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  • 1.
    A Hulten, Maj
    et al.
    University Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands England .
    Patel, Suketu
    University Warwick, Department Biol Science, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands England .
    Jonasson, Jon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Iwarsson, Erik
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Department Mol Med and Surg, Clin Genet Unit, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden .
    On the origin of the maternal age effect in trisomy 21 Down syndrome: the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection model2010Ingår i: Reproduction, ISSN 1470-1626, E-ISSN 1476-3990, Vol. 139, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently documented that trisomy 21 mosaicism is common in human foetal ovaries. On the basis of this observation we propose that the maternal age effect in Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the differential behaviour of trisomy 21 in relation to disomy 21 oocytes during development from foetal life until ovulation in adulthood. in particular, we suggest that trisomy 21 oocytes, lagging behind those that are disomic, may escape the timed pruning of the seven million in foetal life to the 300-400 finally selected for ovulation. The net effect of this preferential elimination will be an accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes in the ovarian reserve of older women. We here highlight the implications of this Oocyte Mosaicism Selection (OMS) model with respect to the prevalent view that the maternal age effect is complex, dependent on many different biological and environmental factors. We examine conclusions drawn from recent large-scale studies in families, tracing DNA markers along the length of chromosome 21q between parents and DS children, in comparison to the OMS model. We conclude that these family linkage data are equally compatible with the maternal age effect originating from the accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes with advancing maternal age. One relatively straightforward way to get to grips with what is actually going on in this regard would be to compare incidence of trisomy 21 oocytes (and their pairing configurations) in foetal ovaries with that in oocytes at the meiosis I stage from adult women.

  • 2.
    Gallardo Bolanos, Juan M.
    et al.
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Balao da Silva, Carolina M.
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Martin Munoz, Patricia
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Morillo Rodriguez, Antolin
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Plaza Davila, Maria
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Aparicio, Ines M.
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Tapia, Jose A.
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Pena, Fernando J.
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Phosphorylated AKT preserves stallion sperm viability and motility by inhibiting caspases 3 and 72014Ingår i: Reproduction, ISSN 1470-1626, E-ISSN 1476-3990, Vol. 148, nr 2, s. 221-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AKT, also referred to as protein kinase B (PKB or RAC), plays a critical role in controlling cell survival and apoptosis. To gain insights into the mechanisms regulating sperm survival after ejaculation, the role of AKT was investigated in stallion spermatozoa using a specific inhibitor and a phosphoflow approach. Stallion spermatozoa were washed and incubated in Biggers-Whitten-Whittingham medium, supplemented with 1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the presence of 0 (vehicle), 10, 20 or 30 mu M SH5, an AKT inhibitor. SH5 treatment reduced the percentage of sperm displaying AKT phosphorylation, with inhibition reaching a maximum after 1 h of incubation. This decrease in phosphorylation was attributable to either dephosphorylation or suppression of the active phosphorylation pathway. Stallion spermatozoa spontaneously dephosphorylated during in vitro incubation, resulting in a lack of a difference in AKT phosphorylation between the SH5-treated sperm and the control after 4 h of incubation. AKT inhibition decreased the proportion of motile spermatozoa (total and progressive) and the sperm velocity. Similarly, AKT inhibition reduced membrane integrity, leading to increased membrane permeability and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential concomitantly with activation of caspases 3 and 7. However, the percentage of spermatozoa exhibiting oxidative stress, the production of mitochondrial superoxide radicals, DNA oxidation and DNA fragmentation were not affected by AKT inhibition. It is concluded that AKT maintains the membrane integrity of ejaculated stallion spermatozoa, presumably by inhibiting caspases 3 and 7, which prevents the progression of spermatozoa to an incomplete form of apoptosis.

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  • 3.
    Ortega Ferrusola, C.
    et al.
    Vet Teaching Hospital, Spain .
    Gonzalez Fernandez, L.
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Morrel, J.M.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Salazar Sandoval, C.
    Vet Teaching Hospital, Spain .
    Macias Garcia, B.
    Vet Teaching Hospital, Spain .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Tapia, J.A.
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    J. Pena, F.
    Vet Teaching Hospital, Spain .
    Lipid peroxidation, assessed with BODIPY-C-11, increases after cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa, is stallion-dependent and is related to apoptotic-like changes2009Ingår i: Reproduction, ISSN 1470-1626, E-ISSN 1476-3990, Vol. 138, nr 1, s. 55-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) of stallion spermatozoa was assessed in fresh semen and in samples of the same ejaculates after freezing and thawing. Particular attention was paid to individual differences in the susceptibility to LPO and its possible relationship with freezability. Innate levels of LPO were very low in fresh spermatozoa but increased after thawing, a change that was largely stallion-dependent. The level of LPO in fresh spermatozoa was not correlated with that of the thawed spermatozoa. Negative correlations existed between LPO and intact membranes post-thaw (r= -0.789, Pless than0.001), and also between LPO and spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m) post-thaw (r= -0.689, Pless than0.001). LPO was also highly and significantly correlated with caspase activity. The correlation between caspase activity in ethidium positive cells and LPO was r=0.772, Pless than0.001. This LPO is unlikely to represent, per se, a sign of cryopreservation-induced injury, but it is apparently capable of triggering apoptotic-like changes that could result in the sub-lethal cryodamage often seen among surviving spermatozoa. Reproduction (2009) 138 55-63

  • 4.
    Sancho, S.
    et al.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Casas, I.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Ekwal, H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Saravia, F.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden .
    E. Rodriguez-Gil, J.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona E-08193, Spain .
    Flores, E.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona E-08193, Spain .
    Pinart, E.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Briz, M.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Garcia-Gil, N.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Bassols, J.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Pruneda, A.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Bussalleu, E.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Yeste, M.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Bonet, S.
    University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain.
    Effects of cryopreservation on semen quality and the expression of sperm membrane hexose transporters in the spermatozoa of Iberian pigs2007Ingår i: Reproduction, ISSN 1470-1626, E-ISSN 1476-3990, Vol. 134, nr 1, s. 111-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the effects of cooling, freezing and thawing on the plasma membrane integrity, kinetics and expression of two sugar transporters glucose transporter-3 and -5 (GLUT-3 and GLUT-5) in spermatozoa from Iberian boars. Semen samples were collected twice weekly from eight young, fertile Iberian boars of the Entrepelado and Lampino breeds. The samples were suspended in a commercial extender and refrigerated to 17 degrees C for transport to the laboratory (step A), where they were further extended with a lactose-egg yolk-based extender and chilled to 5 degrees C (step B) prior to freezing in the presence of glycerol (3%). Spermatozoa were assessed for plasma membrane integrity and sperm motility at each of the steps, including post-thaw (step C). Aliquots were also prepared for immunocytochemical localisation of the sugar transporters (fixed and thin smears for transmission and scanning electron microscopy levels respectively) and for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and subsequent western blotting, using the same antibodies (rabbit anti-GLUT-3 and anti-GLUT-5 polyclonal antibodies). The results showed lower percentages of progressively motile spermatozoa at step C in both breeds, while the percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly lower only in the Entrepelado breed. The results obtained from electron microscopy clearly showed that Iberian boar spermatozoa expressed the hexose transporters, GLUT-3 and GLUT-5. The pattern of expression, in terms of location and concentration, was characteristic in each case but, in the case of isoform GLUT-5, it remained constant during the different steps of freezing-thawing protocol. These results indicate that cryopreservation affects the status of sperm cells of Iberian boars by altering the distribution of some membrane receptors and decreasing the percentage values of parameters linked to sperm quality.

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