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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system - A field study2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway. The results show that drivers look at the system for 5-8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (amp;gt;2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice. All in all, the eco-driving support system under investigation is not likely to have a strong negative impact on glance behaviour. However, there is room for improvements. We recommend that eco-driving information is integrated with the speedometer, that optional activation of sound alerts for intermittent information is made available, and that the pop-up duration should be extended to facilitate self-regulation of information intake. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Chen, Janice D.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Parsons, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Buzzard, Jennifer
    Hollywood Hospital, Australia .
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 398-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessors experience in postural risk assessments.

  • 3.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Chen, Janice D.
    National University of Singapore Hospital, Singapore.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Managing childrens postural risk when using mobile technology at home: Challenges and strategies2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 51, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining the musculoskeletal health of children using mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) at home presents a challenge. The physical environment influences postures during ICT use and can-contribute to musculoskeletal complaints. Few studies have assessed postures of children using ICT in home environments. The present study investigated the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scores determined by 16 novice and 16 experienced raters. Each rater viewed 11 videotaped scenarios of a child using two types of mobile ICT at home. The Grand Scores and Action Levels determined by study participants were compared to those of an ergonomist experienced in postural assessment. All postures assessed were rated with an Action Level of 2 or above; representing a postural risk that required further investigation and/or intervention. The sensitivity of RULA to assess some of the unconventional postures adopted by children in the home is questioned. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Degerman, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conceptualising learning from resilient performance: A scoping literature review2024In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 115, article id 104165Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilient performance is a crucial characteristic of complex socio-technical systems, enabling them to sustain essential functionality during changing or stressful conditions. Resilience Engineering (RE), a sub-field of safety research, focuses on this perspective of resilience. RE emphasises its “cornerstone model”, presenting the REsystem goals of “anticipating, monitoring, responding and learning”. The cornerstone of learning remains fragmented and undertheorized in the existing literature. This paper aims to enrich RE research and its practical implications by developing a nuanced and comprehensive understanding of the role of learning from resilient performance. To achieve this aim, a scoping literature review was conducted to assess how learning is conceptualised in the RE literature and the theoretical foundations on which previous work rests. The main findings show that RE researchers view learning as the process of understanding the system, sharing knowledge, and re-designing system properties. The application of established learning theories is limited. This paper contributes to research by proposing an organisational process for the RE cornerstone of learning, paving the way for deeper discussions in future studies about learning from resilient performance within complex sociotechnical systems. 

  • 5.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Failure to adapt or adaptations that fail: Contrasting models on procedures and safety2003In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces two models on procedures and safety and assesses the practical consequences these have for organizations trying to make progress on safety through procedures. The application of procedures is contrasted as rote rule following versus substantive cognitive activity. It reveals a fundamental double bind: operators can fail to adapt procedures when adapting proved necessary, or attempt procedural adaptations that may fail. Rather than simply increasing pressure to comply, organizations should invest in their understanding of the gap between procedures and practice, and help develop operators' skill at adapting. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Jorgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sorting and disposing of waste at recycling centres - A users perspective2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 355-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates Swedish recycling centres from the users perspective. The aim was to describe the characteristics and experiences of the users and their activities when sorting and disposing of waste, and to identify improvements for the users. The typical recycling centre user is a recently retired man, living in a house with a garden, having travelled 5 km alone in his own car. The users requested longer opening hours and better information available at home and at the recycling centre. The major difficulty for the users is to understand which fraction their waste belongs to, and consequently into which container they should throw it. The most important sources of sorting information, in addition to experience from earlier visits, are signs and asking the personnel. Although the service at recycling centres is perceived positively by a majority of users. substantial improvements can still be made, and a number of such suggestions are given.

  • 7.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Development work for quality and ergonomics2000In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employee participation in the development and improvement of their own work activities and daily production tasks has been strongly emphasised by the 'quality movement'. From this point of view, the quality perspective, and in particular development work, are supportive of improved working conditions and ergonomics. This paper proposes a classification of development work in relation to participative problem solving. Further, the introduction of development work was found from a theoretical point of view to be consistent with improvement in the characteristics that represent good and rewarding work. Several empirical studies in the field confirm that improvements in work and company performance take place as a result. There is also criticism of development work, which largely focuses on the difficulties of integrating such concepts into organisational structures and of making developments long-lasting. In addition, stress, intensification of work and increased pressure are also mentioned as possible harmful outcomes. It is concluded that the development work concept is an important innovation with great potential, but the organisational models and applications need to be further developed for the future. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 8.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Evaluation of an intervention comprising a no lifting policy in Australian hospitals.2006In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The No Lifting Policy has been adopted in Australia to prevent back pain and injuries among nurses. The present study focuses on the intervention of the "No Lift System" (NLS). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the use of transfer equipment, number of injuries, pain/symptoms and absence from work among nurses after the intervention of the NLS (n=201), and compare to nurses at two control hospitals (n=256). A comprehensive questionnaire was used for data collection. The results show that at the hospital where the NLS had been introduced, the nurses used the purchased transfer equipment regularly. They had significantly fewer back injuries, less pain/symptoms and less absence from work due to musculoskeletal pain/symptoms compared with nurses at the control hospitals. The study showed strong evidence for supporting the implementation of the NLS. The positive results shown in the present study can probably be explained by the agreement between the management, the union and the nurses concerning the implementation of the NLS, as well as its comprehensive approach and participatory design.

  • 9.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waste and recycling - A challenge for society2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 335-335Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 12.
    Fagerlind Ståhl, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Gun
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, p. 285-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations.

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  • 13.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A lighting intervention for postmen – Effects on eyestrain, MSD, and productivity2008In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Huddinge, Sweden.
    A visual ergonomics intervention in mail sorting facilities: Effects on eyes, muscles and productivity2012In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual requirements are high when sorting mail. The purpose of this visual ergonomics intervention study was to evaluate the visual environment in mail sorting facilities and to explore opportunities for improving the work situation by reducing visual strain, improving the visual work environment and reducing mail sorting time. Twenty-seven postmen/women participated in a pre-intervention study, which included questionnaires on their experiences of light, visual ergonomics, health, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Measurements of lighting conditions and productivity were also performed along with eye examinations of the postmen/women. The results from the pre-intervention study showed that the postmen/women who suffered from eyestrain had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and sorted slower, than those without eyestrain. Illuminance and illuminance uniformity improved as a result of the intervention. The two post-intervention follow-ups showed a higher prevalence of MSD among the postmen/women with eyestrain than among those without. The previous differences in sorting time for employees with and without eyestrain disappeared. After the intervention, the postmen/women felt better in general, experienced less work induced stress, and considered that the total general lighting had improved. The most pronounced decreases in eyestrain, MSD, and mail sorting time were seen among the younger participants of the group. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, Design Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, Design Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Vision ergonomics at recycling centres2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 368-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All municipalities in Sweden offer their inhabitants a service for disposing of large-size and hazardous waste at local recycling centres. Opening hours at these centres include hours of darkness. The aims of this study were to 1) describe user and employee experiences of lighting and signs at Swedish recycling centres, 2) measure and assess the lighting system at the two recently built recycling centres in Linkoping and to assess the legibility and visibility of the signs used and 3) propose recommendations regarding lighting and signs for recycling centres. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess experiences of employees and users, and light measurements were performed. By observing users, activities with different visual demands at different areas within the recycling centres were identified. Based on the literature, standards and stakeholder experiences, recommendations regarding lighting systems and sign design, illuminance, luminance and uniformity are proposed for recycling centres.

  • 16.
    Jonker, Dirk
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rolander, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Balogh, Istvan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Relation between perceived and measured workload obtained by long-term inclinometry among dentists2009In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 309-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dentists reported high perceived physical work conditions. Working postures and movements of the head and upper extremities during dental work were registered with inclinometry measurements during four hours. The aim was to clarify the relationship between measured working postures/movements and perceived physical work conditions. Dentists worked with elevated arms and a rather steep forward inclination of the head. Correlations (r = -0.52 to -0.66) between inclination velocity and perceived workload on VAS scales were found, but there were only weak correlations between observed working postures. The different tasks involved in dental work provide limited variation in work movements and postures, measured by inclinometry. By alternating between sitting and standing, it might be possible to achieve variation in physical workload during dental work.

  • 17.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The strategic role of recycling centres for environmental performance of waste management systems2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 362-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how different actors influence the sorting quality of waste at recycling centres. Visitors (i.e. citizens) play an essential role since they conduct the actual sorting. They have difficulties sorting many of their discarded products, leading to decreased performance of the entire waste management system of which recycling centres are a part. Several measures addressing this problem are identified such as product design, improved terminology for labelling waste and increased manning at recycling centres. A fundamental task for managers and employees is to further develop information and guidance for visitors, both at home and at recycling centres. Several obstacles for improvements are also discussed, including working conditions and the economy of recycling centres, as well as the routines for communication and quality assurance among actors in the recycling business.

  • 18.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Cyclists’ adaptation to a countdown timer to green traffic light: A before-after field study2021In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countdown timers (CDTs) for pedestrians and cars have been shown to produce various effects, including improved efficiency and decreased safety. This study aimed to explore adaptive behaviours of cyclists towards a CDT to green traffic light, conducted as a before-after study in real traffic. Cyclists adapted to the CDT by searching for and using the information that it provided, mainly in terms of speed adaptation and glance behaviour. Start-up delays were reduced but there is a concern that red light violations could increase. There might be undesirable effects on crucial information intake in cases where the CDT was used not as a complement but as a substitute for the traffic light. The results essentially indicate that cyclists use the information provided by the CDT for their own efficiency, rather than for rule-based safety.

  • 19.
    Singer, G.
    et al.
    Flight Operations, Saab Aircraft AB, SE-581 88 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dekker, S.
    Flight Operations, Saab Aircraft AB, SE-581 88 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The ergonomics of flight management systems: Fixing holes in the cockpit certification net2001In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 247-254Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent air traffic control regulations mandate the installation of computer-based flight management systems in airliners across Europe. Integrating and certifying add-on cockpit systems is a long and costly process, which in its current form cannot meaningfully address ergonomics aspects. Two levels of problems occur: add-on systems carry many 'classic' HCI failures, which could easily be addressed with modified certification requirements. Further, adding new technology changes practice, creates new skill and knowledge demands and produces new forms of error, which are more difficult to assess in advance. However, one innovative certification approach for add-on cockpit systems, based on the use of a representative population of user pilots, was found to be promising. This method minimizes the subjective bias of individual pilots in addition to defining pass/fail criteria in an operational environment. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 20.
    Solman, KN
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of interaction quality in human-machine systems: applications for forklifts2002In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the work presented here was to propose a methodology for analysis of interactions between humans and machines. The driver-truck system in a warehouse context was used as a case for empirical evaluation. The work consists of three empirical studies and one analysis of statistical data. In total 29 pallet truck drivers have been involved in the studies which were performed at two Swedish distribution companies. A framework is proposed, where effects on performance, safety, subjective experiences and physical and mental impact on the humans are used as indicators of the quality of interactions. The results show that the methodology proposed supports appropriate input for the evaluation of the interaction quality between humans and technology. One example of this is musculoskeletal loads and discomfort, which could be related to the task and the design of the steering arm. Another conclusion from this work is that many factors outside the warehouse truck affect the interaction in the human-truck system. for example the design of loading ramps, This supports the importance of having a holistic ergonomics view when studying a human-machine system. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Törnström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amprazis, Joakim
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Christmansson, Marita
    National Institute for Working Life, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A corporate workplace model for ergonomic assessments and improvements2008In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several companies have developed their own company-specific models for ergonomic improvements. This study aims to describe and identify factors supporting and hindering the implementation and application of one such corporate model for ergonomic assessment and improvement. The model has been developed by Volvo Car Corporation and implemented at an assembly plant in Göteborg, Sweden. The model is unique as it is intended to be used by production engineers and safety representatives in cooperation. The process for assessment of musculoskeletal risks is standardised and participatory, which also supports identification of solutions. Interviews, questionnaires, observation and document studies were used to evaluate the use of the model. The model was found to improve participation and collaboration among stakeholders; provide a more effective ergonomic improvement process; visually represent the ergonomics situation in the company; and give legitimacy to and awareness of ergonomics. However, the model was found to be rather resource demanding and dependent on support from management and unions. In particular, a substantial training programme and regular use of the model are needed.

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