liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 24 of 24
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Decisions on Inclusion in the Swedish Basic Health Care Package - Roles of Cost-Effectiveness and Need2003In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inclusion or not of a treatment strategy in the publicly financed health care is really a matter of prioritisation. In Sweden priority setting decisions are governed by law in which it is stated that decisions should be guided by firstly the principle of need and secondly the principle of cost-effectiveness. Objective: The purpose of the paper is to discuss and illustrate the roles of need and cost-effectiveness in decisions on inclusion or not of treatment strategies in the publicly financed health care. Methods: The theoretical backgrounds of need and cost-effectiveness are discussed in short, both with respect to their meaning and to their potential roles in decisions on priority setting. Four treatment strategies, Viagra, Rivastigmine, statins, and lung transplants, are analysed with respect to whether either cost-effectiveness or need, or both, seem to have played a role in the decisions of inclusion or not in the basic health care package. Results: Both need and cost-effectiveness are important and should be important aspects when making decisions on priority setting. From the examples of the four treatment strategies it seems that decisions are almost exclusively made with reference to the principle of need. Conclusions: The most evident conclusion to be drawn from this study is that decisions on priority setting are almost solely based on the principle of need. This implies that the principle of cost-effectiveness is given very little space, which is a problem as this means an obvious risk of inefficient resource use.

  • 2.
    Grit, Kor
    et al.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    Zuiderent-Jerak, Teun
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making Markets in Long-Term Care: Or How a Market Can Work by Being Invisible2017In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 242-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Western countries have introduced market principles in health- care. The newly introduced financial instrument of ‘‘care-intensity packages’’ in the Dutch long-term care sector fit this development since they have some character- istics of a market device. However, policy makers and care providers positioned these instruments as explicitly not belonging to the general trend of marketisation in healthcare. Using a qualitative case study approach, we study the work that the two providers have done to fit these instruments to their organisations and how that enables and legitimatises market development. Both providers have done various types of work that could be classified as market development, including creating accounting systems suitable for markets, redefining public values in the context of markets, and starting commercial initiatives. Paradoxically, denying the existence of markets for long-term care and thus avoiding ideological debates on the marketi- sation of healthcare has made the use of market devices all the more likely. Making the market invisible seems to be an operative element in making the market work. Our findings suggest that Dutch long-term care reform points to the need to study the ‘making’ rather than the ‘liberalising’ of markets and that the study of healthcare markets should not be confined to those practices that explicitly label themselves as such.

  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From Needs to Health Care Needs2014In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 22-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One generally considered plausible way to allocate resources in health care is according to people’s needs. In this paper I focus on a somewhat overlooked issue, that is the conceptual structure of health care needs. It is argued that what conceptual understanding of needs one has is decisive in the assessment of what qualifies as a health care need and what does not. The aim for this paper is a clarification of the concept of health care need with a starting point in the general philosophical discussion about needs. I outline three approaches to the concept of need and argue that they all share the same conceptual underpinnings. The concept of need is then analyzed in terms of a subject x needing some object y in order to achieve some goal z. I then discuss the relevant features of the object y and the goal z which make a given need qualify as a health care need and not just a need for anything.

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Culture and Aesthetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Juth, Niklas
    LIME, Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Principles of Need and the Aggregation Thesis2017In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principles of need are constantly referred to in health care priority setting. The common denominator for any principle of need is that it will ascribe some kind of special normative weight to people being worse off. However, this common ground does not answer the question how a plausible principle of need should relate to the aggregation of benefits across individuals. Principles of need are sometimes stated as being incompatible with aggregation and sometimes characterized as accepting aggregation in much the same way as utilitarians do. In this paper we argue that if one wants to take principles of need seriously both of these positions have unreasonable implications. We then characterize and defend a principle of need consisting of sufficientarian elements as well as prioritarian which avoids these unreasonable implications.

  • 5.
    Holm, S
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Hlth & Soc, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Manchester, Ctr Social Eth & Policy, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England Univ Bergen, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Hlth Care, Div Gen Practice, Bergen, Norway.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    Norheim, OF
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Hlth & Soc, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Manchester, Ctr Social Eth & Policy, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England Univ Bergen, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Hlth Care, Div Gen Practice, Bergen, Norway.
    Access to health care in the scandinavian countries: Ethical aspects1999In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 321-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health care systems are fairly similar in the Scandinavian countries. The exact details vary, but in all three countries the system is almost exclusively publicly funded through taxation, and most (or all) hospitals are also publicly owned and managed. The countries also have a fairly strong primary care sector (even though it varies between the countries), with family physicians to various degrees acting as gatekeepers to specialist services. In Denmark most of the GP services are free. For the patient in Norway and Sweden there are out-of-pocket co-payments for GP consultations, with upper limits, but consultations for children are free. Hospital treatment is free in Denmark while the other countries use a system with out-of-pocket co-payment. There is a very strong public commitment to access to high quality health care for all. Solidarity and equality form the ideological basis for the Scandinavian welfare state. Means testing, for instance, has been widely rejected in the Scandinavian countries on the grounds that public services should not stigmatise any particular group. Solidarity also means devoting special consideration to the needs of those who have less chance than others of making their voices heard or exercising their rights. Issues of limited access are now, however, challenging the thinking about a health care system based on solidarity.

  • 6.
    Jaarsma, Pier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement2012In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 20-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodiversity has remained a controversial concept over the last decade. In its broadest sense the concept of neurodiversity regards atypical neurological development as a normal human difference. The neurodiversity claim contains at least two different aspects. The first aspect is that autism, among other neurological conditions, is first and foremost a natural variation. The other aspect is about conferring rights and in particular value to the neurodiversity condition, demanding recognition and acceptance. Autism can be seen as a natural variation on par with for example homosexuality. The broad version of the neurodiversity claim, covering low-functioning as well as high-functioning autism, is problematic. Only a narrow conception of neurodiversity, referring exclusively to high-functioning autists, is reasonable. We will discuss the effects of DSM categorization and the medical model for high functioning autists. After a discussion of autism as a culture we will analyze various possible strategies for the neurodiversity movement to claim extra resources for autists as members of an underprivileged culture without being labelled disabled or as having a disorder. We will discuss their vulnerable status as a group and what obligation that confers on the majority of neurotypicals.

  • 7.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    The significance of the goal of health care for the setting of priorities2003In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to argue for the significance of a clarified goal of health care for the setting of priorities. Three arguments are explored. First, assessment of needs becomes necessary in so far as the principle of need should guide the priority-setting. The concept of health care need includes a goal component. This component should for rational reasons be identical with the goal of health care. Second, in order to use resources efficiently it is necessary to assess the effects of health care. It is not, however, a question of assessing whether there is an effect but a question of assessing whether there is the right effect. And what constitutes the right effect can only be determined in relation to the goal of the enterprise. Third, the health sector involves several groups of actors such as politicians, administrators, doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, educationists and patients. It is common knowledge that successful teamwork requires an understanding of a common goal. The article ends with an example of a goal chosen from ethics.

  • 8.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kidney sales and the analogy with dangerous employment2015In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proponents of permitting living kidney sales often argue as follows. Many jobs involve significant risks; people are and should be free to take these risks in exchange for money; the risks involved in giving up a kidney are no greater than the risks involved in acceptable hazardous jobs; so people should be free to give up a kidney for money, too. This paper examines this frequently invoked but rarely analysed analogy. Two objections are raised. First, it is far from clear that kidney sales and dangerous jobs involve comparable risks on an appropriately broad comparison. Second, and more importantly, even if they do involve comparable risks it does not follow that kidney sales must be permitted because dangerous jobs are. The analogy assumes that kidney sales are banned for paternalistic reasons. But there may be other, non-paternalistic reasons for the ban. And paternalists, too, can consistently defend the ban even if kidney sales are no riskier than occupations that they find acceptable. Soft paternalists may want to protect would-be vendors from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen. Egalitarian hard paternalists may want to protect already badly off vendors from further worsening their situation. For neither species of paternalist is the size of the risk prevented decisive. I conclude that the analogy with dangerous jobs, while rhetorically powerful, pulls little real argumentative weight. Future debates on living kidney sales should therefore proceed without it.

  • 9.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Editorial Material: Ill Health or Illness: A Reply to Hofmann2013In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 298-305Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I respond to Bjorn Hofmanns criticism of some elements in my theory of health. Hofmanns main objective is to question "Nordenfelts basic premise that you can be ill without having negative first-person experiences, and to investigate the consequences of abandoning the premise." One of Hofmanns critical points is that my theory of health does not lend voice to the individual. My response is essentially conducted in four steps: (1) I question the aim of conceptual analysis that Hofmann proposes for the analysis of the notion of health. (2) I maintain that my analysis, in spite of Hofmanns contention, lends voice to the individual. It does so via my notion of subjective illness but also via my notion of vital goal. (3) I argue that conditions, such as coma, paralysis and mania are salient instances of ill health and that these may become neglected if the use of the terms "ill" and "illness" is restricted to instances where negative subjective experiences are present. (4) I rehearse my main arguments for selecting disability as the core element of ill health and respond to Hofmanns contention that persons who are in great pain can sometimes nevertheless perform perfectly.

  • 10.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Tema Health and Society.
    On chronic illness and quality of life1995In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 3, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    On the goals of medicine, health enhancement and social welfare2001In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bengt Brulde in his article "The Goals of Medicine. Towards a Unified Theory'' has proposed a normative theory of the goals of medicine within which the concept of quality of life plays a crucial role. In Brulde's analysis, however, the very concept of medicine is deliberately left quite vague and it is therefore difficult to see how the goals of medicine are related to the goals of closely allied enterprises such as health promotion and social welfare. In this reply I therefore propose an analysis of these related conceptual areas. I do this mainly in two respects. (1) Following the nomenclature in a previously published article (Nordenfelt, 1998) I propose a systematic conceptual framework for all varieties of health enhancement and distinguish different notions of medicine within this framework. A consequence of this analysis is, for instance, that the means and also the immediate goals of medicine in its broadest sense are more diversified than the means and immediate goals of medicine in its narrowest sense. (2) From this position I expand the topic further by comparing medicine and health enhancement with social welfare and try to trace the basic features between - as well as the common properties of - these different enterprises.

  • 12.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Nature of Vital Goals: Comment on Andrew Bloodworths Review of Rationality and Compulsion in Health Care Analysis(ISSN 1065-3058), vol 17, issue 1, pp 92-942009In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 92-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    The varieties of dignity2004In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of a research project on Dignity and Older Europeans ( Fifth Framework (Quality of Life) Programme(3)) I explore in this paper a set of notions of human dignity. The general concept of dignity is introduced and characterized as a position on a value scale and it is further specified through its relations to the notions of right, respect and self-respect. I present four kinds of dignity and spell out their differences: the dignity of merit, the dignity of moral or existential stature, the dignity of identity and the universal human dignity (Menschenwurde). Menschenwurde pertains to all human beings to the same extent and cannot be lost as long as the persons exist. The dignity of merit depends on social rank and position. There are many species of this kind of dignity and it is very unevenly distributed among human beings. The dignity of merit exists in degrees and it can come and go. The dignity of moral stature is the result of the moral deeds of the subject, likewise it can be reduced or lost through his or her immoral deeds. This kind of dignity is tied to the idea of a dignified character and of dignity as a virtue. The dignity of moral stature is a dignity of degree and it is also unevenly distributed. The dignity of identity is tied to the integrity of the subject's body and mind, and in many instances, although not always, also dependent on the subject's self-image. This dignity can come and go as a result of the deeds of fellow human beings and also as a result of changes in the subject's body and mind.

  • 14.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Privacy by design in personal health monitoring2015In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 148-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  • 15.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Remote monitoring or close encounters?: Ethical considerations in priority setting regarding telecare2014In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 325-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly in society is growing rapidly, leading to increasing health care costs. New remote monitoring technologies are expected to lower these costs by reducing the number of close encounters with health care professionals, for example the number of visits to health care centres. In this paper, I discuss issues of priority setting raised by this expectation. As a starting-point, I analyse the recent debate on principles for priority setting in Sweden. The Swedish debate illustrates that developing an approach to priority setting is an ongoing process. On the basis of this analysis, I conclude that several different ethical principles, and specifications of these principles, can be appealed to for giving priority—over close encounters—to a large-scale introduction of remote monitoring technologies in health care services to elderly people, but also that many specifications can be appealed to against giving such priority. I propose that given the different views on principles, it is necessary to develop fair procedures of deliberation on these principles and their application, in particular in order to reach agreement on exactly how much resources should be allocated to remote monitoring and how much to close encounters. I also present a few points to consider in a large-scale introduction of remote monitoring.

  • 16.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Web-Rhetoric of Companies Offering Home-Based Personal Health Monitoring2012In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I investigate the web-rhetoric of companies offering homebasedpersonal health monitoring to patients and elderly people. Two main rhetoricalmethods are found, namely a reference to practical benefits and a use ofprestige words like ‘‘quality of life’’ and ‘‘independence’’. I interpret the practicalbenefits in terms of instrumental values and the prestige words in terms of finalvalues. I also reconstruct the arguments on the websites in terms of six differenttypes of argument. Finally, I articulate a general critique of the arguments, namelythat the websites neglect the context of use of personal health monitoring technologies.Whether or not a technology is good depends on the use of the technologyby a particular individual in a particular context. The technology is not good–orbad–in itself. I support this critique with a number of more specific arguments suchas the risk for reduced personal contact. For some elderly people social contact withcare providers is more valuable than the independent living made possible byremote monitoring, for others independence is more important.

  • 17.
    Palm, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Declaration of Healthy Dependence: The case of home care2014In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 385-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging populations have become a major concern in the developed world and are expected to require novel care strategies. Public policies, health-care regimes and technology developers alike stress the need for a more individualized care to meet the increased demand for care services in response to demographic change. Increasingly, care services are offered to individuals with diseases and or disabilities in their homes by means of Personalized Health-Monitoring (PHM) technologies. PHM-based home care is typically portrayed as the key to a cost-effective future care that better can accommodate the needs of an aging population and promote care recipients’ independence. In light of the emerging technology-based home care, this article sets forth to investigate the significance and implications of a strong emphasis on independence in relation to this novel care form. Notions of independence as used by care planners, care providers and technology developers are examined in relation to ICT-based home care and the reasonableness of independence as an aim for future health-care is critically discussed. In conclusion, the need for a shift from a strong emphasis on independence to a right to healthy dependence is advocated.

  • 18.
    Palm, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Who cares?: Moral obligations in formal and informal care provision in the light of ICT-based home care2013In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 171-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aging population is often taken to require a profound reorganization of the prevailing health care system. In particular, a more cost-effective care system is warranted and ICT-based home care is often considered a promising alternative. Modern health care devices admit a transfer of patients with rather complex care needs from institutions to the home care setting. With care recipients set up with health monitoring technologies at home, spouses and children are likely to become involved in the caring process and informal caregivers may have to assist kin-persons with advanced care needs by means of sophisticated technology. This paper investigates some of the ethical implications of a near-future shift from institutional care to technology-assisted home care and the subsequent impact on the care recipient and formal- and informal care providers.

  • 19.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Hamlin, Sven
    GRI Göteborgs universitet.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    Profitable exchanges for scientists: The case of Swedish human embryonic stem cell research2007In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 291-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article two inter-related issues concerning the ongoing commercialisation of biomedical research are analyzed. One aim is to explain how scientists and clinicians at Swedish public institutions can make profits, both commercially and scientifically, by controlling rare human biological material, like embryos and embryonic stem cell lines. This control in no way presupposes legal ownership or other property rights as an initial condition. We show how ethically sensitive material (embryos and stem cell lines) have been used in Sweden as a foundation for a commercial stem cell enterprise-despite all official Swedish strictures against commercialisation in this area. We also show how political decisions may amplify the value of controlling this kind of biological material. Another aim of the article is to analyze and discuss the meaning of this kind of academic commercial enterprise in a wider context of research funding strategies. A conclusion that is drawn is that the academic turn to commercial funding sources is dependent on the decline of public funding. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 20.
    Sandman, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The (Ir)relevance of Group Size in Health Care Priority Setting: A Reply to Juth2017In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to handle orphan drugs for rare diseases is a pressing problem in current health-care. Due to the group size of patients affecting the cost of treatment, they risk being disadvantaged in relation to existing cost-effectiveness thresholds. In an article by Niklas Juth it has been argued that it is irrelevant to take indirectly operative factors like group size into account since such a compensation would risk discounting the use of cost, a relevant factor, altogether. In this article we analyze Juths argument and observe that we already do compensate for indirectly operative factors, both outside and within cost-effectiveness evaluations, for formal equality reasons. Based on this we argue that we have reason to set cost-effectiveness thresholds to integrate equity concerns also including formal equality considerations. We find no reason not to compensate for group size to the extent we already compensate for other factors. Moreover, groups size implying a systematic disadvantage also on a global scale, i.e. taking different aspects of the health condition of patients suffering from rare diseases into account, will provide strong reason for why group size is indeed relevant to compensate for (if anything).

  • 21.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Discounting, Preferences, and Paternalism in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis2012In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 297-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the cost effectiveness of health care programmes, health economists typically presume that distant events should be given less weight than present events. This article examines the moral reasonableness of arguments advanced for positive discounting in costeffectiveness analysis both from an intergenerational and an intrapersonal perspective and assesses if arguments are equally applicable to health and monetary outcomes. The article concludes that behavioral effects related to time preferences give little or no reason for why society at large should favour the present over the future when making intergenerational choices regarding health. The strongest argument for discounting stems from the combined argument of diminishing marginal utility in the presence of growth. However, this hinges on the assumption of actual growth in the relevant good. Moreover, current modern democracy may be insufficiently sensitive to the concerns of future generations. The second part of the article categorises preference failures (which justify paternalistic responses) into two distinct groups, myopic and acratic. The existence of these types of preference failures makes elicited time preferences of little normative relevance when making decisions regarding the social discount rate, even in an intrapersonal context. As with intergenerational discounting, the combined arguments of growth and diminishing marginal utility offer the strongest arguments for discounting in the intrapersonal context. However, there is no prima facie reason to assume that this argument should apply equally to health and monetary values. To be sure, selecting an approach towards discounting health is a complex matter. However, the life-ordeath implications of any approach require that the discussion not be downplayed to merely a technical matter for economists to settle.

  • 22.
    Vogel, Else
    Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Clinical specificities in obesity care: The transformations and dissolution of ‘Will’ and ‘Drives’2016In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public debate about who or what is to blame for the rising rates of obesity and overweight shifts between two extreme opinions. The first posits overweight as the result of a lack of individual will, the second as the outcome of bodily drives, potentially triggered by the environment. Even though apparently clashing, these positions are in fact two faces of the same liberal coin. When combined, drives figure as a complication on the road to health, while a strong will should be able to counter obesity. Either way, the body's propensity to eat is to be put under control. Drawing on fieldwork in several obesity clinics and prevention sites in the Netherlands, this paper first traces how this 'logic of control' presents itself in clinical practices targeted at overweight people, and then goes on to explore how these practices move beyond that logic. Using the concepts of 'will' and 'drives' as analytical tools, I sketch several modes of ordering reality in which bodies, subjects, food and the environment are configured in different ways. In this way it appears that in clinical practices the terms found in public discourse take on different meanings and may even lose all relevance. The analysis reveals a richness of practiced ideals. The paper argues, finally, that making visible these alternative modes of ordering opens up a space for normative engagements with obesity care that move beyond the logic of control and its critiques.

  • 23.
    Yuksekdag, Yusuf
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Health Without Care? Vulnerability, Medical Brain Drain, and Health Worker Responsibilities in Underserved Contexts2018In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 17-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a consensus that the effects of medical brain drain, especially in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, ought to be perceived as more than a simple misfortune. Temporary restrictions on the emigration of health workers from the region is one of the already existing policy measures to tackle the issue - while such a restrictive measure brings about the need for quite a justificatory work. A recent normative contribution to the debate by Gillian Brock provides a fruitful starting point. In the first step of her defence of emigration restrictions, Brock provides three reasons why skilled workers themselves would hold responsibilities to assist with respect to vital needs of their compatriots. These are fair reciprocity, duty to support vital institutions, and attending to the unintended harmful consequences of one's actions. While the first two are explained and also largely discussed in the literature, the third requires an explication on how and on which basis skilled workers would have a responsibility as such. In this article, I offer a vulnerability approach with its dependency aspect that may account for why the health workers in underserved contexts would have a responsibility to attend to the unintended side effects of their actions that may lead to a vital risk of harm for the population. I discuss HIV/AIDS care in Zimbabwe as a case in point in order to show that local health workers may have responsibilities to assist the population who are vulnerable to their mobility.

  • 24.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Who am I? When do "I" become another? An analytic exploration of identities, sameness and difference, genes and genomes.2007In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the impact of genetics and genomics on issues of identity and what do we mean when we speak of identity? This paper explores how certain concepts of identity used in philosophy can be brought together in a multi-layered concept of identity. It discusses the concepts of numerical, qualitative, personal and genetic identity-over-time as well as rival concepts of genomic identity-over-time. These are all understood as layers in the multilayered concept of identity. Furthermore, the paper makes it clear that our understanding of genomic identity and the importance attached to genomic sameness-over-time matters for the ethical questions raised by certain new gene technologies.

1 - 24 of 24
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf