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  • 1.
    Ahmed Khand, Aftab
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Ahmed Lakho, Saeed
    Univ Karachi, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahmed, Mansoor
    Univ Karachi, Pakistan.
    Aftab, Umair
    MUET, Pakistan.
    Abro, Muhammad Ishaq
    MUET, Pakistan.
    Juno, Awais Ahmed
    Ziauddin Univ, Pakistan.
    Nafady, Ayman
    King Saud Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Synthesis of Sheet Like Nanostructures of NiO Using Potassium Dichromate as Surface Modifying Agent for the Sensitive and Selective Determination of Amlodipine Besylate (ADB) Drug2021In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 1121-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring of hypertension drugs is very critical and important to sustain a healthy life. In this study, we have synthesized nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures using potassium dichromate as surface modifying agent by hydrothermal method. These NiO nanostructures were found highly active for the oxidation of ADB besylate (ADB). The unit cell structure and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The SEM study has confirmed the nano sheet like morphology and XRD analysis has described the cubic unit arrays of NiO. After the physical characterization, NiO nanostructures were used to modify the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by drop casting method. Then cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the electrochemical activity of NiO nanostructures in the0.1 M phosphate buffer solution of pH 10.0 and a well resolved oxidation peak was identified at 0.70 V. The linear range for the NiO nanostructures was observed from 20-90 nM with a regression coefficient of 0.99 using CV. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) was 2.125 nM and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 4.08 nM. Further to validate the CV calibration plot, an amperometry experiment was performed on the NiO nanostructures and sensors exhibited a linear range of 10 nM to 115 nM with LOD of 1.15 nM. The proposed approach was successfully used for the determination of ADB from commercial tablets and it reveals that the sensor could be capitalized to monitor ADB concentrations from pharmaceutical products. The use of potassium dichromate as a surface modifying agent for the metal oxide nanostructures may be of great interest to manipulate their crystal and surface properties for the extended range of biomedical and energy related applications.

  • 2.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hallam, Keith Richard
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Juddin, Siraj
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glutaric Acid Assisted Fabrication of CuO Nanostructures and their Application in Development of Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor System for Carbamates2016In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1634-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the fabrication of unique arrow head shaped CuO nanostructures using simple hydrothermal treatment method. The highly attractive features were obtained by the application of glutaric acid utilised simultaneous as template and functionalising agent. The functionalised nanostructures were known to possess excellent potential towards the electro-catalytic oxidation of carbofuran pesticide. The generated intense electrochemical signal with lower potential value enabled sensitive and selective determination of carbofuran up to 1 x 10(-3) mu M with wide sensing window in range of 0.01 to 0.16 mu M. The feasibility of the developed sensor system for the practical application was also studied by testing its potential in real sample extracts of various vegetables. The excellent recoveries demonstrated the analytical robustness of the developed sensor system. The sensor system utilises a new and simple approach towards sensitive determination of toxic pesticides reflecting its wide spectrum application in various fields.

  • 3.
    Al-Khafaji, Q A M
    et al.
    University of Florence.
    Harris, M
    University of Florence.
    Tombelli, S
    University of Florence.
    Laschi, S
    University of Florence.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mascini, M
    University of Florence.
    Marrazza, G
    University of Florence.
    An Electrochemical Immunoassay for HER2 Detection2012In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 735-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive approach for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) detection is presented, using antibody-functionalised magnetic beads coupled to screen-printed cells. The immunoassay is based on a sandwich format in which a primary monoclonal antibody anti-HER2 is coupled to protein A modified magnetic beads. The modified beads are then used to capture the protein from the sample solution and a sandwich assay is performed by adding a secondary monoclonal antibody anti-HER2 labelled with biotin. The enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated with streptavidin and its substrate (1-naphthyl-phosphate) are then used for the electrochemical detection by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The experimental conditions for the immunoassay were optimised. The performance of the assay in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility and selectivity has been studied in buffer and serum samples from hospital patients.

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  • 4.
    Bhattacharyay, Dipankar
    et al.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, W Bengal, India.
    Dutta, Kakoli
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, W Bengal, India.
    Banerjee, Suchandra
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, W Bengal, India.
    P. F. Turner, Antony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Sarkar, Priyabrata
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, W Bengal, India.
    Disposable amperometric sensors for thiols with special reference to glutathione2008In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 20, no 18, p. 1947-1952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antioxidant reduced glutathione tripeptide is conventionally called glutathione (GSH). The oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked compound. known as glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Glutathione is an essential cofactor for antioxidant enzymes. it provides protection also for the mitochondria against endogenous oxygen radicals. The ratio of these two forms can act as a marker for oxidative stress. The majority of the methods available for estimation of both the forms of glutathione are based on colorimetric and electrochemical assays. In this study, electrochemical sensors were developed for the estimation of both GSH and GSSG. Two different types of transducers were used: i) screen-printed three-electrode disposable sensor (SPE) containing carbon working electrode, carbon counter electrode and silver/silver chloride reference electrode; ii) three-electrode disposable system (CDE) consisting of three copper electrodes. 5.5-dithlobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) was used as detector element for estimation of total reduced thiol content. The enzyme glutathione reductase along with a co-enzyme reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate was used to estimate GSSG. By combining the two methods GSH can also be estimated. The detector elements were immobilized on the working electrodes of the sensors by bulk polymerization of acrylamide. The responses were observed amperometrically. The detection limit for thiol (GSH) was less than 0.6 ppm when DTNB was used. whereas for GSSG it was less than 0.1 ppm.

  • 5.
    Brito, Paula
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Mediated Biocatalytic Electrodes and Enzyme Stabilisation for Power Generation2010In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 22, no 08-jul, p. 732-743Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution considers the origins, principles and recent literature published on enzymatic biofuel cells, with a focus on performance and stability. Modified or new biofuel cell components, such as modified electrodes, new enzymes and the use of new mediators to improve power output and stability are reviewed. The development of biofuel cells to date leaves huge potential for further improvement and practical application. Cooperation between different fields of science is essential to realise important potential applications in human health and power generation; future research needs to achieve this are discussed.

  • 6.
    DICKS, JM
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCE UTILISAT RES LAB,MIDORI KU,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    CARDOSI, MF
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCE UTILISAT RES LAB,MIDORI KU,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    KARUBE, I
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCE UTILISAT RES LAB,MIDORI KU,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    THE APPLICATION OF FERROCENE-MODIFIED N-TYPE SILICON IN GLUCOSE BIOSENSORS1993In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the application of ferrocene-modified n-type silicon electrodes to the anaerobic redox catalysis of glucose oxidase. The electrodes are modified with ferrocene either directly, by using (1,1-ferrocenediyl)dichlorosilane, or via an underlying polypyrrole film. Light-activated catalytic waves are detected in both cases in the presence of glucose oxidase and glucose, thereby demonstrating rapid heterogeneous kinetics between the covalently immobilized mediator and glucose oxidase. A glucose-sensitive electrode is made by simple adsorption of glucose oxidase from an aqueous buffered solution into the surface film.

  • 7.
    H Labrador, Roberto
    et al.
    Molecular Chemistry Applied Institute, Polytechnical University of Valencia. Camino de Vera, s/n. þ34 963877343, 46022 Valencia, Spain.
    Olsson, John
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martinez-Manez, Ramon
    University Politecn Valencia.
    Sotoa, Juan
    Molecular Chemistry Applied Institute, Polytechnical University of Valencia. Camino de Vera, s/n. þ34 963877343, 46022 Valencia, Spain.
    Determination of Bisulfites in Wines with an Electronic Tongue Based on Pulse Voltammetry2009In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 21, no 3-5, p. 612-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic tongue (ET) based on pulse voltammetry is used to predict concentrations of bisulfites in wine samples. The ET array consists of four working electrodes (gold, rhodium, platinum and stainless steel) encapsulated into a stainless steel cylinder used at the same time as both the body of the ET system and the pseudoreference/counter electrode. The ET device is additionally equipped with a self-polishing system. Multivariate analysis including Cross validation and partial least square (PLS) techniques are applied for data management and prediction models building. Ascorbic acid and histamine have also been included in the predictive analysis.

  • 8.
    HALL, GF
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 OAL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    ELECTRON-TRANSFER FROM DIAPHORASE IN WATER TRITON X-100 BUTYL ACETATE MICROEMULSION1994In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 217-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transfer of electrons from an enzyme in a microemulsion system to a glassy carbon electrode, via mediators of different solubilities, is demonstrated. A bienzymic reaction is carried out in a microemulsion formed by the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in butyl acetate. The enzymes used are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and diaphorase (EC 1.8.1.4). ADH catalyzes the conversion of primary alcohols to aldehydes with the concomitant reduction of its cofactor. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD-) to NADH. Diaphorase reoxidizes NADH and can utilize a variety of molecules as an electron acceptor. It is demonstrated that these may be water soluble or solvent soluble.

  • 9.
    Holmin, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krantz-Rulcker, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation of Electrode Materials as Sensors in a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue2002In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 839-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work different electrode materials were investigated as sensors in a voltammetric electronic tongue. Basically, the electronic tongue is based on the combination of nonspecific sensors (electrodes) and pattern recognition tools, for example principal component analysis (PCA). Copper. glassy carbon, nickel, palladium, silver, tin, titanium and zirconium together with more traditional electrode materials such as gold, iridium, and platinum were studied. Cyclic voitammetry was applied to study typical model reactions in solutions containing different electroactive compounds, like ascorbic acid, glucose, histidine and potassium hexacyanoferrate(II). Different sensitivity and selectivity were obtained with the electrodes. Large responses were for example found for the amino acid and the carbohydrate using the copper, nickel and silver electrode. Some of the electrodes were employed in multicomponent solutions, i.e., liquid washing detergents from different suppliers together with differential pulse voltammetry. Responses from the electrodes in combination with PCA showed that they separated the detergents to different extents. This was further used when information from the sensors was merged together for successful discrimination of the detergents. It was found that two detergents close to each other in the score plot were from the same supplier. Furthermore. scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor surface changes at the nonnoble electrodes (copper, nickel, and silver).

  • 10.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mitrou, Nikolaos
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P.
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Psaroudakis, Nikolas
    University of Athens, Greece .
    The Development of Highly Sensitive and Selective Immunosensor Based on Antibody Immobilized ZnO Nanorods for the Detection of D-Dimer2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 292-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrate by low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the characterization of ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods are highly dense, uniform, well aligned and perpendicular-oriented to the substrate. ZnO nanorods exhibited good crystal quality. The well aligned ZnO nanorods were potentially used for the development of selective and sensitive immunosensor for the detection of D-dimer by immobilizing antibody on stabilized lipid films. The ZnO nanorods based immunosensor responded to a wide range of D-dimer concentrations with fast response time of ca. 20s.

  • 11.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Begum Mallah, Arfana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Anjum Shahzad, Sohail
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Bin
    Southwest University, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Cong
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    The Synthesis of Functional Cobalt Oxide Nanostructures, and their Sensitive Glucose Sensing Application2017In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a novel approach is adapted for the synthesis of new nanostructures of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) by low temperature aqueous chemical growth method in the presence of water soluble amino acids such as L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, Lserine and L-threonine. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The nanostructures exhibit well defined morphology and are of high purity. To explore the potential application of the prepared nanostructures of cobalt oxide, the non-enzymatic glucose sensor is developed by modifying the glassy carbon electrode. Serine assisted cobalt oxide nanostructures showed excellent sensitivity of 4169.00 mu A/mMcm(2), wide linear range of 0.01 mM to 20 mM and detection limit was estimated as 0.001 mM (S/N= 3). The analytical parameters for the serine assisted cobalt oxide nanostructures based glucose sensor were evaluated and it was found that the sensor is highly selective, reproducible, repeatable, reversible, and stable. Finally, the practical application of the serine assisted cobalt oxide nanostructures based glucose sensor was examined by measuring the glucose concentrations from real human blood samples.

  • 12.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlSalhi, M. S.
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Urea on the Morphology of Co3O4 Nanostructures and Their Application for Potentiometric Glucose Biosensor2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1773-1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an effect of different concentrations of urea on the morphology of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures was investigated. The Co3O4 nanostructures are fabricated on gold coated glass substrate by the hydrothermal method. The morphological and structural characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The Co3O4 nanostructures exhibit morphology of flowers-like and have comprised on nanowires due to the increasing amount of urea. The nanostructures were highly dense on the substrate and possess a good crystalline quality. The Co3O4 nanostructures were successfully used for the development of a sensitive glucose biosensor. The presented glucose biosensor detected a wide range of glucose concentrations from 1 x 10(-6) M to 1 x 10(-2) M with sensitivity of a -56.85 mV/decade and indicated a fast response time of less than 10 s. This performance could be attributed to the heterogeneous catalysis effect at glucose oxidase enzyme, nanoflowers, and nanowires interfaces, which have enhanced the electron transfer process on the electrode surface. Moreover, the reproducibility, repeatability, stability and selectivity were also investigated. All the obtained results indicate the potential use of the developed glucose sensor for monitoring of glucose concentrations at drugs, human serum and food industry related samples.

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  • 13.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabrication of Sensitive Potentiometric Cholesterol Biosensor Based on Co3O4 Interconnected Nanowires2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1928-1934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly sensitive, selective, reliable and inexpensive cholesterol biosensors are highly demanded for the routine monitoring of cholesterol molecules in order to prevent heart failure incidents. In this study, Co3O4 nanostructures are synthesized using polyvinyl pyrrolidone surfactant as growth template by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology of nanostructures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The nanostructures exhibit interconnected nanowires like morphology with interconnected network of nanowires. The nanostructures of Co3O4 are polycrystalline. The cholesterol oxidase was physically adsorbed on the interconnected nanowires of Co3O4 for the chemical sensing of cholesterol molecules. The sensor device detected a wide range of cholesterol from 1×10−7 M to 1×10−3 M concentrations with sensitivity of −94.031 mV/decade. A detection limit of 0.035×10−7 M cholesterol concentration was observed and a fast response time of 10 s was also noticed. The fabricated device is highly stable, selective, sensitive, reproducible and repeatable. All the collected information about presented cholesterol biosensor indicates its potential application for the monitoring of cholesterol concentrations from human blood serum and real-life samples.

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  • 14.
    Khun, K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Urea Assisted Synthesis of Flower Like CuO Nanostructures and Their Chemical Sensing Application for the Determination of Cadmium Ions2013In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1425-1432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The novel nanostructures of CuO with improved morphology are strongly required for the development of devices with enhanced performance. In this study flower like nanostructures of CuO are synthesized by hydrothermal method using urea as tuning material for the morphology of CuO during the growth process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the characterization of these nanostructures. The nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and well aligned on the gold coated glass substrate. Moreover, CuO nanostructures exhibited pure phase of CuO. These novel CuO nanostructures were potentially used for the construction of cadmium ion sensor by functionalizing with tetrathia-12-crown-4 a selective cadmium ion ionophore. The proposed cadmium ion sensor has detected the wide range of cadmium ion concentrations from 1.0x10-9-1.0x10-1M with a sensitivity of 29.3 +/- 0.3mV/decade and also a fast response time of less than 10.0s is demonstrated. CuO nanostructures based cadmium ion selective electrode has also shown excellent reproducibility, repeatability, selectivity, and stability. The sensor electrode was also used as indicator electrode for the confirmation of practical utility and the obtained result describes the good behavior of the sensor in the potentiometric titration for the determination of cadmium ions.

  • 15.
    Khun, Kimleang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usman Ali, Syed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ouern Chey, Chan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iron Ion Sensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods2012In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 521-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we are presenting an iron ion (Fe3+) potentiometric sensor based on functionalized ZnO nanorods with selective ionophore (18 crown 6). Zinc oxide nanorods with a diameter of about 100 to 150 nm and 1 mu m in length were grown on gold coated glass. The selective Fe3+ ionophore sensor with highly aligned ZnO nanorods showed high sensitivity, acceptable selectivity, reproducibility and a stable signal response for detecting Fe3+. The potentiometric response of the Fe3+ sensor with functionalized ZnO nanorods versus a Ag/AgCl reference electrode was observed to be linear over a logarithmic concentration range from 10-5 M to 10-2 M. The detection limit of the proposed sensor was about 5 mu M, which is lower than the normal blood concentration of Fe3+ which is about 10 mu M and can be up to 30 +/- M. The sensitivity of the proposed Fe3+ sensor was found to be 70.2 +/- 2.81 mV/decade with a regression coefficient R2=0.99 and a response time less than 5 s. The functionalized ZnO nanorods sensor with selective iron ionophore has a life time greater than one month and has shown insignificant interference with other ions usually present in the human blood serum. The proposed sensor was used as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration.

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  • 16.
    Kumari, Renu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Osikoya, Adeniyi Olugbenga
    Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Anku, William Wilson
    Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar
    Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Govender, Penny Poomani
    Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Hierarchically Assembled Two-dimensional Hybrid Nanointerfaces: A Platform for Bioelectronic Applications2018In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 2339-2348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a hybrid two-dimensional nanointerface structure for bioelectronic systems. We fabricated smart hierarchically self-assembled 2D electrobiocatalytic interface system based on the combination of gold nanoparticles doped graphene oxide (GO)-molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) layered nanohybrid, conjugated with poly (N-isopropylacrylamide, PNIPAAm) resulting in GO/AuNPs/MoS2/PNIPAAm interface. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was subsequently immobilized on the GO/AuNPs/MoS2/PNIPAAm interface through electrostatic interactions giving GO/AuNPs/MoS2/PNIPAAm/Peroxidase electrobiocatalytic interface system as a platform for electrobiocatalysis reactions for biosensing and bioelectronic applications. The electrobiocatalytic activity of the nanohybrid interface structure was studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a model analyte. Cyclic Voltammetry showed diffusion controlled electron transfer properties at the interface. The fabricated bioelectrode exhibits a wide linear response to the detection of H2O2 from 1.57 to 11.33mM, with a detection limit of 3.34mM (S/N=3) and a capacitance of 8.6F/cm(2).

  • 17.
    Loughran, MG
    et al.
    ; .
    Hall, JM
    ; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Development of a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) mediated glucose oxidase enzyme electrode for detection of glucose in fruit juice1996In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 870-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemistry of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was examined and the coupling of PQQ with glucose oxidase was studied at different pH values. Optimal interaction between PQQ and glucose oxidase was observed at pH 3.5. Results from these studies enabled construction of PQQ-glucose oxidase-modified enzyme electrodes for the detection of glucose in Ribena blackcurrant juice. The corresponding amperometric determination of glucose was in good agreement with results obtained using commercial enzymatic test kits supplied by Boehringer Mannheim and Sigma Diagnostics.

  • 18.
    Lvova, Larisa
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Mastroianni, Marco
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Di Natale, Corrado
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Towards Hyphenated Sensors Development: Design and Application of Porphyrin Electropolymer Materials2012In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 776-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peculiar properties of porphyrins allow their exploitation as sensing materials in chemical sensors having different transduction principles, or even the intriguing possibility to develop sensors where two different transduction mechanisms are hyphenated in the same substrate. This approach can allow a significant increase in the chemical information obtained from the device and it can boost the performances in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. Our recent achievements in the field of functionalized porphyrins application for the development of the hyphenated optoelectrochemical sensors will be discussed in this contribution.

  • 19.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    et al.
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.
    Li, Yongjun
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.
    Lau, Wan Keung
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.
    Trau, Dieter
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.
    Nanoengineered encapsulation of mediator microcrystals and their use as a non-metallic label system for the silver enhancement technique2004In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 156-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the nanoengineered encapsulation and functionalization of mediator microcrystals and their use as a non-metallic bioassay label system for the silver enhancement technology. Mediator microcrystals were encapsulated and functionalized by using a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) based approach. This is a generic way to transform most low-soluble mediators (e.g., ferroceneacetic acid) into a label for electrochemical bioassays. Instead of using conventional gold particles, encapsulated mediator microcrystals are used as the primary label for the silver enhancement technique. After the biorecognition reaction the unbound labels were separated and a silver(I) ion solution was added. The mediator reduces silver ions into metallic silver and the mediator microcrystal was transformed into a silver particle. Consecutively a reducing agent was added leading to a further silver growth, representing the silver enhancement step. A large amount of silver was developed from the mediator, resulting in signal amplification. The amount of developed silver was studied in a bioassay and was found proportional to the analyte concentration.

  • 20.
    MORRIS, NA
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; PAISLEY COLL TECHNOL,DEPT BIOL,PAISLEY PA1 2BE,RENFREW,SCOTLAND; UNILEVER RES,COLWORTH LAB,SHARNBROOK MK44 1LQ,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    CARDOSI, MF
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; PAISLEY COLL TECHNOL,DEPT BIOL,PAISLEY PA1 2BE,RENFREW,SCOTLAND; UNILEVER RES,COLWORTH LAB,SHARNBROOK MK44 1LQ,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    BIRCH, BJ
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; PAISLEY COLL TECHNOL,DEPT BIOL,PAISLEY PA1 2BE,RENFREW,SCOTLAND; UNILEVER RES,COLWORTH LAB,SHARNBROOK MK44 1LQ,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPILLARY FILL DEVICE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GLUCOSE INCORPORATING GLUCOSE-OXIDASE AND RUTHENIUM(III) HEXAMINE AS MEDIATOR1992In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a coulometric measurement device for glucose based on thin-layer bulk electrolysis. The analysis is carried out in a specially constructed cell, the electrochemical capillary fill device, which has a total volume of less than 20-mu-l. Once the sample enters the cell by capillary action, the freeze-dried assay components (glucose oxidase, ruthenium (III) hexamine, buffer salts, etc.) become solubilized and quickly disperse throughout the volume of the cell. After a period of one min, the time taken for the enzyme catalyzed oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid to reach completion, a potential step is applied and the current transient, resulting from the oxidation of reduced mediator at the working electrode, integrated over a period of 60 s. From the resultant charge value, the concentration of glucose in the sample can be unambiguously determined. The response of the sensor is both linear and accurate over the range 2-30 mM, which covers the normally accepted range for blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. The second order rate constant for the reaction between reduced glucose oxidase and ruthenium (III) hexamine was evaluated by conducting a numerically based analysis that was designed to separate the diffusional and catalytic components of current transients.

  • 21.
    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Israr, Muhammad Q.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tzamtzis, Nikolaos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P.
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Psaroudakis, Nikolas
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Structural Characterization of Graphene Nanosheets for Miniaturization of Potentiometric Urea Lipid Film Based Biosensors2012In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1285-1295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article describes a miniaturized potentiometric urea lipid film based biosensor on graphene nanosheets. Structural characterization of graphene nanosheets for miniaturization of potentiometric urea lipid film based biosensors have been studied through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. UV-Vis and Fourrier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy have been utilized to study the pre- and postconjugated surfaces of graphene nanosheets. The presented potentiometric urea biosensor exhibits good reproducibility, reusability, selectivity, rapid response times (similar to 4 s), long shelf life and high sensitivity of ca. 70 mV/decade over the urea logarithmic concentration range from 1 x 10(-6) M to 1 x 10(-3) M.

  • 22.
    Ogurtsov, Vladimir
    et al.
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Beni, Valerio
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Strutwolf, Jörgen
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Arrigan, Damien
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Study of the Effects of Nonlinear Potential Sweeps on Voltammetry2009In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 68-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voltammetric methods use a constant sweep rate during the course of a scan. This paper reports a study of theinfluence of a nonconstant sweep rate on the voltammetric response. In this approach, either continuously increasingor continuously decreasing potential scan rates can be employed, unlike presently available methods which rely on aconstant sweep rate. The voltammetric response of potassium ferrocyanide at a glassy carbon electrode was used as amodel system to test the new method. The responses obtained using traditional staircase voltammetry (linear staircasevoltammetry) and the new approach (nonlinear staircase voltammetry) were compared by experiment and bysimulation. The new approach offers capability for signal enhancement, whereby enhanced current or enhanced peakshape can be obtained by choice of appropriate waveform parameters.

  • 23.
    Piletsky, SA
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Electrochemical sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers2002In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 317-323Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted broad interest from scientists engaged in sensor development. This attention can be explained by the serious potential advantages of using MIPs in pi ace of natural receptors and enzymes such as their superior stability, low cost and easy preparation. This review encompasses recent achievements in molecular imprinting related to the area of sensor technology. Since electrochemical biosensors dominate the market and due to specific requirements of this journal, the emphasis of this review will be on the development of electrochemical MIP sensors. The problems associated with application of imprinted polymers in sensors are highlighted and possible solutions indicated. The commercial potential of MIP-based sensors is analyzed in the expectation that they can offer improved performance in the analytical market place.

  • 24.
    Psychoyios, Vasillios N.
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Tzamtzis, Nikolaos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P.
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Psaroudakis, Nikolas
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Danielsson, Bengt
    Acromed Invest AB, Lund, Sweden .
    Israr Qadir, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potentiometric Cholesterol Biosensor Based on ZnO Nanowalls and Stabilized Polymerized Lipid Film2013In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 367-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel potentiometric cholesterol biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of cholesterol oxidase into stabilized lipid films using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowalls as measuring electrode. Cholesterol oxidase was incorporated into the lipid film prior polymerization on the surface of ZnO nanowalls resulting in a sensitive, selective, stable and reproducible cholesterol biosensor. The potentiometric response was 57mV/ decade concentration. The sensor response had no interferences by normal concentrations of ascorbic acid, glucose, and urea, proteins and lipids. The present biosensor could be implanted in the human body because of the biocompatibility of the lipid film.

  • 25.
    Saha, Suparna
    et al.
    University of Calcutta, India.
    Sarkar, Priyabrata
    University of Calcutta, India.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interference-Free Electrochemical Detection of Nanomolar Dopamine Using Doped Polypyrrole and Silver Nanoparticles2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 2197-2206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach to detect dopamine in nanomolar range using an electrochemical sensor utilizing a composite made of chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles and p-toluene sulfonic acid-doped ultrathin polypyrrole film. Studies included cyclic voltammogram, amperometry, differential pulse voltammetry and also investigation by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A detection limit of 0.58 nM was achieved in the linear range 1 x 10(-9) M to 1.2 x 10(-7) M. High sensitivity towards DA, good reproducibility and long-term stability have been demonstrated without interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid, epinephrine, l-dopa, glucose. The sensing system was successfully applied for quantitative determination of dopamine in commercially available human blood serum.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Sarkar, P.
    et al.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, India.
    Ghosh, D.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, India.
    Bhattacharyay, D.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, India.
    J. Setford, S.
    Cranfield University, Bedford MK45 4DT, England.
    P. F. Turner, A.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Electrochemical immunoassay for free prostate specific antigen (f-PSA) using magnetic beads2008In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 20, no 13, p. 1414-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a prominent marker for the prostate carcinoma. It is found in human blood in free (f-PSA) and complex forms. These two forms together are called total PSA (t-PSA). Estimation of both forms is essential to predict malignancy. In this study we report a unique and effective technique of electrochemical detection of f-PSA using magnetic beads on a three-electrode screen-printed sensor. A magnetic bead enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed in a cuvette. Following the immunoassay, magnetic beads were recovered by a magnetic concentrator and transferred on the working electrode of the 3-electrode assembly. The amperometric response, a measure of the amount of residual enzyme activity on the beads and hence the concentration of analyte in solution, was determined by addition of enzyme substrate. The device has a detection limit of less than0.1 ng mL(-1) f-PSA and a linear range of 0 to 1 ng mL(-1) f-PSA.

  • 27.
    Shaikh, Tayyaba
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zaffar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Talpur, Farah N.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sirajuddin,
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Khaskheli, Abdul Rauf
    haheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Larkana, Pakistan.
    Agheem, Muhammad H.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Siddiqui, Samia
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu, Cong
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Selective and Sensitive Nitrite Sensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified by Silver Nanochains2017In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 415-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we report a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanochains (Ag nanochains) using pyridine as growth directing agent and citrate ions as capping agents in alkaline medium. The characterization of the synthesized high aspect ratio Ag nanochains was accomplished with the help of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) which demonstrates the thickness below 100nm. Crystalline nature of the synthesized Ag nanochains was investigated using X-ray diffractrometry. A sensitive electrochemical nitrite sensor was assembled using synthesized Ag nanochains as electrode modifier. An improved cyclic voltammetric response for the oxidation of nitrite ions was witnessed at the modified GCE surface in comparison to bare GCE in Britton Robinson (BR) buffer (pH4). The influence of pH on the oxidation peak current of nitrite ions was also examined using cyclic voltammetry. The electrocatalytic oxidation currents attained through amperometric measurements at Ag nanochains modified GCE were linearly dependent on the concentration of nitrite ions in the two ranges of 0.5-7.5 mu M, 5-480 mu M. Linear calibration plots of Ip vs. concentration of nitrite were also constructed at the proposed sensor using square wave voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed sensing strategy was successfully employed for the determination of nitrite in water samples with excellent recoveries.

  • 28.
    Sobkowiak, Marek
    et al.
    Poznan University of Tech, Poland .
    Sokalski, Tomasz
    Abo Akad University, Finland .
    Lewenstam, Andrzej
    Abo Akad University, Finland .
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milczarek, Grzegorz
    Poznan University of Tech, Poland .
    Electrochemistry and Ion Sensing Properties of Conducting Hydrogel Layers Based on Polypyrrole and Alkoxysulfonated Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-S)2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 739-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidic aqueous solutions containing pyrrole and alkoxysulfonated PEDOT derivative (PEDOT-S) were found to undergo polymerization in the absence of an external oxidizing agent. The product was a nearly black-colored conducting hydrogel that after separation could be dispersed in water or acetone. The suspensions could be used to deposit cast films on a polycrystalline gold electrode. The polymer modified electrode showed a nearly Nernstian potentiometric response to Ag+ cations in the concentration range of 10(-5)-10(-1)M with the slope of 54mV/decade. The response was specific to Ag+ compared to a series of alkali and transition-metal cations (pK(Ag/M)greater than3.7).

  • 29.
    Szymanski, Mateusz
    et al.
    Natl Phys Lab, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middx, England.
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Porter, Robert
    Natl Phys Lab, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middx, England.
    Electrochemical Dissolution of Silver Nanoparticles and Its Application in Metalloimmunoassay2010In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates the use of silver nanoparticles as a simple electrochemical biolabel to induce 10(6) signal enhancement. We propose it mechanism of measuring the silver nanoparticles oil a specific screen-printed planar carbon electrode, without the requirement for the harsh oxidant or toxic reagents described in prior-art for gold sol methods. The possible measurement process was validated with orthogonal techniques such as UV/Vis spectroscopy. dynamic light scattering and by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The findings Were utilized to develop a novel electrochemical sandwich immunoassay where the analyte concentration is directly proportional to ASV oxidation peak of silver. This technique in the future is envisaged to form the foundation of a generic Point of Care platform. The assay was applied to cardiac marker: myoglobin with detection limit of 3 ng/mL.

  • 30.
    Tzamtzis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Psychoyios, Vasillios N
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Psaroudakis, Nikolas
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Israr Qadir, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flow Potentiometric Injection Analysis of Uric Acid Using Lipid Stabilized Films with Incorporated Uricase on ZnO Nanowires2012In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 1719-1725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel potentiometric uric acid biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of uricase into stabilized lipid films using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires as measuring electrode. Uricase was incorporated into the lipid film prior polymerization on the surface of well aligned ZnO nanowires resulting in a sensitive, selective, stable and reproducible uric acid biosensor. The potentiometric response was twice as large from previously reported values due to the presence of a cationic lipid in the lipid film. The sensor response had no interferences by normal concentrations of ascorbic acid, glucose, urea, proteins and lipids.

  • 31.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wannapob, Rodtichoti
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Liu, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Potential-modulated Electrocapacitive Properties of Soft Microstructured Polypyrrole2017In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 203-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructured materials are becoming important for high performance electrochemical device especially for energy storage due to their advantageous diffusion and flux properties. Utilizing a rationally designed hollow structured polypyrrole microparticles (PPyMPs) with controllable wall thicknesses of -110 to 340 nm, we observed a significant morphological effect on electrocapacitive kinetics of the PPyMPs modulated by the voltammetric potential window and scan rate. The thinhollow architecture of PPyMPs revealed significant enhancement of charge storage performance (up to 447%), high retention at high scan rate and faster charge/dis-charge kinetics compared to the thick-hollow PPyMPs due to the larger accessible surface area and decrease of diffusion length. These findings demonstrated the electrocapacitive kinetics performance of microstructured soft materials related to morphological effect modulated by operational conditions. Our study provides new insight on electrochemistry of soft electrode materials with controlled nanostructured morphology for understanding the mechanism of charge insertion and mass diffusion for the future development of high performance porous electrode material.

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  • 32.
    WHITE, SF
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; GESELL BIOTECHNOL FORSCH MBH,W-3300 BRAUNSCHWEIG,GERMANY; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    SCHMID, RD
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; GESELL BIOTECHNOL FORSCH MBH,W-3300 BRAUNSCHWEIG,GERMANY; .
    BILITEWSKI, U
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; GESELL BIOTECHNOL FORSCH MBH,W-3300 BRAUNSCHWEIG,GERMANY; .
    BRADLEY, J
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; GESELL BIOTECHNOL FORSCH MBH,W-3300 BRAUNSCHWEIG,GERMANY; .
    INVESTIGATIONS OF PLATINIZED AND RHODINIZED CARBON ELECTRODES FOR USE IN GLUCOSE SENSORS1994In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 625-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphite electrodes were modified by the electrodeposition of either platinum or rhodium, using cyclic voltammetry. Following only brief periods nf treatment, plantinized carbon electrodes were able to directly oxidize glucose at a potential of +350 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). By narrowing both the potential range of deposition (-450 to -500 mV) and cycling period (50 seconds at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1)), the effects of direct glucose oxidation could be significantly: reduced. Detection of H2O2 at +400 mV was possible; glucose enzyme electrodes were constructed, with glucose oxidase immobilized in hydroxyethylcellulose and operated at this potential. These sensors had a linear range of 0.1 to 25 mM glucose and a slope of 8 nA/mM. Other electrodes were prepared by the electrodeposition of rhodium. These base electrodes proved to be insensitive to glucose and produced higher currents (compared to low platinum electrodes) to H2O2. Glucose sensors were constructed using rhodinized electrodes. Again operating at +400 mV, these sensors had a linear range from 0.1 to 20 mM and a slope of 21 nA/mM glucose.

  • 33.
    Zhao, Qian
    et al.
    Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yilin
    Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhouxiaolong
    Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Dai, Li
    Dalian Med Univ, Peoples R China; Dalian Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xuhan
    Dalian Municipal Cent Hosp, Peoples R China; Dalian Municipal Cent Hosp, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Yanhui
    Dalian Minzu Univ, Peoples R China; Dalian Minzu Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Nan
    Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    A flexible ammonia sensor based on MXene membrane with high sensitivity2024In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia (NH3) of high concentration will pose a threat to ecological environment or human health, and exhaled NH3 is significant in disease monitoring and diagnosis. Thus, developing a highly sensitive gas sensor is significant to monitor NH3 concentration in complex environments. However, traditional NH3 sensors either need high working temperature, or face the challenge of poor conductivity/ sensitivity. In this work, NH3 sensors based on self-assembled MXene membrane have been fabricated. As-prepared sensors show a high sensitivity of 2.10 ppm-1 towards extremely low concentrations of NH3 (ppb level) at room temperature, attributed to large surface area and high conductivity. In addition, the sensors also display low detection limit (50 ppb), fast response time (41 s), good recoverability, long-term stability (15 days) and excellent flexibility (1000 bending cycles) towards NH3. The results provide insights into the development of highly sensitive NH3 sensors for industrial or biomedical applications. image

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