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  • 1.
    Bhattachayay, Dipankar
    et al.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Biosensor Lab, Calcutta 700009, India.
    Pal, Priyabrata
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Biosensor Lab, Calcutta 700009, India.
    Banerjee, Saikat
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Biosensor Lab, Calcutta 700009, India.
    Kanti Sanyal, Shyamal
    Jadavpur University, Department Chemistry Engn, Calcutta, India.
    P. F. Turner, A.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Sarkar, Priyabrata
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Biosensor Lab, Calcutta 700009, India.
    Electrochemical acetylcholine chloride biosensor using an acetylcholine esterase biomimic2008In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1387-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure enzymes are costly and highly sensitive to change in pH, temperature, ionic strength etc. Hence biomimetic or synthetic enzymes could be useful alternatives to such natural proteins. Although the selectivity of a biomimic is somewhat less than that of enzyme, it can be used as a detector element in inexpensive but stable biosensors. An organic compound, 4-[(1E)-ethanehydrazonoyl]benzoic acid, has been designed and synthesized as biomimic for the enzyme acetylcholine esterase. An acetylcholine chloride two-electrode screen-printed sensor was first developed using the immobilized enzyme acetylcholine esterase. The performance of the mimic in the hydrolysis of acetylcholine chloride was then tested with the same transducer by immobilizing the biomimic in place of the enzyme. The response of the sensor constructed using the mimic was comparable to that of the pure acetylcholine esterase enzyme electrode.

  • 2.
    BIFULCO, L
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    CAMMAROTO, C
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    NEWMAN, JD
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    TTF-MODIFIED BIOSENSORS FOR HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE1994In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1443-1452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amperometric biosensors for hydrogen peroxide were produced, based on TTF-modified graphite disc electrodes, incorporating immobilised peroxidase. At the optimum operating potential (-200 mV vs. calomel electrode), a Linear response to hydrogen peroxide was obtained in the range 0-2 mM (Km value = 1.98 mM). Low sensitivity to pH fluctuations and good stability at room temperature were exhibited.

  • 3.
    HALL, GF
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    AN ORGANIC-PHASE ENZYME ELECTRODE FOR CHOLESTEROL1991In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 1375-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enzyme electrode is described for the determination of cholesterol dissolved in chloroform/hexane (1:1). The enzyme electrode is shown to be applicable to the determination of cholesterol in samples of butter and margarine.

  • 4.
    HU, J
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    AN ENZYME ELECTRODE FOR GLUCOSE CONSISTING OF GLUCOSE-OXIDASE IMMOBILIZED AT A BENZOQUINONE-MODIFIED CARBON ELECTRODE1991In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an amperometric enzyme electrode for the analysis of glucose. The glucose sensor utilised adsorbed benzoquinone on a carbon electrode to mediate electron transfer from glucose oxidase. A linear response to 0-15 mM glucose was observed. The electrodes response to glucose, its pH profile and the effect of temperature are presented.

  • 5.
    Palchetti, I
    et al.
    University Florence, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 OAL, Beds, England; .
    Upjohn, C
    University Florence, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 OAL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Mascini, M
    University Florence, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 OAL, Beds, England; .
    Disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) mercury-free for lead detection2000In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 1231-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies to modify screen-printed electrodes (SPE) for lead determination are reported. Dithizone was mixed with graphite ink to obtain a modified screen-printed strip to detect ppb levels of lead(II) (detection limit 12 mu g/l) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). In addition, screen-printed electrodes were also modified by casting a few mu l of a Nafion(R) solution onto the working electrode surface. In this case, ppb levels of lead were detected (detection limit 15 mu g/l), using potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). The addition of an ionophore to Nafion(R) polymer was also investigated, but this did not yield a significant improvement.

  • 6.
    Rasinger, JD
    et al.
    University Florence, Department Chemistry, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Marrazza, G
    University Florence, Department Chemistry, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Briganti, F
    University Florence, Department Chemistry, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Scozzafava, A
    University Florence, Department Chemistry, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Mascini, M
    University Florence, Department Chemistry, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Evaluation of an FIA operated amperometric bacterial biosensor, based on pseudomonas putida F1 for the detection of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)2005In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 1531-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the development and optimization of a flow injection analysis (FIA) operated bacterial biosensor based on the aerobic catabolism of Pseudomonas putida ML2 was reported in the literature (Lanyon et al. 2004, 2005). By adapting information from these reports, we investigated whether operating parameters and procedures of the benzene biosensor could be directly applied to a new system based on a different bacterial strain for the detection of the whole benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes range. Cells of the investigated bacterial strain, Pseudomonas putida F1, were immobilized between two cellulose acetate membranes and fixed onto a Clark dissolved oxygen electrode. The P. putida F1 aerobically degrades benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene (BTE) (Cho et al. 2000). The BTE biosensor in kinetic mode FIA displayed a linear range of 0.02-0.14 mM benzene (response time: 5 min, baseline recovery time: 15 min), 0.05-0.2 mM toluene (response time: 8 min, baseline recovery time: 20 min), and 0.1-0.2 mM ethylbenzene (response time: 12 min, baseline recovery time: 30 min), respectively. Due to the differences in sensitivity, response, and baseline recovery times for BTE, it was possible to differentiate each compound in mixtures of these volatile organic compounds (VOCs). No response for xylenes could be obtained since they cannot be completely metabolized by this bacterial strain. However, it was reported that the range of compounds degradable by P. putida F1 can possibly be expanded by cultivating the cells on different carbon sources (Choi et al. 2003). The sensor showed good intra- and interassay reproducibility, and all obtained results were comparable with those reported in the literature. The demonstrated reproducibility and the simplicity and ease of use as well as the portability for in situ measurements indicates that the biosensor could be suitable as a reliable initial warning device for elevated BTE levels in indoor and outdoor environments.

  • 7.
    Silva, Eugenia
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Hlth, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, Florence, Italy; .
    Mascini, Marco
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Hlth, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, Florence, Italy; .
    Centi, Sonia
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Hlth, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, Florence, Italy; .
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in milk using a disposable immunomagnetic electrochemical sensor2007In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1371-1385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PCBs are among the most persistent and widely distributed pollutants in the global ecosystem and therefore it is of great importance for both human and environmental health to develop practical analytical systems to detect them. In this context, this work presents the application of an electrochemical immunosensor based on Screen-Printed Carbon-based Electrodes as transducers with antibody-coated magnetic microparticles as a solid phase. The immunoassay was based on direct competition between the analyte present in the samples and an alkaline phosphatase-labeled tracer. The product of the enzymatic reaction between AP and its substrate (alpha-naphthyl phosphate) was detected using differential pulse voltammetry. Sample extraction and clean-up was achieved using Solid Phase Extraction. Detection of low concentrations PCB was achieved and the method was shown to be applicable to both skimmed and whole milk. SPE was shown to improve the analysis.

  • 8.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Krantz-Rülcher, Christina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    A miniaturized voltammetric electronic tongue2008In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 917-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniaturized electronic tongue based on pulsed voltammetry has been developed. It was made by inserting three types of wires acting as working electrodes (gold, platinum, and rhodium, diameter 0.25 mm) into a platinum tube acting as a counter electrode (diameter 2 mm, length 4 mm). The arrangement was connected to a potentiostat controlled by a computer. Due to the small size of the miniaturized electronic tongue, and since no reference electrode is used, the setup is very simple and convenient. In order to characterize the analytical possibilities of the miniaturized electronic tongue, some initial experiments were performed. These include the determination of trace amounts of cadmium and lead (in the µM range) in 5 µL samples. Furthermore, the setup was placed under the real tongue of a volunteer to follow saliva composition during exercise. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 9.
    Zhang, Juankun
    et al.
    Tianjin University Science and Technology, Coll Biotechnol, Minist Educ, Key Lab Ind Microbiol, Tianjin, Peoples R China.
    Dong, Shanmu
    Tianjin University Science and Technology.
    Lu, Jinhui
    Tianjin University Science and Technology.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Fan, Qingjie
    Lanlike Elect Chemistry High Tech Ltd, Tianjin, Peoples R China.
    Jia, Shiru
    Tianjin University Science and Technology.
    Yang, Hongjiang
    Tianjin University Science and Technology.
    Qiao, Changsheng
    Tianjin University Science and Technology.
    Zhou, Hao
    Tianjin University Science and Technology.
    He, Guowei
    TEDA Int Cardiovasc Hospital, Tianjin, Peoples R China.
    A Label Free Electrochemical Nanobiosensor Study2009In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 42, no 17, p. 2905-2913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-porous silicon (PS) is an attractive material for incorporation into biosensors, because it has a large surface area combined with the ability to generate both optical and electrical signals. In this paper, we describe a label-free nanobiosensor for bovine serum albumin (BSA). Nano-porous silicon produced in our laboratory was functionalized prior to immobilization of anti-BSA antibody on the surface. Reaction with BSA in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer resulted in an impedance change which was inversely proportional to the concentration of the analyte. The system PBS buffer/antigen-antibody/PS constitutes an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure, thus furnishing an impedance EIS nanobiosensor. The linear range of the sensor was 0-0.27mgmL-1 and the sensitivity was less than 10 mu g mL-1.

  • 10.
    Zhang, Juankun
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Wu, Yan
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Zhang, Binbin
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Li, Min
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Jia, Shiru
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Jiang, Shuhai
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Zhou, Hao
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Zhang, Yi
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Zhang, Chaozheng
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    LABEL-FREE ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION OF TETRACYCLINE BY AN APTAMER NANO-BIOSENSOR2012In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 986-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel aptamer nano-porous silicon (PS) biosensor was investigated for the rapid determination of tetracyclines. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the behavior of the sensor. The specific binding of tetracycline to the aptamer biosensor led to a decrease in impedance. The corresponding impedance spectra (Nyquist plots) were obtained when serial concentrations of tetracycline were added into the system. An equivalent electrical circuit was used to fit the impedance data. The linear range of the sensor was 2.1-62.4 nM.

  • 11.
    Zhang, Juankun
    et al.
    Tianjin University Science and Technology, Coll Biotechnol, Tianjin Key Lab Ind Microbiol, Tianjin 300457, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds, England; Lanlike Tianjin Electron Chemistry High Tech Ltd, Tianjin, Peoples R China; .
    Zhang, Weiliang
    Tianjin University Science and Technology, Coll Biotechnol, Tianjin Key Lab Ind Microbiol, Tianjin 300457, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds, England; Lanlike Tianjin Electron Chemistry High Tech Ltd, Tianjin, Peoples R China; .
    Dong, Shanmu
    Tianjin University Science and Technology, Coll Biotechnol, Tianjin Key Lab Ind Microbiol, Tianjin 300457, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds, England; Lanlike Tianjin Electron Chemistry High Tech Ltd, Tianjin, Peoples R China; .
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Fan, Qingjie
    Tianjin University Science and Technology, Coll Biotechnol, Tianjin Key Lab Ind Microbiol, Tianjin 300457, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds, England; Lanlike Tianjin Electron Chemistry High Tech Ltd, Tianjin, Peoples R China; .
    Jia, Shiru
    Tianjin University Science and Technology, Coll Biotechnol, Tianjin Key Lab Ind Microbiol, Tianjin 300457, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds, England; Lanlike Tianjin Electron Chemistry High Tech Ltd, Tianjin, Peoples R China; .
    Nano-porous light-emitting silicon chip as a potential biosensor platform2007In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1549-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-porous silicon (PS) offers a potential platform for biosensors with benefits both in terms of light emission and the large functional surface area. A light emitting PS chip with a stable and functional surface was fabricated in our laboratory. When protein was deposited on it, the light emission was reduced in proportion to the protein concentration. Based on this property, we developed a rudimentary demonstration of a label-free sensor to detect bovine serum albumin (BSA). A serial concentration of BSA was applied to the light chip and the reduction in light emission was measured. The reduction of the light intensity was linearly related to the concentration of the BSA at concentrations below 10(-5) M. The detection limit was 8 x 10(-9) M.

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