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  • 1.
    Beato, Marco
    et al.
    Univ Suffolk, England.
    de Keijzer, Kevin L.
    Univ Suffolk, England.
    Munoz-Lopez, Alejandro
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Raya-Gonzalez, Javier
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Pozzo, Marco
    Univ Pablo de Olavide, Spain; SmartCoach Technol Inc, Spain.
    Alkner, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept Orthopaed Surg, Sweden.
    Dello Iacono, Antonio
    Univ West Scotland, Scotland.
    Vicens-Bordas, Jordi
    Univ Vic, Spain; Univ Vic, Spain.
    Coratella, Giuseppe
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    Maroto-Izquierdo, Sergio
    European Univ Miguel Cervantes UEMC, Spain.
    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver
    Univ Loyola Andalucia, Spain.
    McErlain-Naylor, Stuart A.
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Martin-Rivera, Fernando
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Hernandez-Davo, Jose L.
    Isabel I Univ, Spain.
    Arrones, Luis Suarez
    Univ Pablo de Olavide, Spain.
    Sabido, Rafael
    Miguel Hernandez Univ, Spain.
    de Hoyo, Moises
    Univ Seville, Spain; Performance Dept, England.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Norrbrand, Lena
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Current Guidelines for the Implementation of Flywheel Resistance Training Technology in Sports: A Consensus Statement2024In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundFlywheel resistance training has become more integrated within resistance training programs in a variety of sports due to the neuromuscular, strength, and task-specific enhancements reported with this training.ObjectiveThis paper aimed to present the consensus reached by internationally recognized experts during a meeting on current definitions and guidelines for the implementation of flywheel resistance training technology in sports.MethodsNineteen experts from different countries took part in the consensus process; 16 of them were present at the consensus meeting (18 May 2023) while three submitted their recommendations by e-mail. Prior to the meeting, evidence summaries were developed relating to areas of priority. This paper discusses the available evidence and consensus process from which recommendations were made regarding the appropriate use of flywheel resistance training technology in sports. The process to gain consensus had five steps: (1) performing a systematic review of systematic reviews, (2) updating the most recent umbrella review published on this topic, (3) first round discussion among a sample of the research group included in this consensus statement, (4) selection of research group members-process of the consensus meeting and formulation of the recommendations, and (5) the consensus process. The systematic analysis of the literature was performed to select the most up-to-date review papers available on the topic, which resulted in nine articles; their methodological quality was assessed according to AMSTAR 2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Review 2) and GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation). Statements and recommendations scoring 7-9 were considered appropriate.ResultsThe recommendations were based on the evidence summary and researchers' expertise; the consensus statement included three statements and seven recommendations for the use of flywheel resistance training technology. These statements and recommendations were anonymously voted on and qualitatively analyzed. The three statements reported a score ranging from 8.1 to 8.8, and therefore, all statements included in this consensus were considered appropriate. The recommendations (1-7) had a score ranging from 7.7 to 8.6, and therefore, all recommendations were considered appropriate.ConclusionsBecause of the consensus achieved among the experts in this project, it is suggested that practitioners and researchers should adopt the guidelines reported in this consensus statement regarding the use of flywheel resistance technology in sports.

  • 2.
    Bullock, Garrett S.
    et al.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, NC 28202 USA; Univ Oxford, England.
    Sell, Timothy C.
    Atrium Hlth, NC USA.
    Zarega, Ryan
    Atrium Hlth, NC USA.
    Reiter, Charles
    King, Victoria
    Atrium Hlth, NC USA.
    Wrona, Hailey
    Atrium Hlth, NC USA.
    Mills, Nilani
    Atrium Hlth, NC USA; Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Ganderton, Charlotte
    Swinborne Univ Technol, Australia.
    Duhig, Steven
    Griffith Univ, Australia.
    Raisasen, Anu
    Western Univ Hlth Sci, OR USA; Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Ledbetter, Leila
    Duke Sch Med, NC USA.
    Collins, Gary S.
    Univ Oxford, England; Oxford Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Filbay, Stephanie R.
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Kinesiophobia, Knee Self-Efficacy, and Fear Avoidance Beliefs in People with ACL Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2022In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 52, p. 3001-3019Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To improve the understanding of the psychological impacts of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, a systematic review synthesizing the evidence on knee self-efficacy, fear avoidance beliefs and kinesiophobia following ACL injury is needed. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to investigate knee self-efficacy, fear avoidance beliefs and kinesiophobia following ACL injury, and compare these outcomes following management with rehabilitation alone, early and delayed ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Methods Seven databases were searched from inception to April 14, 2022. Articles were included if they assessed Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Knee Self-Efficacy Scale (KSES), or Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using domain-based RoB tools (ROBINS-1, RoB 2, RoBANS), and GRADE-assessed certainty of evidence. Random-effects meta-analyses pooled outcomes, stratified by time post-injury (pre-operative, 3-6 months, 7-12 months, > 1-2 years, > 2-5 years, > 5 years). Results Seventy-three studies (70% high RoB) were included (study outcomes: TSK: 55; KSES: 22; FABQ: 5). Meta-analysis demonstrated worse kinesiophobia and self-efficacy pre-operatively (pooled mean [95% CI], TSK-11: 23.8 [22.2-25.3]; KSES: 5.0 [4.4-5.5]) compared with 3-6 months following ACLR (TSK-11: 19.6 [18.7-20.6]; KSES: 19.6 [18.6-20.6]). Meta-analysis suggests similar kinesiophobia > 3-6 months following early ACLR (19.8 [4.9]) versus delayed ACLR (17.2 [5.0]). Only one study assessed outcomes comparing ACLR with rehabilitation only. Conclusions Knee self-efficacy and kinesiophobia improved from pre-ACLR to 3-6 months following ACLR, with similar outcomes after 6 months. Since the overall evidence was weak, there is a need for high-quality observational and intervention studies focusing on psychological outcomes following ACL injury.

  • 3.
    Drew, Michael K.
    et al.
    Univ Canberra, Australia.
    Toohey, Liam A.
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia; Univ Canberra, Australia.
    Smith, Miriam
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia.
    Baugh, Christine M.
    Univ Colorado, CO USA.
    Carter, Hannah
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    McPhail, Steven M.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia; Metro South Hlth, Australia.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Appaneal, Renee
    Univ Canberra, Australia.
    Health Systems in High-Performance Sport: Key Functions to Protect Health and Optimize Performance in Elite Athletes2023In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 1479-1489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enabling athletes to achieve peak performances while also maintaining high levels of health is contextually complex. We aim to describe what a health system is and apply the essential functions of stewardship, financing, provision of services and resource generation to an Australian high-performance sport context. We introduce a fifth function that health systems should not detract from athletes ability to achieve their sports goals. We describe how these functions aim to achieve four overall outcomes of safeguarding the health of the athletes, responding to expectations, providing financial and social protection against the costs of ill health, and efficient use of resources. Lastly, we conclude with key challenges and potential solutions for developing an integrated health system within the overall performance system in high-performance sport.

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  • 4.
    Dunlop, Gordon
    et al.
    Arsenal Football Club, England; Edinburgh Napier Univ, Scotland.
    Ardern, Clare
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Thor Einar
    Oslo Sports Trauma Res Ctr, Norway.
    Lewin, Colin
    Lewin Sports Injury Clin, England.
    Dupont, Gregory
    French Football Federat, France.
    Ashworth, Ben
    Arsenal Football Club, England.
    ODriscoll, Gary
    AC Sparta Prague Football Club, Czech Republic.
    Rolls, Andrew
    Bristol City Football Club, England.
    Brown, Susan
    Edinburgh Napier Univ, Scotland.
    McCall, Alan
    Edinburgh Napier Univ, Scotland.
    Return-to-Play Practices Following Hamstring Injury: A Worldwide Survey of 131 Premier League Football Teams2020In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 829-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Return-to-play (RTP) is an on-going challenge in professional football. Return-to-play related research is increasing. However, it is unknown to what extent the recommendations presented within research are being implemented by professional football teams, and where there are gaps between research and practice. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if premier-league football teams worldwide follow a RTP continuum, (2) to identify RTP criteria used and (3) to understand how RTP decision-making occurs in applied practice. Methods We sent a structured online survey to practitioners responsible for the RTP programme in 310 professional teams from 34 premier-leagues worldwide. The survey comprised four sections, based on hamstring muscle injury: (1) criteria used throughout RTP phases, (2) the frequency with which progression criteria were achieved, (3) RTP decision-making process and (4) challenges to decision-making. Results One-hundred and thirty-one teams responded with a completed survey (42%). One-hundred and twenty-four teams (95%) used a continuum to guide RTP, assessing a combination of clinical, functional and psychological criteria to inform decisions to progress. One-hundred and five (80%) teams reported using a shared decision-making approach considering the input of multiple stakeholders. Team hierarchy, match- and player-related factors were common challenges perceived to influence decision-making. Conclusions General research recommendations for RTP and the beliefs and practices of practitioners appear to match with, the majority of teams assessing functional, clinical and psychological criteria throughout a RTP continuum to inform decision-making which is also shared among key stakeholders. However, specific criteria, metrics and thresholds used, and the specific involvement, dynamics and interactions of staff during decision-making are not clear.

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  • 5.
    Gillquist, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Messner, Karola
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine.
    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and the long term incidence of gonarthrosis.1999In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 27, p. 143-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hulme, Adam
    et al.
    Federat University of Australia, Australia.
    Oestergaard Nielsen, Rasmus
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Verhagen, Evert
    Federat University of Australia, Australia; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Finch, Caroline
    Federat University of Australia, Australia.
    Risk and Protective Factors for Middle- and Long-Distance Running-Related Injury2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 869-886Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Despite a rapidly growing body of research, a systematic evidence compilation of the risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance running-related injury (RRI) was lacking. Objectives Our objective was to compile the evidence about modifiable and non-modifiable training-related and behavioral risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance RRI. Methods We searched five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO) for the dates 1 January 1970 to 31 December 2015, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed articles. The eligible designs were cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal observational studies, and randomized controlled trials involving runners competing at distances from amp;gt;= 800 m to amp;lt;= 42.2 km. Outcomes were any specific and/or general RRI, and exposures included training-related and behavioral factors. We extracted authors and date, study design, injury type(s), descriptors and comparators for each exposure, and results and measures of association from the selected studies. Methodological quality was independently appraised using two separate checklists: a modified checklist for observational study designs and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale for randomized controlled trials. Results Among 73 articles eligible for inclusion, 19 (26.0%) and 30 (41.0%) were of high or satisfactory methodological quality, respectively. As a non-modifiable exposure, a history of previous injury was found to be associated with an increased risk of both general and specific RRI. In terms of modifiable exposures, irregular and/or absent menstruation was found to be associated with an increased risk of stress fracture development, whereas the use of oral contraceptives was found to be associated with a decreased risk. High clinical, methodological, and statistical heterogeneity meant it was not feasible to estimate a pooled effect size across similar studies. Conclusions A history of previous injury was associated with an increased risk of both general and specific RRI. The use of oral contraceptives was found to be associated with a decreased risk of skeletal stress fracture. Conversely, irregular and/or absent menstruation was associated with an increased risk. The varied effect directions and/or a number of statistically insignificant results associated with the majority of factors hindered our ability to draw any definitive conclusions about their relationship to RRI risk.

  • 7.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Classification of Prevention in Sports Medicine and Epidemiology2015In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 1483-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is today recognized that a large share of manifestations of ill health associated with sports participation is preventable and that a focus should be on implementation of effective prevention programs. One hindrance for implementation of effective preventive measures in sports medicine may be that an update of preventive frameworks to the current health challenges has not been performed. We introduce classifications of prevention that are adjusted to the health challenges faced by sports participants in the present day. To enable more precise characterizations of preventive measures, we find it necessary to describe them in two dimensions. In one dimension, pathological developments in the body are used as a basis for classification of preventive measures, while the other dimension classifies prevention on the grounds of epidemiological risk indicators. We conclude that longitudinal research combining diagnostic procedures, surveillance, and targeted interventions is needed to enable the introduction of prevention programs for athletes in the beginning of their sporting career at the pre-diagnostic stage, as well as suitable prevention measures for the adult elite athletes. A more distinct classification of prevention supports a specific and cost-effective planning and translation of sports injury prevention and safety promotion adjusted to the delivery settings, various injury types, and different groups of athletes. The present classifications constitute an additional conceptual foundation for such efforts.

  • 8.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Rehabilitation following ACL Injury: Current Recommendations for Sports Participation2004In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 269-280Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rehabilitation following anterior - Cruciate ligament injury current recommendations for sports participation2004In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 269-280Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knee ligament injuries often result in a premature end to a career in sports. The treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be operative or conservative. In both cases, the goal is to reach the best functional level for the patient without risking new injuries or degenerative changes in the knee. Return to high level of athletic activity has been an indicator of treatment success. Rehabilitation is an important part of the treatment. Knowledge of heating processes and biomechanics in the knee joint after injury and reconstruction, together with physiological aspects on training effects is important for the construction of rehabilitation programmes. Current rehabilitation programmes use immediate training of range of motion. Weight bearing is encouraged within the first week after an ACL reconstruction. Commonly, the patients are allowed to return to light sporting activities such as running at 2-3 months after surgery and to contact sports, including cutting and jumping, after 6 months. In many cases, the decisions are empirically based and the rehabilitation programmes are adjusted to the time selected for returning to sports. In this article, some criteria that should be fulfilled in order to allow the patient to return to sports are presented. Surgery together with completed rehabilitation and sport-specific exercises should result in functional stability of the knee joint. In addition, adequate muscle strength and performance should be used as a critical criterion. Other factors, such as associated injuries and social and psychological hindrances may also influence the return to sports and must be taken into consideration, both during the rehabilitation and at the evaluation of the treatment.

  • 10.
    Lang, Justin J.
    et al.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Canada; Univ Ottawa, Canada; Childrens Hosp Eastern Ontario Res Inst, Canada.
    Zhang, Kai
    Childrens Hosp Eastern Ontario Res Inst, Canada; Univ Ottawa, Canada.
    Agostinis-Sobrinho, Cesar
    Klaipeda Univ, Lithuania.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Basterfield, Laura
    Newcastle Univ, England.
    Berglind, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Blain, Dylan O.
    Univ Wales Trinity St David, Wales.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Cameron, Christine
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Canada.
    Carson, Valerie
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Colley, Rachel C.
    Stat Canada, Canada.
    Csanyi, Tamas
    Hungarian Univ Sports Sci, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Faigenbaum, Avery D.
    Coll New Jersey, NJ USA.
    Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio
    Univ Publ Navarra UPNA, Spain.
    Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Brazil.
    Gribbon, Aidan
    Stat Canada, Canada.
    Janssen, Ian
    Queens Univ, Canada; Queens Univ, Canada.
    Jurak, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kaj, Monika
    Hungarian Sch Sport Federat, Hungary.
    Kidokoro, Tetsuhiro
    Nippon Sport Sci Univ, Japan.
    Lane, Kirstin N.
    Univ Victoria, Canada.
    Liu, Yang
    Shanghai Univ Sport, Peoples R China; Shanghai Univ Sport, Peoples R China.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lubans, David R.
    Univ Newcastle, Australia.
    Magnussen, Costan G.
    Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Australia; Univ Turku, Finland; Univ Turku, Finland; Univ Tasmania, Australia.
    Manyanga, Taru
    Univ Northern British Columbia, Canada.
    McGrath, Ryan
    North Dakota State Univ, ND USA; Fargo VA Healthcare Syst, ND USA.
    Mota, Jorge
    Univ Porto FADEUP, Portugal.
    Olds, Tim
    Univ South Australia, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Onywera, Vincent O.
    Kenyatta Univ, Kenya.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Univ Granada, Spain; Univ Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.
    Univ Maiduguri, Nigeria.
    Prince, Stephanie A.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Canada; Univ Ottawa, Canada.
    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson
    Univ Publ Navarra UPNA, Spain; Unidad Cent Valle Cauca UCEVA, Colombia; Inst Salud Carlos III, Spain.
    Roberts, Karen C.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Canada.
    Rubin, Lukas
    Tech Univ Liberec, Czech Republic; Palacky Univ Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Servais, Jennifer
    Stat Canada, Canada.
    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Silva, Danilo R.
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Brazil; Univ Autonoma Chile, Chile.
    Smith, Jordan J.
    Univ Newcastle, Australia.
    Song, Yi
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Stratton, Gareth
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Timmons, Brian W.
    Childrens Hosp Eastern Ontario Res Inst, Canada; McMaster Univ, Canada.
    Tomkinson, Grant R.
    Univ South Australia, Australia; Univ North Dakota, ND USA.
    Tremblay, Mark S.
    Childrens Hosp Eastern Ontario Res Inst, Canada; Univ Ottawa, Canada; Carleton Univ, Canada.
    Wong, Stephen H. S.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Fraser, Brooklyn J.
    Univ Tasmania, Australia.
    Top 10 International Priorities for Physical Fitness Research and Surveillance Among Children and Adolescents: A Twin-Panel Delphi Study2023In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 549-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The measurement of physical fitness has a history that dates back nearly 200 years. Recently, there has been an increase in international research and surveillance on physical fitness creating a need for setting international priorities that could help guide future efforts. Objective This study aimed to produce a list of the top 10 international priorities for research and surveillance on physical fitness among children and adolescents. Methods Using a twin-panel Delphi method, two independent panels consisting of 46 international experts were identified (panel 1 = 28, panel 2 = 18). The panel participants were asked to list up to five priorities for research or surveillance (round 1), and then rated the items from their own panel on a 5-point Likert scale of importance (round 2). In round 3, experts were asked to rate the priorities identified by the other panel. Results There was strong between-panel agreement (panel 1: r(s) = 0.76, p < 0.01; panel 2: r(s) = 0.77, p < 0.01) in the priorities identified. The list of the final top 10 priorities included (i) "conduct longitudinal studies to assess changes in fitness and associations with health". This was followed by (ii) "use fitness surveillance to inform decision making", and (iii) "implement regular and consistent international/national fitness surveys using common measures". Conclusions The priorities identified in this study provide guidance for future international collaborations and research efforts on the physical fitness of children and adolescents over the next decade and beyond.

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  • 11.
    Migueles, Jairo H.
    et al.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway; University of Cambridge, England.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Mora-Gonzalez, Jose
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Labayen, Idoia
    University of Basque Country, Spain.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Accelerometer Data Collection and Processing Criteria to Assess Physical Activity and Other Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Practical Considerations2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 1821-1845Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Accelerometers are widely used to measure sedentary time, physical activity, physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), and sleep-related behaviors, with the ActiGraph being the most frequently used brand by researchers. However, data collection and processing criteria have evolved in a myriad of ways out of the need to answer unique research questions; as a result there is no consensus. Objectives The purpose of this review was to: (1) compile and classify existing studies assessing sedentary time, physical activity, energy expenditure, or sleep using the ActiGraph GT3X/+ through data collection and processing criteria to improve data comparability and (2) review data collection and processing criteria when using GT3X/+ and provide age-specific practical considerations based on the validation/calibration studies identified. Methods Two independent researchers conducted the search in PubMed and Web of Science. We included all original studies in which the GT3X/+ was used in laboratory, controlled, or free-living conditions published from 1 January 2010 to the 31 December 2015. Results The present systematic review provides key information about the following data collection and processing criteria: placement, sampling frequency, filter, epoch length, non-wear-time, what constitutes a valid day and a valid week, cut-points for sedentary time and physical activity intensity classification, and algorithms to estimate PAEE and sleep-related behaviors. The information is organized by age group, since criteria are usually age-specific. Conclusion This review will help researchers and practitioners to make better decisions before (i.e., device placement and sampling frequency) and after (i.e., data processing criteria) data collection using the GT3X/? accelerometer, in order to obtain more valid and comparable data.

  • 12.
    Rodriguez-Ayllon, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Estevez-Lopez, Fernando
    Univ Granada, Spain; Ulster Univ, North Ireland.
    Munoz, Nicolas E.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Mora-Gonzalez, Jose
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Migueles, Jairo H.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Molina-Garcia, Pablo
    Univ Granada, Spain; KU Leuven Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Granada, Spain.
    Mena-Molina, Alejandra
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente
    Univ Castilla La Mancha, Spain; Univ Autonoma Chile, Chile.
    Catena, Andres
    Univ Granada, Spain; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Erickson, Kirk I.
    Univ Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Lubans, David R.
    Univ Newcastle, Australia.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Univ Granada, Spain; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
    Univ Granada, Spain; Northeastern Univ, MA 02115 USA.
    Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in the Mental Health of Preschoolers, Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2019In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 1383-1410Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Evidence suggests that participation in physical activity may support young peoples current and future mental health. Although previous reviews have examined the relationship between physical activity and a range of mental health outcomes in children and adolescents, due to the large increase in published studies there is a need for an update and quantitative synthesis of effects. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis, and to systematically synthesize the observational evidence (both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies) regarding the associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior and mental health in preschoolers (2-5 years of age), children (6-11 years of age) and adolescents (12-18 years of age). Methods A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases was performed from January 2013 to April 2018, by two independent researchers. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the effect of physical activity on mental health outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs (i.e. quasi-experimental studies). A narrative synthesis of observational studies was conducted. Studies were included if they included physical activity or sedentary behavior data and at least one psychological ill-being (i.e. depression, anxiety, stress or negative affect) or psychological well-being (i.e. self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy, self-image, positive affect, optimism, happiness and satisfaction with life) outcome in preschoolers, children or adolescents. Results A total of 114 original articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review (4 RCTs, 14 non-RCTs, 28 prospective longitudinal studies and 68 cross-sectional studies). Of the 18 intervention studies, 12 (3 RCTs and 9 non-RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. There was a small but significant overall effect of physical activity on mental health in children and adolescents aged 6-18 years (effect size 0.173, 95% confidence interval 0.106-0.239, p amp;lt; 0.001, percentage of total variability attributed to between-study heterogeneity [I-2] = 11.3%). When the analyses were performed separately for children and adolescents, the results were significant for adolescents but not for children. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations between physical activity and lower levels of psychological ill-being (i.e. depression, stress, negative affect, and total psychological distress) and greater psychological well-being (i.e. self-image, satisfaction with life and happiness, and psychological well-being). Furthermore, significant associations were found between greater amounts of sedentary behavior and both increased psychological ill-being (i.e. depression) and lower psychological well-being (i.e. satisfaction with life and happiness) in children and adolescents. Evidence on preschoolers was nearly non-existent. Conclusions Findings from the meta-analysis suggest that physical activity interventions can improve adolescents mental health, but additional studies are needed to confirm the effects of physical activity on childrens mental health. Findings from observational studies suggest that promoting physical activity and decreasing sedentary behavior might protect mental health in children and adolescents. PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42017060373.

  • 13.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Sports Health During the SARS-Cov-2 Pandemic2020In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 50, p. 1413-1416Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 14.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Svanstrom, L.
    Svanström, L., Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    From sports injury prevention to safety promotion in sports2006In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 733-745Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every fifth unintentional injury treated at a healthcare facility in the industrialised part of the world is associated with sports or physical exercise. This article reviews the literature regarding the theoretical and practical underpinnings for community-based sports safety promotion, including both professional and recreational sports. While injury prevention entails the implementation of specific interventions in terms of structural or educational measures, sports safety promotion includes also the antecedent and wider campaigns that are required to succeed with these measures. Comprehensive sports safety promotion programmes thus require that the perspective on the sports injury problem is made broader than consideration of the individual athlete. The results display that involvement in sports safety issues from the sports federations that formulate policies and allocate resources is necessary for coordinated implementation of programme actions. The authorities responsible for sports facilities and legislations in the civil society also need to be included, because of the fact that they control many of the central safety determinants in the sporting environment. It is concluded that the sports injury problem needs to be addressed in liaison with the leaders of socially defined sports communities and the governments representing geographically defined civic communities, and that the safety-supporting environment in professional sports is underdeveloped compared with other areas of working life. © 2006 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Finch, Caroline F
    University of Ballarat.
    Goulet, Claude
    University of Laval.
    Noakes, Tim
    University of Cape Town.
    Yammine, Kaissar
    Lebanese Association of Sports Injury Prevention.
    Meeting the Global Demand of Sports Safety The Intersection of Science and Policy in Sports Safety2008In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 795-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sports and physical activity are transforming, and being transformed by, the societies in which they are practised. From the perspectives of both competitive and non-competitive sports, the complexity of their integration into todays society has led to neither sports federations nor governments being able to manage the safety problem alone. In other words, these agencies, whilst promoting sport and physical activity, deliver policy and practices in an uncoordinated way that largely ignores the need for a concurrent overall policy for sports safety.

    This article reviews and analyses the possibility of developing an overall sports safety policy from a global viewpoint. Firstly, we describe the role of sports in todays societies and the context within which much sport is delivered. We then discuss global issues related to injury prevention and safety in sports, with practical relevance to this important sector, including an analysis of critical policy issues necessary for the future development of the area and significant safety gains for all. We argue that there is a need to establish the sports injury problem as a critical component of general global health policy agendas, and to introduce sports safety as a mandatory component of all sustainable sports organizations.

    We conclude that the establishment of an explicit intersection between science and policy making is necessary for the future development of sports and the necessary safety gains required for all participants around the world. The Safe Sports International safety promotion programme is outlined as an example of an international organization active within this arena.

  • 16.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bickenbach, Jerome
    Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada .
    Finch, Caroline F.
    Federation University Australia, Ballarat.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    University of Skövde, Sweden .
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What is a Sports Injury?2014In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 423-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, sports injury denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; sports trauma is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and sports incapacity is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as sports disease (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, sports illness when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and sports sickness when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.

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