It is shown that the main results of the theory of real interpolation, i.e. the equivalence and reiteration theorems, can be extended from couples to a class of (n+1)-tuples of Banach spaces, which includes (n+1)-tuples of Banach function lattices, Sobolev and Besov spaces. As an application of our results, it is shown that Lions' problem on interpolation of subspaces and Semenov's problem on interpolation of subcouples have positive solutions when all spaces are Banach function lattices or their retracts. In general, these problems have negative solutions.

2.

Asekritova, Irina

et al.

Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.

Kruglyak, Natan

Department of Mathematics, Yaroslavl' State University, Russia.

Maligranda, Lech

Department of Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.

Persson, Lars-Erik

Department of Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.

There are given necessary and sufficient conditions on a measure dμ(x)=w(x)dx under which the key estimates for the distribution and rearrangement of the maximal function due to Riesz, Wiener, Herz and Stein are valid. As a consequence, we obtain the equivalence of the Riesz and Wiener inequalities which seems to be new even for the Lebesgue measure. Our main tools are estimates of the distribution of the averaging function f** and a modified version of the Calderón-Zygmund decomposition. Analogous methods allow us to obtain K-functional formulas in terms of the maximal function for couples of weighted $L_p$-spaces.

3.

Asekritova, Irina

et al.

Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.

Kruglyak, Natan

Department of Mathematics Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.

A complete description of the real interpolation space L=(Lp0(ω0),…,Lpn(ωn))θ⃗ ,q is given. An interesting feature of the result is that the whole measure space (Ω,μ) can be divided into disjoint pieces Ωi (i∈I) such that L is an lq sum of the restrictions of L to Ωi, and L on each Ωi is a result of interpolation of just two weighted Lp spaces. The proof is based on a generalization of some recent results of the first two authors concerning real interpolation of vector-valued spaces.

We present, discuss and apply two reiteration theorems for triples of quasi-Banach function lattices. Some interpolation results for block-Lorentz spaces and triples of weighted Lp-spaces are proved. By using these results and a wavelet theory approach we calculate (θ,q)-spaces for triples of smooth function spaces (such as Besov spaces, Sobolev spaces, etc.). In contrast to the case of couples, for which even the scale of Besov spaces is not stable under interpolation, for triples we obtain stability in the frame of Besov spaces based on Lorentz spaces. Moreover, by using the results and ideas of this paper, we can extend the Stein–Weiss interpolation theorem known for Lp(μ)-spaces with change of measures to Lorentz spaces with change of measures. In particular, the results obtained show that for some problems in analysis the three-space real interpolation approach is really more useful than the usual real interpolation between couples.

We show the equivalence of some different definitions of p-superharmonic functions given in the literature. We also provide several other characterizations of p-superharmonicity. This is done in complete metric spaces equipped with a doubling measure and supporting a Poincaré inequality. There are many examples of such spaces. A new one given here is the union of a line (with the one-dimensional Lebesgue measure) and a triangle (with a two-dimensional weighted Lebesgue measure). Our results also apply to Cheeger p-superharmonic functions and in the Euclidean setting to A-superharmonic functions, with the usual assumptions on A.