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  • 1.
    Abidin, Aysajan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Direct proof of security of Wegman-Carter authentication with partially known key2014In: Quantum Information Processing, ISSN 1570-0755, E-ISSN 1573-1332, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 2155-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-theoretically secure (ITS) authentication is needed in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). In this paper, we study security of an ITS authentication scheme proposed by Wegman& Carter, in the case of partially known authentication key. This scheme uses a new authentication key in each authentication attempt, to select a hash function from an Almost Strongly Universal2 hash function family. The partial knowledge of the attacker is measured as the trace distance between the authentication key distribution and the uniform distribution; this is the usual measure in QKD. We provide direct proofs of security of the scheme, when using partially known key, first in the information-theoretic setting and then in terms of witness indistinguishability as used in the Universal Composability (UC) framework. We find that if the authentication procedure has a failure probability ε and the authentication key has an ε´ trace distance to the uniform, then under ITS, the adversary’s success probability conditioned on an authentic message-tag pair is only bounded by ε +|Ƭ|ε´, where |Ƭ| is the size of the set of tags. Furthermore, the trace distance between the authentication key distribution and the uniform increases to |Ƭ|ε´ after having seen an authentic message-tag pair. Despite this, we are able to prove directly that the authenticated channel is indistinguishable from an (ideal) authentic channel (the desired functionality), except with probability less than ε + ε´. This proves that the scheme is (ε + ε´)-UC-secure, without using the composability theorem.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Efficient classical simulation of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Simons algorithms2017In: Quantum Information Processing, ISSN 1570-0755, E-ISSN 1573-1332, Vol. 16, no 9, article id UNSP 233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along-standing aim of quantum information research is to understand what gives quantum computers their advantage. This requires separating problems that need genuinely quantum resources from those for which classical resources are enough. Two examples of quantum speed-up are the Deutsch-Jozsa and Simons problem, both efficiently solvable on a quantum Turing machine, and both believed to lack efficient classical solutions. Here we present a framework that can simulate both quantum algorithms efficiently, solving the Deutsch-Jozsa problem with probability 1 using only one oracle query, and Simons problem using linearly many oracle queries, just as expected of an ideal quantum computer. The presented simulation framework is in turn efficiently simulatable in a classical probabilistic Turing machine. This shows that the Deutsch-Jozsa and Simons problem do not require any genuinely quantum resources, and that the quantum algorithms show no speed-up when compared with their corresponding classical simulation. Finally, this gives insight into what properties are needed in the two algorithms and calls for further study of oracle separation between quantum and classical computation.

  • 3.
    Pacher, Christoph
    et al.
    Department of Safety & Security, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Abidin, Aysajan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lorünser, Thomas
    Department of Safety & Security, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Peev, Momtchil
    Department of Safety & Security, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Ursin, Rupert
    Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Wien, Austria and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Zeilinger, Anton
    Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Wien, Austria and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication2016In: Quantum Information Processing, ISSN 1570-0755, E-ISSN 1573-1332, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 327-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate how adversaries with unbounded computing resources can break Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not Information-Theoretically Secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced it was shown to prevent straightforward Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols.

    In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity.

    Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKDpostprocessing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.

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