compared to a psychometric study. Thirteen percent scored above the suggested cut-off for hyperacusis, compared to 2.5% in a psychometric study. Female participants generally had higher reported fears and hyperacusis compared to male participants. There were also startling findings of correlations between reported fears and hyperacusis. This preliminary report supports a hypothesis that fears and anxiety could be associated with hyperacusis in the WS population. A hypothesis that musicality could serve as a protective factor and prevent anxiety, received no or very limited support. A hypothesis that hyperacusis could be connected to a general, readily arousal, tendency in the sympathetic nervous system and could be seen as vulnerability for psychopathology is discussed. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    et al.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Henry, Lucy A.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Messer, David J.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brown, Janice H.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using developmental trajectories to examine verbal and visuospatial short-term memory development in children and adolescents with Williams and Down syndromes2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 3421-3432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation.

  • 4.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI.
    The more you remember the more you decide: Collaborative memory in adolescents with intellectual disability and their assistants2011In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 470-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate collaborative memory in adolescents withintellectual disabilities when collaborating with an assistant, and also the extent to whichdecisiveness is related to individual memory performance.Nineteen students with intellectual disabilities (mean age = 18.5, SD = 0.9) eachcollaborated with a teaching assistant (mean age 40.3, SD = 12.1) familiar from everydaywork in school. Pictures were presented individually. Recognition was performed in twoparts, first individually and thereafter collaboratively. The design involved 2 settings, onenatural (with equal encoding time) and another with equal individual memoryperformance (assistants had shorter encoding time than the students). Results showedcollaborative inhibition in this previously uninvestigated collaboration setting withadolescents with intellectual disabilities and their assistants. The assistants bothperformed higher and decided more than the students with intellectual disabilities inthe natural setting, but not in the equated performance setting. Inhibition was larger in theequated setting. The assistants’ decisiveness was moderately correlated with individualmemory performance. Implications for everyday life are discussed.

  • 5.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Henry, Lucy
    City University of London, England.
    Messer, David
    Open University, England.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    London S Bank University, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Developmental delays in phonological recoding among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 55, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n = 29), WS (n = 25) and typical development (n = 51), all with average mental ages around 6 years. The group with WS, contrary to predictions based on their relatively strong verbal STM and language abilities, showed no evidence for phonological recoding. Those in the group with DS, with weaker verbal STM and language abilities, showed positive evidence for phonological recoding (PSE), but to a lesser degree than the typical group (who showed PSE and WLE). These findings provide new information about the memory systems of these groups of children and adolescents, and suggest that STM processes involving phonological recoding do not fit with the usual expectations of the abilities of children and adolescents with WS and DS. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Messer, David
    Open University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strengths and weaknesses in executive functioning in children with intellectual disability2012In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 600-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in each group. Children with ID performed on par with the MA group on switching, verbal executive-loaded working memory and most fluency tasks, but below the MA group on inhibition, planning, and non-verbal executive-loaded working memory. Children with ID performed below CA comparisons on all the executive tasks. We suggest that children with ID have a specific profile of executive functioning, with MA appropriate abilities to generate new exemplars (fluency) and to switch attention between tasks, but difficulties with respect to inhibiting pre-potent responses, planning, and non-verbal executive-loaded working memory The development of different types of executive functioning skills may, to different degrees, be related to mental age and experience.

  • 7.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm.
    Executive functions in individuals with intellectual disability2010In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1299-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functions in adults with intellectual disability, and compare them to a closely matched control group longitudinally for 5 years. In the Betula database, a group of adults with intellectual disability (ID, n = 46) was defined from measures of verbal and non-verbal IQ. A control group, with two people for every person with intellectual disability (n = 92), was chosen by matching on the following criterion in order of priority: IQ higher than 85, age, sex, sample, level of education, and years of education. Three types of tasks of executive functions were included on two occasions, with 5 years between testing sessions: The Tower of Hanoi, executively loaded dual task versions of word recall, and verbal fluency. Adults with ID showed significant impairments on verbal fluency and on the executively loaded dual task word recall task (at encoding but not at recall). There were no group differences on the Tower of Hanoi. No significant differences between the two test occasions were found. The results are interpreted in terms of individuals with ID having problems with speed of accessing lexical items and difficulties with working memory-related executive control at encoding, which includes shifting between tasks. There are, however, not necessarily problems with inhibition. The dual task results additionally imply that the adults with intellectual disability were more sensitive to strategy interruptions at encoding, but that dividing attention at recall did not have such detrimental effects.

  • 8.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Morris, Susan
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Cowan, Georgia
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Visual search strategies in a shared zone in pedestrians with and without intellectual disability2019In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 94, article id UNSP 103493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with intellectual disability (ID) may find shared zones troublesome to negotiate because of the lack of the traditional clearly defined rules and boundaries. With the built environment identified as a barrier to active travel and community access, it is vital to explore how pedestrians with ID navigate shared zones to ensure that this group is not placed in harms way or discouraged from active travel because of the implications of shared zones. This study investigated the visual strategies of 19 adults with ID and 21 controls who wore head mounted eye trackers in a Shared Zone and at a zebra crossing (as a contrast traffic environment). In total 4750 valid fixations were analysed. Participants with ID fixated on traffic relevant objects at a rate of 68 percent of the control participants. Furthermore, the males with ID were 9(4.4-18.7) times more likely to fixate on non-traffic relevant objects compared with traffic relevant objects, much higher odds than that of females with ID 1.8(0.4-1.7). Zebra crossings appeared to act as a cue, drawing pedestrians visual attention to the traffic environment, with both groups more likely to look at traffic relevant objects on/at the zebra crossing (66%: 34%). Future implementation of shared zones needs to be carefully considered in relation to the safety of road users with ID and their capacity to identify and assess salient environmental information.

  • 9.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 48, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

    Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish.

    METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

    We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading.

    OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

    C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

    These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills.

  • 10.
    Poloczek, Sebastian
    et al.
    Goethe University of Frankfurt, Germany; Centre Research Individual Dev and Adapt Educ Children Risk, Germany.
    Henry, Lucy A.
    City University of London, England.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Buettner, Gerhard
    Goethe University of Frankfurt, Germany; Centre Research Individual Dev and Adapt Educ Children Risk, Germany.
    Maehler, Claudia
    University of Hildesheim, Germany.
    Messer, David J.
    Open University, England.
    Schuchardt, Kirsten
    University of Hildesheim, Germany.
    van der Molen, Mariet J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Strategic verbal rehearsal in adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities: A multi-centre European study2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 58, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a long-held view that verbal short-term memory problems of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) might be due to a deficit in verbal rehearsal. However, the evidence is inconclusive and word length effects as indicator of rehearsal have been criticised. Aim amp; method: The aim of this multi-site European study was to investigate verbal rehearsal in adolescents with mild ID (n = 90) and a comparison group of typically developing children matched individually for mental age (MA, n = 90). The investigation involved: (1) a word length experiment with non-verbal recall using pointing and (2) self-paced inspection times to infer whether verbal strategies were utilised when memorising a set of pictorial items. Results: The word length effect on recall did not interact with group, suggesting that adolescents with ID and MA comparisons used similar verbal strategies, possibly phonological recoding of picture names. The inspection time data suggested that high span individuals in both groups used verbal labelling or single item rehearsal on more demanding lists, as long named items had longer inspection times. Conclusions: The findings suggest that verbal strategy use is not specifically impaired in adolescents with mild ID and is mental age appropriate, supporting a developmental perspective. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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