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  • 1.
    Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tessma, M.K.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Fors, Uno
    Karolinska institutet.
    Virtual Patient Simulation: knowledge gain or knowledge loss?2010In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 562-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Virtual patients (VPs), high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients are powerful educational interventions leading to effective learning and supporting knowledge retention.

    Aim: This study explored the variations in retention with VP versus regular learning activities.

    Method: We conducted a randomized controlled study on early and delayed assessment results of 49 students using VP for learning and examination of haematology and cardiology topics in an Internal Medicine course, by means of a 0–10 scoring rubric.

    Results: The mean difference for early assessment with VP (study – control mean score) was 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96, 1.91; p < 0.001) for haematology and 1.34 (95% CI 0.93, 1.76; p < 0.001) for cardiology. In regular exams, the mean score difference was 2.21 (95% CI 1.3, 3.1; p < 0.001) and 1.52 (95% CI 0.76, 2.28; p < 0.001), respectively. With delayed assessments, the difference in mean score for Web-SP was 1.48 (95% CI 1.09, 1.86; p < 0.001), haematology and 1.16 (95% CI 0.74, 1.58; p < 0.001), cardiology; for regular exams the figures were 1.96 (95% CI 0.93, 2.98; p < 0.001) and 1.74 (95% CI 0.89, 2.58; p < 0.001). The effect size ranged from 0.5 to 0.8.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate better retention with VP than with traditional learning methods.

  • 2.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Behrbohm Fallsberg, M
    Rundquist, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Attitudes among students and teachers on vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum2002In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 286-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Important elements in the curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Link÷ping are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science sections of the curriculum, and horizontal integration between different subject areas. Integration throughout the whole curriculum is time-consuming for both teachers and students and hard work is required for planning, organization and execution. The aim was to assess the importance of vertical and horizontal integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to opinions among students and teachers. In a questionnaire 102 faculty teachers and 106 students were asked about the importance of 14 different components of the undergraduate medical curriculum including vertical and horizontal integration. They were asked to assign between one and six points to each component (6 points = extremely important for the quality of the curriculum, 1 point = unimportant). Students as well as teachers appreciated highly both forms of integration. Students scored horizontal integration slightly but significantly higher than the teachers (median 6 vs 5 points, p=0.009, Mann-Whitney U-test), whereas teachers scored vertical integration higher than students (6 vs 5, p=0.019, Mann-Whitney U-test). Both students and teachers considered horizontal and vertical integration to be highly important components of the undergraduate medical programme. We believe both kinds of integration support problem-based learning and stimulate deep and lifelong learning and suggest that integration should always be considered deeply when a new curriculum is planned for undergraduate medical education.

  • 3.
    Dahle, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Behrbohm Fallsberg, M
    Rundquist, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Pros and cons of vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum: Examples and experiences from Link÷ping, Sweden2002In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 280-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem-based learning (PBL), combined with early patient contact, multiprofessional education and emphasis on development of communications skills, has become the basis for the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Link÷ping (FHS), Sweden, which was started in 1986. Important elements in the curriculum are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science parts of the curriculum and horizontal integration between different subject areas. This article discusses the importance of vertical integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to experiences from the Faculty of Health Sciences in Link÷ping, and also give examples on how it has been implemented during the latest 15 years. Results and views put forward in published articles concerning vertical integration within undergraduate medical education are discussed in relation to the experiences in Link÷ping. Vertical integration between basic sciences and clinical medicine in a PBL setting has been found to stimulate profound rather than superficial learning, and thereby stimulates better understanding of important biomedical principles. Integration probably leads to better retention of knowledge and the ability to apply basic science principles in the appropriate clinical context. Integration throughout the whole curriculum entails a lot of time and work in respect of planning, organization and execution. The teachers have to be deeply involved and enthusiastic and have to cooperate over departmental borders, which may produce positive spin-off effects in teaching and research but also conflicts that have to be resolved. The authors believe vertical integration supports PBL and stimulates deep and lifelong learning.

  • 4.
    Darras, Kathryn E.
    et al.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada; Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    de Bruin, Anique B. H.
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Nicolaou, Savvas
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Dahlström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    van Merrienboer, Jeroen
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Forster, Bruce B.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Is there a superior simulator for human anatomy education? How virtual dissection can overcome the anatomic and pedagogic limitations of cadaveric dissection2018In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 752-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educators must select the best tools to teach anatomy to future physicians and traditionally, cadavers have always been considered the "gold standard" simulator for living anatomy. However, new advances in technology and radiology have created new teaching tools, such as virtual dissection, which provide students with new learning opportunities. Virtual dissection is a novel way of studying human anatomy through patient computed tomography (CT) scans. Through touchscreen technology, students can work together in groups to "virtually dissect" the CT scans to better understand complex anatomic relationships. This article presents the anatomic and pedagogic limitations of cadaveric dissection and explains what virtual dissection is and how this new technology may be used to overcome these limitations.

  • 5.
    Fallsberg, MB
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Student attitudes towards the goals of an inter-professional training ward.2000In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 21, p. 576-581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Fyrenius, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology.
    Bergdahl, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology.
    Lectures in problem-based learning - Why, when and how? An example of interactive lecturing that stimulates meaningful learning2005In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though opinions differ as to whether lecturing is compatible with problem-based learning (PBL) or not, lectures are still a common form of instruction in PBL curricula. This paper discusses the lecture in the framework of theories of learning in general and the medical problem-based learning tradition in particular. An example of how theories of learning can be implemented in the lecture hall is presented. Theories that underpin PBL as an educational philosophy rather than as a method of instruction are reviewed. A lecture form, organized in introductory, in depth and application lectures, that responds to important factors for stimulating deep processing of knowledge and meaningful learning is discussed. Examples of and practical points about how to renew and restructure lectures in a way that counteracts surface approaches to learning, teacher centring and student passivity are presented. We argue that, with proper awareness of possible drawbacks of the large format, lectures can be used as valuable tools for learning also in a PBL curriculum.

  • 7.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Persson, Anne-Christine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fyrenius, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Obituray: Professor Björn Bergdahl - a pioneer in Swedish medical education2010In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 788-788Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Professor Björn Bergdahl, MD, one of the founders of the Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) at Linköping University, passed away in March 2009. He left us all in grief and disbelief. How could we manage without him?

    Professor Bergdahl graduated with a degree in medicine from Lund University and was recruited to the internal medicine clinic at the University Hospital of Linköping in 1968. After completing his postgraduate studies, he began to teach medical students in 1977. This was the start of a life-long commitment to medical education. He was the first clinical teacher in Sweden ever to be promoted to the position of professor on scientific as well as teaching merits....

  • 8.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Hendry, G.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Hultberg, J
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Plos, K.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rydmark, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tobin, G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Säljö, R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Learning to learn and learning to teach - Introduction to studies in higher education2008In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 30, no 8, p. e239-e245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    How students are introduced to their studies will affect the quality of learning. This project deals with tools for lifelong learning to increase students' awareness of learning how to learn. In parallel to an introductory course for students, a course for teachers was given with a focus on tutoring students.

    AIMS:

    To evaluate an interprofessional transition course for first-year health science students, the LearnAble project, and a teachers' course aiming to support students to be successful in their learning.

    METHOD:

    The project was followed up by a computer-based course evaluation, reflective journals, the Learning Process Questionnaire and the Approaches to Teaching Inventory. The questionnaires were distributed before and after the courses. Teachers (n = 31) and students (n = 270) in two courses from different health educations participated.

    RESULTS:

    Students' approaches to the course and to learning could be described as technical/reproductive, seeking for an identity or as reflective/transformative. The evaluation indicates that a deep approach to the studies among the students was related to higher age and female gender. Teachers with earlier pedagogical education supported students more in the attempts to question their own understanding.

    CONCLUSION:

    The most obvious result was the positive impact of being a tutor for a group of students in parallel to studying pedagogy.

     

  • 9.
    Lindgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Brannstrom, Thomas
    Umeå University.
    Hanse, Eric
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sandler, Stellan
    Uppsala University.
    Tidefelt, Ulf
    University of Örebro.
    Donner, Jakob
    Lund University.
    Medical education in Sweden2011In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 798-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 51/2 year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  • 10.
    Lumma-Sellenthin, Antje
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Talking with patients and peers: Medical students difficulties with learning communication skills2009In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 528-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient-centered communication skills, such as an empathic attitude towards patients and a holistic perspective on health, are difficult to acquire. Designing effective courses requires better understanding of the difficulties that students perceive with learning to talk with patients Aims: The study aimed at exploring students common difficulties with learning patient-centered communication skills. Methods: Group discussions about student-patient interviews were videotaped and analyzed with regard to issues that students perceived as difficult and to their reflections about these difficulties. Results: The students reported feeling intrusive as they explored the patients psychosocial situation. They avoided being empathic and felt insecure about coping adequately with emotionally loaded topics. Their difficulties were mainly due to insufficient understanding of the functional relations between psychosocial issues and health conditions. Moreover, students were insecure concerning the function of affective feedback in the diagnostic process. However, the group discussions generated a language for analyzing and structuring interviews that helped develop the students professional identities. Conclusions: Students experienced moral qualms about applying major aspects of patient-centered interviewing. Instruction in communication skills should aim at filling the students knowledge gaps and fostering their awareness and expression of emotional perceptions. Long-term relationships with patients could help develop patient-centered communication.

  • 11.
    Persson, Anne-Christine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fyrenius, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bergdahl, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Perspectives on using multimedia scenarios in a PBL medical curriculum2010In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 766-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1999, the Faculty of Health Sciences at Linköping University, Sweden, started up a process of replacing text-based problem-based learning (PBL) scenarios with web-based multimedia-enhanced scenarios. This article brings together three studies of the results of this process and the experience gained from 10 years of implementation work. Results and conclusions: Adding multimedia to PBL scenarios makes them more realistic and thereby more motivating and stimulating for the student to process. The group process is not disrupted by the introduction of the computer in the group room. It is important to challenge the students by varying the scenarios perspective and design in order to get away from cue-seeking behaviors that might jeopardize a deep approach to learning. Scrutinizing all scenarios in a PBL curriculum can be used as a tool for improvement and renewal of the entire curriculum.

  • 12.
    Rogers, Gary
    et al.
    School of Medicine and Health Institute for the Development of Education and Scholarship (Health IDEAS), Griffith University , Gold Coast , Australia..
    Thistlethwaite, Jill
    School of Communication, University of Technology , Sydney , Australia..
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Grymompre, Ruby
    College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba , Manitoba , Canada..
    Moran, Monica
    School of Human Health and Social Sciences, Central Queensland University , Rockhampton , Australia..
    Samarasekera, Duepa
    Centre for Medical Education (CenMED), National University of Singapore , Singapore , Singapore.
    International consensus statement on the assessment of interprofessional learning outcomes.2017In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 347-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory frameworks around the world mandate that health and social care professional education programs graduate practitioners who have the competence and capability to practice effectively in interprofessional collaborative teams. Academic institutions are responding by offering interprofessional education (IPE); however, there is as yet no consensus regarding optimal strategies for the assessment of interprofessional learning (IPL). The Program Committee for the 17th Ottawa Conference in Perth, Australia in March, 2016, invited IPE champions to debate and discuss the current status of the assessment of IPL. A draft statement from this workshop was further discussed at the global All Together Better Health VIII conference in Oxford, UK in September, 2016. The outcomes of these deliberations and a final round of electronic consultation informed the work of a core group of international IPE leaders to develop this document. The consensus statement we present here is the result of the synthesized views of experts and global colleagues. It outlines the challenges and difficulties but endorses a set of desired learning outcome categories and methods of assessment that can be adapted to individual contexts and resources. The points of consensus focus on pre-qualification (pre-licensure) health professional students but may be transferable into post-qualification arenas.

  • 13.
    Silén, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wirell, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fyrénius, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Smedby, Örjan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Advanced 3D visualization in student-centred medical education2008In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 30, no 5, p. e115-e124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare students have difficulties achieving a conceptual understanding of 3D anatomy and misconceptions about physiological phenomena are persistent and hard to address. 3D visualization has improved the possibilities of facilitating understanding of complex phenomena. A project was carried out in which high quality 3D visualizations using high-resolution CT and MR images from clinical research were developed for educational use. Instead of standard stacks of slices (original or multiplanar reformatted) volume-rendering images in the quicktime VR format that enables students to interact intuitively were included. Based on learning theories underpinning problem based learning, 3D visualizations were implemented in the existing curricula of the medical and physiotherapy programs. The images/films were used in lectures, demonstrations and tutorial sessions. Self-study material was also developed. AIMS: To support learning efficacy by developing and using 3D datasets in regular health care curricula and enhancing the knowledge about possible educational value of 3D visualizations in learning anatomy and physiology. METHOD: Questionnaires were used to investigate the medical and physiotherapy students' opinions about the different formats of visualizations and their learning experiences. RESULTS: The 3D images/films stimulated the students will to understand more and helped them to get insights about biological variations and different organs size, space extent and relation to each other. The virtual dissections gave a clearer picture than ordinary dissections and the possibility to turn structures around was instructive. CONCLUSIONS: 3D visualizations based on authentic, viable material point out a new dimension of learning material in anatomy, physiology and probably also pathophysiology. It was successful to implement 3D images in already existing themes in the educational programs. The results show that deeper knowledge is required about students' interpretation of images/films in relation to learning outcomes. There is also a need for preparations and facilitation principles connected to the use of 3D visualizations.

  • 14.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What does it mean to be a mentor in medical education?2011In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 33, no 8, p. E423-E428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ackground: Mentor programmes are becoming increasingly common in undergraduate education. However, the meaning attached to being a mentor varies significantly. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAim: The aim of this study is to explore how teachers in medical and dental education understand their role as mentors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: Twenty mentors in two different mentor programmes for undergraduate medical and dental students were interviewed. The transcripts were analysed using a phenomenographic approach. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: The findings comprise three qualitatively different ways of understanding what it means to be a mentor, which are described as: (1) a mentor is someone who can answer questions and give advice, (2) a mentor is someone who shares what it means to be a doctor/dentist, and (3) a mentor is someone who listens and stimulates reflection. The way the mentors understood their role also affected what they did as mentors, their relationships with their mentees and their perceived benefits as mentors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Being a mentor can be perceived in qualitatively different ways also within the same mentor programme. This understanding affects the mentors actions, their relationships with their mentees and their perceived benefits of being a mentor. Awareness of ones own understanding is important in improving practices and the findings of this study can be used by mentors, teachers and educational developers to facilitate improved effectiveness in mentor programmes, both for mentors and mentees.

  • 15.
    Tillander, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Nordqvist, P.
    Melerit Medical AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Skarman, E.
    Melerit Medical AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Ola
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    A virtual reality trauma simulator2004In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 189-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have evaluated a trauma simulator based on virtual reality techniques. Ten surgeons and 15 medical students performed distal locking of a femoral nail (A). Furthermore, 10 medical students performed simulated osteosynthesis of a femoral neck fracture (B). Total surgery time (A) (mean value) was shorter for surgeons (108 s) compared with students (157 s) at the first (p = 0.033), second (102 respectively 138 s, p = 0.13) and third (96 respectively 160 s, p = 0.15) operation. Total fluoroscopy time (A) (mean value) was shorter for surgeons compared with students at the first (45 respectively 89s p = 0.001), second (48 respectively 83 s, p = 0.02) and third (50 respectively 107 s, p = 0.10) operation. The positioning of the hip nails (B) improved between the first and last trial. Total surgery and fluoroscopy time were reduced. All participants thought that this and similar simulators should be part of the programme and that this simulator would be helpful if they were about to learn the procedures).

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