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  • 1.
    Booker, Ian Don
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ul Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lilja, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karhu, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carrier Lifetime Controlling Defects Z(1/2) and RB1 in Standard and Chlorinated Chemistry Grown 4H-SiC2014In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 4104-4110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4H-SiC epilayers grown by standard and chlorinated chemistry were analyzed for their minority carrier lifetime and deep level recombination centers using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and standard deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Next to the well-known Z(1/2) deep level a second effective lifetime killer, RB1 (activation energy 1.05 eV, electron capture cross section 2 x 10(-16) cm(2), suggested hole capture cross section (5 +/- 2) x 10(-15) cm(2)), is detected in chloride chemistry grown epilayers. Junction-DLTS and bulk recombination simulations are used to confirm the lifetime killing properties of this level. The measured RB1 concentration appears to be a function of the iron-related Fe1 level concentration, which is unintentionally introduced via the corrosion of reactor steel parts by the chlorinated chemistry. Reactor design and the growth zone temperature profile are thought to enable the formation of RB1 in the presence of iron contamination under conditions otherwise optimal for growth of material with very low Z(1/2) concentrations. The RB1 defect is either an intrinsic defect similar to RD1/2 or EH5 or a complex involving iron. Control of these corrosion issues allows the growth of material at a high growth rate and with high minority carrier lifetime based on Z(1/2) as the only bulk recombination center.

  • 2.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth of High Quality Epitaxial Rhombohedral Boron Nitride2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 3215-3220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of sp(2)-hybridized boron nitride (sp(2) BN) films on sapphire substrates is demonstrated in a hot wall chemical vapor deposition reactor at the temperature of 1500 degrees C, using triethyl boron and ammonia as precursors. The influence of the main important process parameters, temperature, N/B ratio, B/H-2 ratio, and carrier gas composition on the quality of the grown layers is investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction shows that epitaxial rhombohedral BN (r-BN) film can be deposited only in a narrow process parameter window; outside this window either turbostratic-BN or amorphous BN is favored if BN is formed. In addition, a thin strained AlN buffer layer is needed to support epitaxial growth of r-BN film on sapphire since only turbostratic BN is formed on sapphire substrate. The quality of the grown film is also affected by the B/H-2 ratio as seen from a change of the spacing between the basal planes as revealed by X-ray diffraction. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis shows an enhancement of the C and O impurities incorporation at lower growth temperatures. The gas phase chemistry for the deposition is discussed as well as the impact of the growth rate on the quality of the BN film.

  • 3.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yazdi, G. Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lateral Enlargement Growth Mechanism of 3C-SiC on Off-Oriented 4H-SiC Substrates2014In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 6514-6520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a 3C-SiC growth concept on off-oriented 4H-SiC substrates using a sublimation epitaxial method. A growth model of 3C-SiC layer development via a controlled cubic polytype nucleation on in situ formed on-axis area followed by a lateral enlargement of 3C-SiC domains along the step-flow direction is outlined. Growth process stability and reproducibility of high crystalline quality material are demonstrated in a series of 3C-SiC samples with a thickness of about 1 mm. The average values of full width at half-maximum of ω rocking curves on these samples vary from 34 to 48 arcsec indicating high crystalline quality compared to values found in the literature. The low temperature photoluminescence measurements also confirm a high crystalline quality of 3C-SiC and indicate that the residual nitrogen concentration is about 1–2 × 1016 cm–3. Such a 3C-SiC growth concept may be applied to produce substrates for homoepitaxial 3C-SiC growth or seeds which could be explored in bulk growth of 3C-SiC.

  • 4.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholam Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Philipp, Schuh
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Wilhelm, Martin
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Single Domain 3C-SiC Growth on Off-Oriented 4H-SiC Substrates2015In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 2940-2947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the formation of structural defects in thick (∼1 mm) cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) layers grown on off-oriented 4H-SiC substrates via a lateral enlargement mechanism using different growth conditions. A two-step growth process based on this technique was developed, which provides a trade-off between the growth rate and the number of defects in the 3C-SiC layers. Moreover, we demonstrated that the two-step growth process combined with a geometrically controlled lateral enlargement mechanism allows the formation of a single 3C-SiC domain which enlarges and completely covers the substrate surface. High crystalline quality of the grown 3C-SiC layers is confirmed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence measurements.

  • 5.
    Leone, Stefano
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chloride-Based SiC Epitaxial Growth toward Low Temperature Bulk Growth2010In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 3743-3751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, chloride-based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of SiC is used either to grow epitaxial layers at high growth rate and to facilitate homopolytypic growth on on-axis substrates or to grow bulk material at temperatures lower than 2000 °C. A vertical reactor configuration with an inlet of gas flow placed at the bottom of the reactor chamber and the exhaust at the top of it has been used. The chlorinated precursors have helped to eliminate or greatly reduce cluster formation, thereby allowing the deposition of thick SiC epilayers at growth rates exceeding 300 μm/h at 1700−1900 °C. Up to 1.5 mm thick homoepitaxial layers have been grown on up to 75 mm diameter 4H- or 6H-SiC wafers. Both on-axis and off-axis, Si-face and C-face polarities have been used. Our results show great promise for the realization of a high growth rate epitaxial process suitable for bulk growth at temperatures lower than those typically used. Such a process is interesting on account of the higher quality material and lower operating cost.

  • 6.
    Leone, Stefano
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers grown on on-axis substrates with different chlorinated precursors2010In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 5334-5340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC on on-axis substrates is a very important process to develop in order to accelerate the development and improve the performance of bipolar SiC based power devices, but until now, only relatively low growth rate processes have been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a high growth rate deposition process of high quality 4H-SiC epilayers on on-axis substrates, free of 3C-SiC inclusions. Previous studies showed that silicon-rich gas-phase conditions (prior to, and during the deposition process) and/or high Cl/Si ratios were vital in order to avoid 3C-SiC inclusions in the epitaxial layers when growing on on-axis substrates. This study combines the knowledge of surface pre-treatment with the chloride-based chemistry developed for off-axis growth. Two different precursor approaches were used, one adopting the standard precursors (silane and ethylene) with addition of hydrogen chloride (HCl), and the other based on the molecule methyltrichlorosilane (CH3SiCl3 or MTS). In this study we will show that using a MTS-based CVD process in combination with proper in situ silane etching and accurate optimisation of the other process parameters (temperature, C/Si and Cl/Si ratio) results in homoepitaxial growth of high purity and high quality 4H-SiC layers on on-axis Si-face substrates at a growth rate of 100 μm/h. Additionally, a higher efficiency of the MTS precursor chemistry was found and discussed.

  • 7.
    Leone, Stefano
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nishizawa, Shin-ichi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gas-Phase Modeling of Chlorine-Based Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Carbide2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1977-1984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinetic calculations of the chemical phenomena occurring in the epitaxial growth of silicon carbide are performed in this study. The main process parameters analyzed are precursor types, growth temperature, Cl/Si ratio, and precursors concentration. The analysis of the gas-phase reactions resulted in a model which could explain most of the already reported experimental results, performed in horizontal hot-wall reactors. The effect of using different carbon or silicon precursors is discussed, by comparing the gas-phase composition and the resulting C/Si ratio inside the hot reaction chamber. Chlorinated molecules with three chlorine atoms seem to be the most efficient and resulting in a uniform C/Si ratio along the susceptor coordinate. Further complexity in the process derives from the use of low temperatures, which affects not only the gas-phase composition but also the risk of gas-phase nucleation. The Cl/Si ratio is demonstrated to be crucial not only for the prevention of silicon clusters but also for the uniformity of the gas-phase composition.

  • 8.
    Lu, Jun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gao, Xindong
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crystallization of NiSix in a Body-Centered Cubic Structure during Solid-State Reaction between an Ultrathin Ni Film and Si(001) Substrate at 150-350 degrees C2013In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1801-1806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate ultrathin silicide formation during a solid-state reaction between Ni layers and Si(001) substrates by aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Interdiffusion of two nm thick (equivalent) Ni layers with Si during magnetron-sputter deposition results in an amorphous Ni-Si solid solution. Upon annealing at 150-350 degrees C, a novel body-centered cubic (bcc) NiSix phase is found to grow epitaxially with a crystallographic relationship {100}andlt; 001 andgt; bcc-NiSix//{100}andlt; 001 andgt; Si. bcc-NiSix belongs to the space group I (4) over bar 3m (217) with random Ni and Si distribution. The cell parameter is 0.272 nm, which is approximately half that of NiSi2. Further annealing transforms bcc-NiSi to NiSi2 with an activation energy of 0.6 +/- 0.1 eV.

  • 9.
    Lu, Jun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thore, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theoretical and Experimental Exploration of a Novel In-Plane Chemically Ordered (Cr2/3M1/3)(2)AIC i-MAX Phase with M = Sc and Y2017In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 5704-5711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have uncovered two inherently laminated transition metal carbides, (Cr2/3Sc1/3)(2)A1C and (Cr2/3Y1/3)(2)A1C, which display in-plane chemical order in the carbide sheet and a Kagome pattern in the Al layer. The phases belong to the most recently discovered family of so-called i-MAX phases. The materials were synthesized and the crystal structures were evaluated by means of analytical high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement. An orthorhombic structure of space group Cmcm (#63) and a monoclinic structure of space group C2/c (#15) are solved. The compounds were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, suggesting close to degenerate anti-ferro- and ferromagnetic spin states, dynamical and mechanical stability, and a Voigt bulk modulus in the range 134-152 GPa.

  • 10.
    Lundskog, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area -grown hexagonal GaN pyramids2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 5491-5496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological variations of gallium polar (0001) oriented hexagonal GaN pyramids grown by hotwall metal organic chemical vapor deposition under various growth conditions are investigated. The stability of the semi-polar {1102} and non-polar {1100} facets are particularly discussed. The presence of the {1102} facets near the apex of the pyramid was found to be controllable by tuning the absolute flow rate of ammonia during the growth. Vertical non-polar {1100} facets appeared ingallium rich-conditions which automatically were created when the growth time was prolonged beyond pyramid completion. The result was attributed to a gallium passivation of the {1100} surface.

  • 11.
    Siribbal, Shifaa M.
    et al.
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Schlaefer, Johannes
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Ilyas, Shaista
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Hu, Zhangjun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Valldor, Martin
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Mathur, Sanjay
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Air-Stable Gadolinium Precursors for the Facile Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Gd2O3 Nanocontrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging2018In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 633-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using metal organic precursors in materials synthesis remains a challenge due to their high moisture susceptibility. In this work, we describe a facile methodology for the synthesis of Gd2O3-based contrast agents from two new gadolinium-based complexes. [Gd(PyTFP)(4)] (PyH) 1 (PyTFP = C8H5NOF3, Py = C5H5N) and [Gd(DMOTFP)(3)Py] 2 (DMOTFP = C8H7NO2F3) were synthesized via a classical ligand exchange reaction of [Gd{N(SiMe3)(2)}(3)] under inert conditions. As a result, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a distorted square antiprismatic coordination and an augmented triangular prismatic arrangement of ligands around gadolinium atoms in 1 and 2, respectively. It also showed that 1 is an anionic complex of formula [Gd(PyTFP)(4)](PyH), while a neutral tris-compound, [Gd(DMOTFP)(3)Py], was obtained as a pyridine adduct in 2. Fast and reproducible microwave-assisted decomposition of 1 and 2 provided homogeneous Gd(OH)(3) nanorods at mild temperature without using any surfactant or capping reagent. As-synthesized nanorods were easily transformed into a cubic phase of Gd2O3 nanoparticles by thermal treatment under ambient conditions. The magnetic measurement showed the typical paramagnetic behavior of the Gd2O3 nanoparticles (NPs). The cytotoxicity profile demonstrates the biocompatibility and negligible toxicity of the as-synthesized nanoprobes. The suggested approach provides a new class of gadolinium-based precursors which allows facile synthesis of highly crystalline Gd2O3 NPs.

  • 12.
    Ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karhu, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lilja, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wafer Scale On-Axis Homoepitaxial Growth of 4H-SiC(0001) for High-Power Devices: Influence of Different Gas Phase Chemistries and Growth Rate Limitations2019In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 3288-3297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-axis homoepitaxy of 4H-SiC has the advantage of producing epilayers that are free of basal plane dislocations. Such layers can be highly beneficial for SiC-based high-power bipolar electronic devices which otherwise suffer from bipolar degradation phenomena related to basal plane dislocations in epilayers. In this study, we have developed on-axis homoepitaxy on the Si-face of 100 mm diameter 4H-SiC wafers with only 4H polytype in the epilayer excluding the edges of the wafer. We have also compared standard and chloride-based growth, the influence of different ambient conditions on surface preparation of the substrate, the influence of the histories of different growth cells, and the geometry of the susceptors regarding 4H-polytype stability in the epilayer. Substrate surface preparation, growth temperature, C/Si ratio, and Si/H ratio are found to be the most influential parameters to achieve homoepitaxy. On-axis homoepitaxial growth rate is limited to a very low value of amp;lt;10 mu m/h. We have performed a systematic study to understand the influence of different growth parameters and gas phase chemistries to determine whether on-axis growth rate can be enhanced and, if not, what the limiting factors are. Our experimental evidence suggests that the on-axis growth rate is not limited by the gas phase chemistry or diffusion, but it is limited by the surface kinetics. A significantly low step density on on-axis substrates lowers the surface reaction rates and limits the growth rate to lower values. It may not be possible to further improve the growth rate even with chloride-based growth using epitaxial growth conditions.

  • 13.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marinova, Maya
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Hens, Philip
    University Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nucleation Control of Cubic Silicon Carbide on 6H- Substrates2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleation of cubic (3C) SiC on on-axis 6H-SiC was investigated in the temperature range 1500–1775 °C by the technique of sublimation epitaxy. We have studied two different cases: (i) the initial homoepitaxial growth of 6H-SiC followed by nucleation of 3C-SiC and (ii) nucleation of homoepitaxial 6H-SiC islands. The supersaturation in the growth cell was calculated using the modeled source to substrate temperature difference. We show that, at low temperature and supersaturation, growth of 6H-SiC commences in spiral growth mode, which prepares the surface for 3C-SiC nucleation. Provided the supersaturation is high enough, the 3C-SiC nucleates as two-dimensional islands on terraces of the homoepitaxial 6H-SiC. Detailed structural study indicates that the 3C-SiC began to grow on defect free surfaces. From the experimental and modeling results, we show that the growth parameter window for 3C-SiC is rather narrow. Deviation from it can result in 6H-SiC growth in spiral or 2D-nucleation mode, which suggests the importance of knowledge of supersaturation.

  • 14.
    Wang, Wenjing
    et al.
    Fujian Normal University.
    Chen, Qianhuo
    Fujian Normal University.
    Li, Qing
    Fujian Normal University.
    Sheng, Yu
    Fujian Normal University.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ligand-Structure Effect on the Formation of One-Dimensional Nanoscale Cu(II)-Schiff Base Complexes and Solvent-Mediated Shape Transformation2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 2707-2713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here a Cu(II)-Schiff base complex that can assemble into one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale fibers, belts, and rods under different synthetic conditions. The ligand-structure effect is investigated by modification of the ligand structure. The formation of a ID nanostructure was studied, and the formation of dimers was revealed as a key factor for 1D assembly. In dimethylformamide (DMF) medium, this complex represents one of the rare examples of low-molecular-weight "super-metallogelators" with a critical gelation concentration of 0.3 wt % for DMF. The ligand exhibits good selectivity toward different metal ions in terms of gel formation and only the Cu(II) complex forms gels. It is interesting that this metallogel is a kind of dynamic nanostructure, which can be transformed to rods with different aspect ratios via a solvent-mediated process under stimulation of ultrasound.

  • 15.
    Yang, Li-Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Qingxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yang, J H
    Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping, People's Republic of China.
    Effective Suppression of Surface Recombination in ZnO Nanorods Arrays during the Growth Process2010In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1904-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods arrays are respectively prepared under different vapor pressures with opening (OZN) or sealing (SZN) of the beaker. The results from time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicate that sealing the beaker during the growth process can effectively suppress the surface recombination of ZnO nanorods, and the suppression effect is even better than a 500 degrees C post-thermal treatment or OZN samples. The results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal that the main reason for this phenomenon is that the surfaces of the SZN samples are attached by groups related to NH3 instead of the main surface recombination centers such as OH and groups in the OZN samples. The ammonia surface treatment on both OZN and SZN samples further testifies that the absorption of the groups related to NH3 does not contribute to the surface recombination on the ZnO nanorods.

  • 16.
    Yang, S
    et al.
    National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan .
    Lin, B H
    National Synchrotron Radiat Research Centre, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan .
    Kuo, C C
    National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan .
    Hsu, H C
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan .
    Liu, W-R
    National Synchrotron Radiat Research Centre, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan .
    Eriksson, M O
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chang, C-S
    National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan .
    Hsu, C-H
    National Synchrotron Radiat Research Centre, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan .
    Hsieh, W F
    National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan .
    Improvement of Crystalline and Photoluminescence of Atomic Layer Deposited m-Plane ZnO Epitaxial Films by Annealing Treatment2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 4745-4751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monocrystalline m-plane ZnO epitaxial films with flat surface morphology were grown on m-plane sapphire by using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements verify not only the in-plane epitaxial relationship of the as-grown films as (10 (1) over bar0)andlt; 0001 andgt;(ZnO)parallel to(10 (1) over bar0)andlt;(1) over bar2 (1) over bar0 andgt; Al2O3 but also the absence of domains with undesirable orientations, which are generally obtained in the m-plane ZnO films grown by other methods. Experimental results indicate that the basal plane stacking fault (BSF) is the dominant structural defects that contribute to the emission at 3.31 eV in m-plane ZnO films. Exactly how thermal annealing affects the structural and optical properties of ZnO epi-films was also investigated. Additionally, based on time-resolved photoluminescence at 5 K, the decay time of BSF related emission and near-band-edge (NBE) emission were determined. Results of this work further demonstrated that the decay time of NBE emission increases with a higher annealing temperature, accompanied by an improvement in crystal structure.

  • 17.
    Yao, Zhenyu
    et al.
    Nano-materials and Nano-chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, UniVersity of Science & Technology of China.
    Zhu, Xi
    Nano-materials and Nano-chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, UniVersity of Science & Technology of China.
    Wu, Changzheng
    Nano-materials and Nano-chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, UniVersity of Science & Technology of China.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    Nano-materials and Nano-chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, UniVersity of Science & Technology of China.
    Xie, Yi
    Nano-materials and Nano-chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, UniVersity of Science & Technology of China.
    Fabrication of micrometer-scaled hierarchical tubular structures of CuS assembled by nanoflake-built microspheres using an in situ formed Cu(I) complex as a self-sacrificed template2007In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 1256-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micrometer-scaled hierarchical tubular structures of CuS assembled by nanoflake-built microspheres were first synthesized in high yield via a one-pot intermediate crystal templating process without surfactant or added templates, in which the intermediate complex Cu3(TAA)3Cl3 formed in situ and subsequently served as a self-sacrificed template. Whereas the intermediate complex and final hierarchical structures were well characterized, the formation mechanism was preliminarily studied based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations by arresting the growth at a series of intermediate stages in the formation of the hierarchical tubular structures. The benefits for the as-obtained nanostructures arise from their ultrahigh Brunauer−Emmett−Teller (BET) value and the potential capacity advantage for the catalyst industry and hydrogen storage.

  • 18.
    Zainelabdin, A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zaman, Siama
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amin, Gul
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deposition of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods at 50 degrees C on Metal, Semiconducting Polymer, and Copper Oxides Substrates and Their Structural and Optical Properties2010In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 3250-3256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-step chemical bath deposition was utilized to synthesize ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) on metals, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(strenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) coated flexible plastic foils, and copper oxides coated glass substrates. The whole synthesis procedure was carried out at a low temperature of 50 degrees C, without any other substrate treatments. The low growth temperature showed improved influence on both the ZNRAs structural and optical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed well-aligned ZNRAs with large aspect ratios, and X-ray diffraction (X RI)) analysis indicated that single crystalline ZNRAs were achieved with high c-axial orientation tendency. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements demonstrated excellent optical properties of the as-grown ZNRAs with very low defect concentration contrary to what was believed to be achieved when lowering the growth temperature. The impact of the low deposition temperature on the ZNRAs structure is discussed in connection to the thermodynamics constraints, while the temperature effect on the defects formation and density in the as-deposited ZNRAs is elaborated and compared with recent theoretical calculations that appeared in the literature.

  • 19.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Shantou University, China .
    Li, Dan
    Department of Chemistry, Shantou University, China .
    Zhou, Xiao-Ping
    Department of Chemistry, Shantou University, China.
    Anion-Directed Assembly of Macrocycle and Helix2006In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1440-1444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly of the flexible ligand N,N‘-bis(3-pyridylmethyl)thiourea (bpt) with ZnCl2 and CdCl2 in the absence and presence of KSCN yielded a short series of novel complexes (14) with macrocyclic, helical, double-helical, and 1D polymeric structures. Different metal ions, hydrogen bonds, and counteranions play significant roles in the final crystal structures. The NCS- anion was found to favor the formation of helical structures, whereas the Cl- anion favored macrocycle formation in the present system. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement results revealed that complex 2 (Zn(bpt)(SCN)2) with a helical structure exhibits enhanced emissions compared to those of the ligand and other complexes. The anion-directed assembly as well as the interesting emissions may provide useful information for further design of metal−organic compounds with novel structures and properties.

  • 20.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore.
    Loh, Kian Ping
    Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore.
    Sullivan, Michael B.
    Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore.
    Chen, Zhi-kuan
    Institute of Material Research and Engineering, Singapore.
    Liu, Minghui
    NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology InitiatiVe, Singapore.
    Aggregation dependent S1 and S2 dual emissions of thiophene-acrylonitrile-carbazole oligomer2008In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 2543-2546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual emissions from S1 (blue region) and S2 (UV region) states of a chromophore with donor−acceptor structure were observed at room temperature. The photophysical properties of the chromophore depend critically on the packing of the molecules. The molecule exhibits weak S1 emission and strong S2 emission; however, when it undergoes solid aggregation, the S1 emission is enhanced while the S2 emission is quenched. The H-packing (face-to-face packing) of the molecules is revealed as the key factor for this interesting aggregation-dependent dual emission.

  • 21.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    et al.
    Department of chemistry, Anhui University; University of Science and Technology of China.
    Tian, Yupeng
    Department of chemistry, Anhui University, China.
    Jin, Feng
    Department of chemistry, Anhui University, China.
    Wu, Jieying
    Department of chemistry, Anhui University, China.
    Xie, Yi
    Department of chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Tao, Xutang
    The State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, China.
    Jiang, Minhua
    The State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, China.
    Self-assembly of Organic Chromophore with Cd-S Nanoclusters: Supramolecular Structures and Enhanced Emissions2005In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 565-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combination of the large organic cation [trans-4-(4-dimethylanilino-styryl)-N-methyl-pyridinium with nanocluster anions ([Cd4(SC6H5)10]2- for compound 1 and [Cd4(SC6H5)6I4]2- for compound 2), two new hybrids were obtained and the structure of the [Cd4(SC6H5)6I4]2- cluster was first characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A novel supramolecular dimer {[Cd4(SC6H5)10]2-}2, connected via strong ππ interactions, was observed in 1, whereas every two [Cd4(SC6H5)6I4]2- clusters in 2 were linked by multiple C−H···I hydrogen bonds forming dimers, which, as building blocks, were further connected to each other via C−H···I hydrogen bonds and weak I···I interactions to form novel 1D helical chains. The UV−visible−near-IR spectra, one-photon excited photoluminescence, and two-photon pumped lasing were measured. The organic chromophore exhibits enhanced PL and two-photon pumped lasing in the two hybrids

  • 22.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    et al.
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Zhao, Qingrui
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Tian, Yupeng
    Department of Chemistry, Anhui University, China.
    Xie, Yi
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Fabrication of CdS Micropatterns: Effects of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding and Decreasing Capping Ligand2004In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 355-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel branch-like CdS micropatterns were synthesized using thiosemicarbazide (NH2NHCSNH2) both as a sulfur source and as a capping ligand in a methanol/water system. The thiosemicarbazide/CdCl2 ratios were found to effectively play crucial roles in the morphologies of CdS crystals. With the ratios decreasing from eight to one, the CdS crystals exhibited different morphologies, from spheres to spindle-like morphologies mediated by cauliflower- and branch-like micropatterns. Control experiments using different sulfur sources showed that the NH2 groups, which could form hydrogen bonds, were necessary for the formation of the novel branch-like patterns. On the basis of the experimental results, a formation mechanism was proposed, which was supported by time-resolved experiments and IR analysis.

  • 23.
    Zhou, Xiao-Ping
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Guangdong , China.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    Department of Chemistry and Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Guangdong, China .
    Lin, Shi-hong
    Department of Chemistry and Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Guangdong, China .
    Li, Dan
    Department of Chemistry and Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Guangdong, China.
    Anion-p-Interaction-Directed Self-Assembly of Ag(I) Coordination Networks2007In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 485-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactions of AgX with 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-trazine (tpt) yielded three 3D highly symmetric isostructural coordination polymers (X = ClO4-, BF4-, and PF6-) and a dimer (X = CF3COO-), respectively. In the coordination polymers, anion−π interactions are found between the multiatomic anions and tpt ligands. Systematic variation including synthetic methods, ratios of reactants, and solvents provides synthetic evidence proving that anion−π interactions play a decisive role in assembly of the coordination polymers.

1 - 23 of 23
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