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  • 1.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Richard Hallam, Keith
    University of Bristol, England.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sanam Sirajjuddin; Memon, Safia
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amino acid assisted growth of CuO nanostructures and their potential application in electrochemical sensing of organophosphate pesticide2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 190, p. 972-979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports a highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for organophosphate pesticide (malathion) based on unique and attractive CuO nanostructures. The discussed nanostructures were synthesized using low temperature hydrothermal growth method utilizing green amino acids such as glycine, serine, threonine and histidine as effective bio-compatible templates. The morphological evaluation demonstrated formation of unique and attractive 1-D nanostructures reflecting the effective growth controlling and directing capabilities of the utilized amino acids. The as-synthesized CuO nanostructures were noted to possess high affinity towards malathion which enabled their application as electrode material for the development of affinity based electrochemical sensor. Although, the as-synthesized morphologies were all sensitive towards malathion but the glycine directed triangular flake-like nanostructures exhibited greater sensitivity compared to other competitors. The electrochemical behaviour of the modified electrodes was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) whereas, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was utilized for the analytical evaluation of the sensor. The developed sensor demonstrated high reproducibility, stability, wide detection window (1-12 nM), and sensitivity to detect malathion up to 0.1 nM based on suppressive signal measurement. In addition, the sensor system exhibited high anti-interference capability in the presence of common co-existing pesticides like lindane, carbendazim, and trichlorfon. The developed sensor provides an effective measure for detecting extremely low concentration of malathion with wide applicability in various fields. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Anwar, Nargis
    et al.
    Dundalk Inst Technol, Ireland.
    Armstrong, Gordon
    Univ Limerick, Ireland.
    Laffir, Fathima
    Univ Limerick, Ireland.
    Dickinson, Calum
    Univ Limerick, Ireland.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McCormac, Timothy
    Dundalk Inst Technol, Ireland.
    Redox switching of polyoxometalate-doped polypyrrole films in ionic liquid media2018In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 265, p. 254-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface immobilization of the parent Dawson polyoxometalate (POM) as a counter-ion for the electropolymerization of polypyrrole (PPy) or as an electrode-adhered solid was utilized for voltammetric studies of the surface adhered POM in room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Illustrating the efficiency of intermediate stabilization, voltammetry at POM-modified electrodes in a PF6-based RTIL revealed richer redox behaviour and higher stabilization in comparison with aqueous electrolytes and with BF4-based RTIL, respectively. High stability of the POM-doped PPy towards continuous charge-discharge voltammetric redox cycles was confirmed by minor changes in film morphology observed after the cycling in RTILs. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-12-15 13:11
  • 3.
    Cioffi, Nicola
    et al.
    University Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Colaianni, Lorenzo
    Schaefer S E Europe SRL Italy.
    Ieva, Eliana
    Solvay Solexis SpA.
    Pilolli, Rosa
    University Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Ditaranto, Nicoletta
    University Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Daniela Angione, Maria
    University Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Cotrone, Serafina
    University Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Buchholt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sabbatini, Luigia
    University Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Torsi, Luisa
    University Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Electrosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles for electronic capacitance sensing of pollutants2011In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 3713-3720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, gold/surfactant core/shell colloidal nanoparticles with a controlled morphology and chemical composition have been obtained via the so-called sacrificial anode technique, carried out in galvanostatic mode. As synthesized Au-NPs had an average core diameter comprised between 4 and 8 nm, as a function of the electrochemical process experimental conditions. The UV-Vis characterization of gold nanocolloids showed clear spectroscopic size effects, affecting both the position and width of the nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance peak. The nanomaterial surface spectroscopic characterization showed the presence of two chemical states, namely nanostructured Au(0) (its abundance being higher than 90%) and Au(I). Au-NPs were then deposited on the top of a capacitive field effect sensor and subjected to a mild thermal annealing aiming at removing the excess of stabilizing surfactant molecules. Au-NP sensors were tested towards some gases found in automotive gas exhausts. The sensing device showed the largest response towards NOx, and much smaller - if any - responses towards interferent species such as NH3, H-2, CO, and hydrocarbons.

  • 4.
    Eskhult, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ulrich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Current oscillations during chronoamperometric and cyclic voltammetric measurements in alkaline Cu(II)-citrate solutions2008In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 2188-2197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that current oscillations can be observed during chronoamperometric and cyclic voltammetric experiments in solutions containing 0.4 M CuSO4 and 1.2 M citrate at pH 11 and 50 °C. The oscillations, which are shown to originate from local variations in the pH, result in the deposition of nanostructured Cu and Cu2O materials. It is concluded that the current oscillations are analogous to the previously described potential oscillations obtained under controlled current conditions in alkaline Cu(II)-lactate, -tartrate and -citrate solutions. Rotating disk electrode results clearly show that the reduction of the Cu(II)-complexes is kinetically controlled and that the rate of the reduction increases with increasing pH and temperature. It is also shown that the presence of a cathodic peak on the anodic scan in the cyclic voltammograms can be used to identify the experimental conditions leading to the spontaneous current (or potential) oscillations. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance results indicate that the cathodic peak stems from an increased rate of the reduction of the Cu(II)-citrate complexes due to a rapid increase in the local pH. This causes Cu2O rather than Cu to be deposited which, however, results in a decrease in the local pH and a decreasing current. In situ ellipsometry data confirm that Cu2O deposition replaces that of Cu in the potential region of the cathodic peak. The present findings should facilitate syntheses of nanolayered materials based on spontaneous potential or current oscillations.

  • 5.
    Gunnarsson Sarius, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leisner, P.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden/Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Wang, X
    Acreo AB, Norrköping/Kista, Sweden.
    Svensson, M.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping/Kista, Sweden.
    Vieider, C.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping/Kista, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemically based low-cost high precision processing in MOEMS packaging2009In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 54, no 9, p. 2458-2465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precision processing in MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) packaging has been studied based on electrochemical processes with the purpose of establishing technology for low-cost multifunctional encapsulation of microsystems and assembly of opto-electric access links in polymer.

    The electrochemically based processes studied in this paper include:

    1. Electroforming of a polymer moulding tool (stamper) in a nickel sulphamate electrolyte on a highprecision 3D etched silicon template.

    2. Patterning of 3D surfaces by an electrophoretic photoresist.

    3. Precision plating of Au and Sn for self-alignment of chips by eutectic Au-Sn solder.

    The results show that nickel stampers with adequately low internal stress can be electroformed on 3D silicon wafers. Furthermore, 3D polymer samples manufactured by the nickel stampers can be patterned with metal lines down to 20 mu m width using electrophoretic photoresist. Finally, eutectic Au-Sn solder bumps are realized by electroplating of Au and Sn followed by reflowing, satisfying the demands on dimension and alloy composition control over a 4 in. Si wafer.

  • 6.
    Hatamie, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Echresh, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication and characterization of highly-ordered Zinc Oxide nanorods on gold/glass electrode, and its application as a voltammetric sensor2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 174, p. 1261-1267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel voltammetric determination of amoxicillin (AMX) sensor has been fabricated, using zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown directly on gold/glass electrode. To prepare an electrode, ZnO NRs were directly grown on Au sputtered (thickness: 100 nm) glass substrate (gold/glass electrode) with hydrothermal method. The directly synthesized ZnO NRs on the electrode expressively increases NRs attachment vertically, and increase its specific surface area. ZnO NRs/gold/glass electrode was characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) techniques, and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystal quality. The performance of the electrode was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (alpha) and chronoamperometry (CA). The parameters of charge transfer coefficient (k(h)), diffusion coefficient (D), electrode surface area (A), and catalytic rate constant (4) were determined, and the results were studied. The electro catalytic current of AMX was found to have a linear relation to concentration over the range of 5 x 10(-6) M - 250 x 10(-6) M (n=6). The good performance of the electrode is due to more immobilization on the well-aligned ZnO NRs arrays, and direct electron conduction between the ZnO NRs and the electrodes. Further, the sensor also showed a promising application for detecting AMX in capsule sample. The ease of fabrication, acceptable stability, and low cost of the modified electrode are the promising features of the proposed sensor.

  • 7.
    Holmin, Susanne
    et al.
    Permascand AB, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sigurdur Ingason, Arni
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zimmerman, Erik
    Permascand AB, Sweden.
    Corrosion of ruthenium dioxide based cathodes in alkaline medium caused by reverse currents2014In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 146, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reverse current obtained during power shutdowns in industrial processes, such as chlor-alkali production or alkaline water electrolysis, is deleterious for hydrogen evolving ruthenium dioxide (Ru02) based cathodes. It has been observed that RuO2 coatings after a power shutdown, necessary for e.g. maintenance, are severely damaged unless polarization rectifiers are employed. In this work we show why these types of cathodes are sensitive to reverse currents, i.e. anodic currents, after hydrogen evolution. RuO2 coatings deposited on nickel substrates were subjected to different electrochemical treatments such as hydrogen evolution, oxygen evolution, or reverse currents in 8 M NaOH at 90 degrees C. Polarity inversion was introduced after hydrogen evolution to simulate the effect of reverse currents. Because of chemical interaction with hydrogen, a significant amount of the RuO2 coating was transformed into hydroxylated species during cathodic polarization. Our study shows that these hydroxylated phases are highly sensitive to electrochemical corrosion during anodic polarization after extended hydrogen evolution.

  • 8.
    Idla, K.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Tallinn Tech. Univ., Ehitajate T., Tallinn, Estonia.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Strandberg, M.
    Edison Centre, Pikk 39, 10133, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Good adhesion between chemically oxidized titanium and electrochemically deposited polypyrrole2000In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 45, no 13, p. 2121-2130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for producing extremely adhesive polypyrrole (Ppy) films is described. The electrochemical synthesis of Ppy on thin chemically pre-oxidized Ti layers produces a mechanically strong, shiny polymer film with extremely good adhesion. Adhesion of Ppy films on Ti metal without chemical pre-oxidation is very weak. Two multilayer systems are described with Ppy as an electrochemically active layer, chemically oxidized Ti (TixOy) as a thin adhesive layer, and either a Si-wafer or Al foil as a substrate. Ppy films survive more than 6000 reduction-oxidation cycles in aqueous electrolyte without delamination. The possible mechanisms of enhanced adhesion are discussed. Those are: (1) increased adhesion due to changes in the chemical composition and surface structure of the pre-oxidized Ti, (2) the possibility of the chemical oxidation of pyrrole on the metal surface in addition to the electrochemical polymerization, (3) the adsorption of pyrrole molecules onto pre-oxidized Ti surface by interaction with Ti hydroxides on surface, and (4) the simultaneous growth of TixOy and Ppy.

  • 9.
    Imar, Shahzad
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute Technology, Ireland.
    Yaqub, Mustansara
    Dundalk Institute Technology, Ireland.
    Maccato, Chiara
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Dickinson, Calum
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Laffir, Fathima
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McCormac, Timothy
    Dundalk Institute Technology, Ireland.
    Nitrate and Nitrite Electrocatalytic Reduction at Layer-by-Layer Films Composed of Dawson-type Heteropolyanions Mono-substituted with Transitional Metal Ions and Silver Nanoparticles2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 184, p. 323-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of Dawson-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) mono-substituted with transitional metal ions ((alpha 2)- [P2W17O61FeIII](8-), (alpha 2)-[P2W17O61CuII](8-) and (alpha 2)-[P2W17O61NiII](8-)) have exhibited electrocatalytic properties towards nitrate and nitrite reduction in slightly acidic media (pH 4.5). The immobilization of these HPAs into water-processable films developed via layer-by layer assembly with polymer-stabilized silver nanoparticles led to the fabrication of the electrocatalytic interfaces for both nitrate and nitrite reduction. The LBL assembly as well as the changes in the HPA properties by immobilization has been characterized by electrochemical methods. The effects of the substituent ions, outer layers and the cationic moieties utilized for the films assembly of the developed film on the performances of nitrate electrocatalysis has been elucidated. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ghosh, S.
    Phase engineering for enhanced electrochromism in conjugated polymers2001In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 46, no 13-14, p. 2031-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of nanostructured blends of electrochromic polymers formed by self-assembly is reported. We have prepared blends of a polythiophene derivative, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polypyrrole, combining optical and electrochemical properties of the two polymers. The route towards these blends is based on self-assembly of the former polymer into a hydrogel, and subsequent electrochemical polymerisation of the latter using the conducting hydrogel matrix as a template. When used as electrodes, these materials show very fast electrochromic response. The route used in the present work is generic and may be extended to other polymers. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 11.
    Kupis-Rozmyslowicz, Justyna
    et al.
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Wagner, Michal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bobacka, Johan
    Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Lewenstam, Andrzej
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland; Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Migdalski, Jan
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Biomimetic membranes based on molecularly imprinted conducting polymers as a sensing element for determination of taurine2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 188, p. 537-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecularly Imprinted Conducting Polymer based films (MICP films) devoted for the taurine determination is described. MICP films were electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, acetic acid thiophene, fiavin mononucleotide, and taurine. The presence of taurine inside freshly deposited MICP films as well as absence of taurine in the outer layer of the MICP film after extraction process was confirmed by the XPS spectra. It was found that after taurine extraction, MICP films can be used as a potentiometric sensor giving close to Nernstian response towards taurine equal to 53.8 +/- 2.6 mV/p[taurine] in the concentration range 10(-2) to 10(-4) mol.dm(-3). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Laskova, Barbora
    et al.
    ASCR, Czech Republic; Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic.
    Moehl, Thomas
    Swiss Federal Institute Technology, Switzerland.
    Kavan, Ladislav
    ASCR, Czech Republic; Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic.
    Zukalova, Marketa
    ASCR, Czech Republic.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yella, Aswani
    Swiss Federal Institute Technology, Switzerland.
    Comte, Pascal
    Swiss Federal Institute Technology, Switzerland.
    Zukal, Arnost
    ASCR, Czech Republic.
    Khaja Nazeeruddin, Mohammad
    Swiss Federal Institute Technology, Switzerland.
    Graetzel, Michael
    Swiss Federal Institute Technology, Switzerland.
    Electron Kinetics in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Anatase with (101) and (001) Facets2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 160, p. 296-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two phase-pure nanocrystalline anatase materials differing in the exposed crystal facets (001) or (101) are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and by transient photovoltage and photocurrent decay in dye sensitized solar cells. A larger chemical capacitance, indicating larger density of states, is observed for anatase (001). The presence of deep electron traps in (001) nanosheets is further confirmed by optical (UV-Vis) and photoemission (XPS, UPS) spectra. The difference in chemical capacitance indicates a slower diffusion of electrons in the (001) anatase material, but also a higher electron lifetime compared to (101) anatase material. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    et al.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Département des Matériaux et Procédés, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium.
    Brédas, J. L.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Département des Matériaux et Procédés, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium.
    Dannetun, Per
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Département des Matériaux et Procédés, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium.
    Fredriksson, C.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Département des Matériaux et Procédés, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium.
    Stafström, Sven
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Département des Matériaux et Procédés, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The chemical and electronic structure of the interface between aluminum and conjugated polymers1994In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical and electronic structure of the interface between aluminum and several proto-typical conjugated systems is investigated with a combined experimental and theoretical approach. The experiments consists of following the evolution of the polymer surface during the early stages of aluminum deposition, with X-ray and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopies (XPS, UPS). In parallel, quantum chemical calculations are performed on model oligomer systems interacting with isolated Al atoms. Aluminum is found to interact strongly with the polymer chain. New covalent Al-carbon bonds are formed along the polymer backbone; the chain geometry is deeply modified and the π electron conjugation can be dramatically reduced.

  • 14.
    Naseer, Rashda
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute Technology, Ireland .
    Sankar Mal, Sib
    Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany .
    Ibrahim, Masooma
    Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany .
    Kortz, Ulrich
    Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany .
    Armstrong, Gordon
    University of Limerick, Ireland .
    Laffir, Fathima
    University of Limerick, Ireland .
    Dickinson, Calum
    University of Limerick, Ireland .
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McCormac, Timothy
    Dundalk Institute Technology, Ireland .
    Redox, surface and electrocatalytic properties of layer-by-layer films based upon Fe(III)-substituted crown polyoxometalate [P8W48O184Fe16(OH)(28)(H2O)(4)](20-)2014In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 134, p. 450-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrocatalytic ability of the iron-substituted crown-type polyoxometalate (POM) Li4K16[P8W48O184Fe16(OH)(28)(H2O)(4)]center dot 66H(2)O center dot 2KCl (P8W48Fe16) towards the reduction of both nitrite and hydrogen peroxide reduction has been studied in both the solution and immobilized states for the POM. P8W48Fe16 was surface immobilised onto carbon electrode surfaces through employment of the layer-by-layer technique (LBL) using pentaerythritol-based Ru(II)-metallodendrimer [RuD](PF6)(8) as the cationic layer within the resulting films. The constructed multilayer films have been extensively studied by various electrochemical techniques and surface based techniques. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy have been utilized to monitor the construction of the LBL film after the deposition of each monolayer. The electrochemical behaviour of both a cationic and anionic redox probes at the LBL films has been undertaken to give indications as to the films porosity. The elemental composition and the surface morphology of the LBL films was conifmrde through the employment of AFM, XPS and SEM.

  • 15.
    Naseer, Rashda
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute Technology, Ireland.
    Sankar Mal, Sib
    Jacobs University of Bremen, Germany.
    Kortz, Ulrich
    Jacobs University of Bremen, Germany.
    Armstrong, Gordon
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Laffir, Fathima
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Dickinson, Calum
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McCormac, Timothy
    Dundalk Institute Technology, Ireland.
    Electrocatalysis by crown-type polyoxometalates multi-substituted by transition metal ions: Comparative study2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 176, p. 1248-1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difference in electrochemical properties of three crown-type polyoxometalates multi-substituted by Fe3+, Ni2+ or Co2+ ions and their precursor has been rationalized with respect to their electrocatalytic performances studied in solution and in the immobilized state within the layer-by-layer film formed with a positively charged pentaerythritol-based Ru(II)-metallodendrimer. The film assembly was monitored with electrochemical methods and characterized by surface analysis techniques. An influence of the terminal layer on the electrode reaction and on film porosity has been observed. The electrocatalytic performance of the compounds on nitrite reduction was assessed in solution and in the immobilized state. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the anodic deposition of poly-L-lysine on indium tin oxide2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 196, p. 629-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide and discuss electrochemical quartz microbalance measurements confirming previouslyreported observations that poly-L-lysine films deposited from solution under anodic conditions grow at a constant deposition rate for extended periods of time. Compared to our previous results using Pt, we find that indium tin oxide (ITO) offers an effective surface for film growth where water oxidation is sufficiently suppressed to allow uniform films to be deposited. The fact that the previous results on ITO have been reproduced is positive for the study of polyelectrolyte film creation, and has implications for the use of these films to increase the biocompatibility of hard conducting materials used as electrodes.

  • 17.
    Rasmussen, A.A.
    et al.
    Dept. of Mfg. Eng. and Management, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Jensen, Jens A.D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Horsewell, A.
    Dept. of Mfg. Eng. and Management, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Somers, M.A.J.
    Dept. of Mfg. Eng. and Management, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Microstructure in electrodeposited copper layers, the role of the substrate2001In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructures of Cu layers, ranging in thickness from 3 to 12 µm, were investigated. The layers were electrodeposited from an acidic copper electrolyte onto two distinct substrate materials important for the micro-components industry: an Au layer with a pronounced <111>-texture, and a nano-crystalline Ni-P layer. The evolutions of surface topography, morphology and crystallographic texture in the layers were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. Distinct surface topographies were observed for Cu layers deposited on the Au and Ni-P substrates. Deposition onto the Au substrate resulted in a very smooth surface of all Cu layers, whereas the Ni-P substrate caused an irregular surface for 3-µm-thick layers of Cu. The crystallographic texture in the Cu layers in the first few micrometres depended strongly on the crystallographic texture in the substrate. The Cu crystallites inherited the <111>-orientation of the Au substrate, whilst no preferred crystallographic orientation was observed in the Cu crystallites on the nano-crystalline Ni-P substrate. For Cu layers thicker than 3 µm a <110>-fibre texture developed on both the substrates. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Sankoh, Supannee
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sekretareva, Alina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Thavarungkul, Panote
    Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Kanatharana, Proespichaya
    Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Colloid electrochemistry of conducting polymer: towards potential-induced in-situ drug release2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 228, p. 407-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, controlled drug delivery system remains as one of the most important area in medicine for various diseases. We have developed a new electrochemically controlled drug release system by combining colloid electrochemistry and electro-responsive microcapsules. The pulsed electrode potential modulation led to the appearance of two processes available for the time-resolved registration in colloid microenvironment: change of the electronic charge of microparticles (from 0.5 ms to 0.1 s) followed by the drug release associated with ionic equilibration (1-10 s). The dynamic electrochemical measurements allow the distinction of drug release associated With ionic relaxation and the change of electronic charge of conducting polymer colloid microparticles. The amount of released drug (methylene blue) could be controlled by modulating the applied potential. Our study demonstrated a surface-potential driven controlled drug release of dispersion of conducting polymer carrier at the electrode interfaces, while the bulk colloids dispersion away from the electrode remains as a reservoir to improve the efficiency of localized drug release. The developed new methodology creates a model platform for the investigations of surface potential-induced in-situ electrochemical drug release mechanism. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-01-08 11:51
  • 19.
    Shin, J.-H.
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Matyba, P.
    Umeå University.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University.
    The Influence of Electrodes on the Performance of Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells2007In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 52, p. 6456-6462Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    ul Hasan, Kamran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CESAT, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Asif, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. COMSATS Institute Informat Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Umair Hassan, Muhammad
    COMSATS Institute Informat Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Sandberg, Mats O.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A Miniature Graphene-based Biosensor for Intracellular Glucose Measurements2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 174, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a small and simple graphene-based potentiometric sensor for the measurement of intracellular glucose concentration. A fine borosilicate glass capillary coated with graphene and subsequently immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme is inserted into the intracellular environment of a single human cell. The functional groups on the edge plane of graphene assist the attachment with the free amine terminals of GOD enzyme, resulting in a better immobilization. The sensor exhibits a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential against an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode which is linear across the whole concentration range of interest (10 - 1000 mu M). Glucose concentration in human fat cell measured by our graphene-based sensor is in good agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  • 21.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems.
    Jeerapan, Itthipon
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Wannapob, Rodtichoti
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Wannapob, Panote
    Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Kanatharana, Proespichaya
    Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Anwar, Nargis
    Dublin Road, Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland.
    McCormac, Timothy
    Dublin Road, Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems.
    Turner, Anthony P.F
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wing Cheung, Mak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Water-processable polypyrrole microparticle modules for direct fabrication of hierarchical structured electrochemical interfaces2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 190, p. 495-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchically structured materials (HSMs) are becoming increasingly important in catalysis, separation and energy applications due to their advantageous diffusion and flux properties. Here, we introduce a facile modular approach to fabricate HSMs with tailored functional conducting polypyrrole microparticles (PPyMP). The PPyMPs were fabricated with a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) template-assisted polymerization technique in aqueous media at room temperature, thus providing a new green chemistry for producing water-processable functional polymers. The sacrificial CaCO3 template guided the polymerization process to yield homogenous PPyMPs with a narrow size distribution. The porous nature of the CaCO3 further allows the incorporation of various organic and inorganic dopants such as an electrocatalyst and redox mediator for the fabrication of functional PPyMPs. Dawson-type polyoxometalate (POM) and methylene blue (MB) were chosen as the model electrocatalyst and electron mediator dopant, respectively. Hierarchically structured electrochemical interfaces were created simply by self-assembly of the functional PPyMPs. We demonstrate the versatility of this technique by creating two different hierarchical structured electrochemical interfaces: POM-PPyMPs for hydrogen peroxide electrocatalysis and MB-PPyMPs for mediated bioelectrocatalysis. We envision that the presented design concept could be extended to different conducting polymers doped with other functional organic and inorganic dopants to develop advanced electrochemical interfaces and to create high surface area electrodes for energy storage.

  • 22.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sekretareva, Alina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Håkansson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphensic AB, Teknikringen 1F, Linköping, Sweden.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphensic AB, Teknikringen 1F, Linköping, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphensic AB, Teknikringen 1F, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Monitoring of epitaxial graphene anodization2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 238, p. 91-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anodization of a graphene monolayer on silicon carbide was monitored with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Structural and functional changes of the material were observed by Raman spectroscopy and voltammetry. A 21 fold increase of the specific capacitance of graphene was observed during the anodization. An electrochemical kinetic study of the Fe(CN)(6)(3) (/4) redox couple showed a slow irreversible redox process at the pristine graphene, but after anodization the reaction rate increased by several orders of magnitude. On the other hand, the Ru(NH3) (3+/2+)(6) redox couple proved to be insensitive to the activation process. The results of the electron transfer kinetics correlate well with capacitance measurements. The Raman mapping results suggest that the increased specific capacitance of the anodized sample is likely due to a substantial increase of electron doping, induced by defect formation, in the monolayer upon anodization. The doping concentration increased from less than 1 x 10(13) of the pristine graphene to 4-8 x 10(13) of the anodized graphene. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-04 13:36
  • 23.
    Valizadeh, S.
    et al.
    Interconnect and Packaging, ACREO AB, Bredgatan 34, S-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    George, J.M
    Unité Mixte de Recherche du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et de Thomson, Laboratoire Central de Recherches Thomson, F-91404 Orsay, France.
    Leisner, P.
    Interconnect and Packaging, ACREO AB, Bredgatan 34, S-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Electrochemical deposition of Co nanowire arrays, Quantitative consideration of concentration profiles2001In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 865-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodeposition of Co into ion track etched polycarbonate membranes by a chronoamperometric method has been studied. The concentration variation and diffusion limiting current during nanoprocessing for growth of Co in nanoelectrode applications are described for two regimes, in the vicinity of the electrode and at the mouth of pores. The behaviour of the as-deposited nanoelectrodes can be modelled as a recessed microelectrode. A diffusion controlled limiting current of the nanodes is studied by the Cottrell equation at short times, i.e. current at-1/2. At longer times, a steady-state current is obtained due to gradually increasing radii, r, of the spherical diffusion zones from each recessed nanode, i.e. current a(1/(r+L)), where L is the membrane thickness. The experimental value of diffusion coefficient D for Co ions was found: D = 2.5 × 10-5 cm2 s-1. XRD and TEM measurements on 250 nm diameter and 20 µm long Co nanowires showed a hexagonal closed packed phase with a <100> texturing. The nanowires exhibited an enhanced magnetic coercivity in comparison to bulk Co. The difference of saturation fields between the parallel and perpendicular orientation fields corresponds well to the expected demagnetisation field of 2pM = 8796 Oe value due to the shape anisotropy in case of an infinite thin Co cylinder. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Xing, Xing
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leiqiang, Qin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The trade-off between electrochromic stability and contrast of a thiophene-Quinoxaline copolymer2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 253, p. 530-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of organic electrochromic devices is a crucial issue for their applications. However, until now the degradation mechanism of electrochromic materials are still not fully understood especially for electrochromic conjugated polymers (ECPs). To improve device stability, intensive investigation on the degradation mechanism of ECPs is urgently needed. Here we report our study on the electrochromic degradation in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer: poly [2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl) quinoxaline-5,8diyl- alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) and UV-vis transmission spectra reveal that there are three main factors during the electrochromic degradation of TQ1. The first one is anion (ClO4-) irreversibly deep trapped, while the second is peroxidation of the thiophene group in TQ1. Both factors reduce the conductivity and electrochromism of TQ1. The third is structural relaxation resulting lager conjugated system of TQ1 molecules in film, which is gradually developed during 400 cycling of CV at a narrow potential range (01 V). When a potential range 0-0.7 V is applied, all three factors are prohibited, no electrochromism degradation is observed anymore, although the contrast becomes smaller. Our investigation systematically discloses the degradation mechanism during the electrochemistry processing of a ECP (TQ1), demonstrating the significance of trade-off between the electrochromic stability and contrast of the ECP. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Yasin, M. Naveed
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand; Univ Auckland, New Zealand; Fac Engn, Canada.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ South Australia, Australia.
    Rudd, Sam
    Univ South Australia, Australia.
    Chan, Andrew
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Chen, Wan-Ting
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Waterhouse, Geoffrey I. N.
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand; Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Evans, Drew
    Univ South Australia, Australia.
    Rupenthal, Ilva D.
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Svirskis, Darren
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    3-Dimensionally ordered macroporous PEDOT ion-exchange resins prepared by vapor phase polymerization for triggered drug delivery: Fabrication and characterization2018In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 269, p. 560-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a simple fabrication strategy towards 3-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films via vapor phase polymerization (VPP) coupled with colloidal crystal templating. PEDOT was synthesized by VPP over a colloidal crystal thin film composed of monodisperse polystyrene colloids functionalized with a Fe(III) tosylate catalyst, after which the polystyrene template was selectively removed. The resulting 3DOM PEDOT films comprised a face-centered cubic array of 280-290 nm spherical macropores in a PEDOT matrix, around 5-6 mu m thick. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to probe electrochemistry and highlighted the merits of the fabrication strategy introduced here; the 3DOM PEDOT films exhibit a 2.9-fold increase in electrochemically available surface area compared to the non-templated PEDOT films. As a demonstration of functionality, ion-exchange of the dopant tosylate for the anionic drug dexamethasone phosphate (dexP(-)) was explored. Loading by passive ion exchange was three-fold higher for 3DOM PEDOT compared with non-templated PEDOT. Notably, CV-driven ion exchange was more efficient to load drug into the polymer than passive ion exchange, and occurred to similar extents for both non-templated PEDOT and 3DOM PEDOT structures. Following loading, minimal dexP(-) release was observed in the absence of an electrical stimulus, while dexP(-) release was triggered upon application of a suitable electrical stimulus. 3DOM PEDOT prepared by VPP thus represents a promising material for use as an ion exchange resin with drug loading achieved subsequent to polymerization and electrically triggered drug release demonstrated. (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Yu, Huangzhong
    et al.
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Ge, Yuncheng
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Shengwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells by doping copper phthalocyanine2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 180, p. 645-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the efficiency of polymer solar cells, a third component copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was added into poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) binary blends, the normal and inverted ternary blend solar cells were fabricated. The results showed that the incorporation of the CuPc into P3HT:PCBM binary blends not only broadened the absorption range of solar spectrum but also improved the charge separation and transport properties. As a result, a higher short circuit current and fill factor were obtained for ternary blend devices, especially, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the ternary blend solar cells increased 19% compared with the PCEs of binary blend solar cells. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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