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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hjorth, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Decreased GAD(65) -specific Th1/Tc1 phenotype in children with Type 1 diabetes treated with GAD-alum.2012In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1272-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim  The balance between T helper cell subsets is an important regulator of the immune system and is often examined after immune therapies. We aimed to study the immunomodulatory effect of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) in children with Type 1 diabetes, focusing on chemokines and their receptors. Methods  Blood samples were collected from 70 children with Type 1 diabetes included in a phase II clinical trial with GAD-alum. Expression of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CCR4 was analysed on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes after in vitro stimulation with GAD(65) using flow cytometry, and secretion of the chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants with Luminex. Results  Expression of Th1-associated CCR5 was down-regulated following antigen challenge, together with an increased CCR4/CCR5 ratio and CCL2 secretion in GAD-alum-treated patients, but not in the placebo group. Conclusion  Our results suggest that GAD-alum treatment has induced a favourable immune modulation associated with decreased Th1/Tc1 phenotypes upon antigen re-challenge, which may be of importance for regulating GAD(65) immunity. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, B-M
    et al.
    SAS Hospital Org, Sweden .
    Nord Andersson, P
    Linköping University.
    Alnervik, J
    Linköping University.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lind, M
    NU Hospital Org, Sweden University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Availability of insulin pump therapy in clinical practice2012In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1055-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabet. Med. 29, 10551059 (2012) Aim To examine the availability of insulin pump therapy in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Patients using insulin pumps among a cohort of 7224 patients with Type 1 diabetes were studied. Results In logistic regression, used to evaluate variables not changing over time among the total cohort, use of insulin pumps varied by outpatient clinic (P andlt; 0.001) and sex (P andlt; 0.001). Cox regression analysis in 5854 patients with detailed patient data prior to use of an insulin pump showed higher HbA1c (P andlt; 0.0001), lower creatinine (P = 0.002), high and low insulin doses (P andlt; 0.0001), younger age (P andlt; 0.0001) and female sex (P andlt; 0.0001) to be associated with use of an insulin pump. Women were 1.5-fold more likely to start using an insulin pump (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.291.79) and patients in the 20- to 30-years age range were more than twice as likely to begin use of an insulin pump than patients aged 4050 years (hazard ratio 8.63, 95% confidence interval 5.9112.59 and hazard ratio 3.98, 95% confidence interval 2.805.64, respectively). A 10-mu mol/l higher level of creatinine was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.390.81) of starting use of an insulin pump. Conclusions At 10 hospital outpatient clinics in Sweden, use of insulin pumps therapy varied by clinic. A higher proportion of women began using insulin pumps. Younger patients and patients with fewer complications were also more likely to start using an insulin pump. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in other geographical regions and to understand whether the availability of insulin pumps today is optimized.

  • 3.
    Dahlén, Elsa M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiology . Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Vascular surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engvall, Jan
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, T
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, West County Primary Health Care.
    Complications Carotid intima-media thickness and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes2009In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 384-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To explore the association between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ratio compared with conventional lipids in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed data from 247 patients with Type 2 diabetes, aged 55-66 years, in the Cardiovascular Risk factors in Patients with Diabetes-a Prospective study in Primary care (CARDIPP-1) study. Primary care nurses measured blood pressure and anthropometric characteristics. Blood samples were taken for laboratory analyses. The carotid IMT was determined by ultrasonography at the University Hospital in Linköping and at the County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden. RESULTS: The ApoB/apoA-I ratio (r = 0.207, P = 0.001), apoB (r = 0.166, P = 0.009) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) (r = 0.129, P = 0.046) correlated with IMT. Conventional lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and systolic blood pressure were not significantly correlated to IMT. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted with IMT as the dependent variable and the apoB/apoA-I ratio, HbA(1c), hsCRP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol, non-HDL-c and treatment with statins as independent variables. Following adjustment for age and gender, only the apoB/apoA-I ratio remained significantly associated with IMT (odds ratio 4.3, 95% confidence intervals 1.7-10.8, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there was a significant association between the apoB/apoA-I ratio and IMT in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes. The association was independent of conventional lipids, hsCRP, glycaemic control and use of statins.

  • 4.
    Dahlén, Elsa M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland.
    Carotid intima-media thickness and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes2009In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 384-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To explore the association between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ratio compared with conventional lipids in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Methods We analysed data from 247 patients with Type 2 diabetes, aged 55–66 years, in the Cardiovascular Risk factors in Patients with Diabetes—a Prospective study in Primary care (CARDIPP-1) study. Primary care nurses measured blood pressure and anthropometric characteristics. Blood samples were taken for laboratory analyses. The carotid IMT was determined by ultrasonography at the University Hospital in Linköping and at the County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.

    Results The ApoB/apoA-I ratio (r = 0.207, P = 0.001), apoB (r = 0.166, P = 0.009) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) (r = 0.129, P = 0.046) correlated with IMT. Conventional lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and systolic blood pressure were not significantly correlated to IMT. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted with IMT as the dependent variable and the apoB/apoA-I ratio, HbA1c, hsCRP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol, non-HDL-c and treatment with statins as independent variables. Following adjustment for age and gender, only the apoB/apoA-I ratio remained significantly associated with IMT (odds ratio 4.3, 95% confidence intervals 1.7–10.8, P = 0.002).

    Conclusions We conclude that there was a significant association between the apoB/apoA-I ratio and IMT in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes. The association was independent of conventional lipids, hsCRP, glycaemic control and use of statins.

  • 5.
    Forsander, G.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stallknecht, S.
    Incentive, Denmark.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Marcus, C.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bogelund, M.
    Incentive, Denmark.
    Preferences for treatment among adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a national study using a discrete choice experiment model2018In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimTo test the possibility of using a discrete choice experiment model, on a national level in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, in order to obtain a better understanding of drivers of and barriers to diabetes self-care. MethodsA survey instrument was constructed and tested on a small group of the target population: adolescents aged 15 to amp;lt;18 years with Type 1 diabetes. All individuals in Sweden belonging to this target group (N=2112) were then identified via the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry SWEDIABKIDS, and were sent an invitation to answer an online questionnaire. A valid response for the discrete choice experiment analyses was achieved from 431 individuals. ResultsThe included respondents were not statistically different from non-participants in terms of age and duration of diabetes, but more young women entered the study and the participants had (on average) a significantly lower HbA(1c) value than the non-participants. Participants regarded as undesirable both non-severe hypoglycaemic events (day and night) and hyperglycaemic events. Avoiding weight gain and even achieving weight loss were the most important aspects among female respondents, who were willing to trade off a substantial level of glycaemic control [13 mmol/mol (1.2%)] to avoid a weight gain of 3 kg. Hypothetical equipment improvements were desired. ConclusionsThe responses may provide useful indications of the aspects that the respondents would prioritize given a real-life dilemma. For treatment effects, stratification along gender lines was important, whereas the treatment administration aspects were stratified according to treatment type because these aspects are closely related.

  • 6.
    Holmberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Mersebach, H
    Kanck, K
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Study Group on Immunogenecity, Insulin Aspart
    Antibody response to insulin in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes.2008In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 792-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To compare levels of insulin antibodies in children and adolescents after initiation of insulin therapy using either insulin aspart (IAsp) or human insulin (HI) in combination with Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, and to investigate the relationships between insulin antibodies and HbA(1c) and insulin dose. METHODS: IAsp-specific antibodies (IAsp-Ab) and antibodies cross-reacting with HI and IAsp (HI-cross-Ab) were analysed by radioimmunoassay at diagnosis of diabetes and every 3-6 months for 30 months. Seventy-two patients (HI = 30, IAsp = 42) with Type 1 diabetes, aged 2-17 years were included. Data on HbA(1c), insulin dose and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: IAsp-Ab levels remained low throughout the study. After 9 months, the level of HI-cross-Ab increased [mean (SD) HI, 48.8% (21.53), IAsp, 40.2% (17.92)] and remained elevated. Repeated measurement analysis of HI-cross-Ab levels showed no significant difference between treatments (P = 0.16). HI-cross-Ab were significantly associated with total insulin dose (U/kg) (P = 0.001) and time (P < 0.0001), but not with HbA(1c) (P = 0.24). Mean (+/- SD) HbA(1c) was similar at diagnosis (HI 9.5 +/- 1.97%, IAsp 9.6 +/- 1.62%), HbA(1c) then decreased and stabilized to about 6.0% in both groups. Few SAEs were reported, the majority being hypoglycaemic episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with IAsp and with HI was associated with an increase in HI-cross-Ab in insulin-naive children, but this did not influence treatment efficacy or safety. These results support the safe use of IAsp in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

  • 7.
    Holmqvist, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löfman, Owe
    Institute of Mathematical Science and Technology, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A low incidence of Type 1 diabetes between 1977 and 2001 in south-eastern Sweden in areas with high population density and which are more deprived2008In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 255-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims  To explore how socioeconomic factors and population density may contribute to the geographical variation of incidence of Type 1 diabetes in children in south-eastern Sweden.

    Method  All children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in south-eastern Sweden during 1977–2001 were defined geographically to their place of residence and were allocated x and y coordinates in the national grid. The population at risk and socioeconomic data were aggregated in 82 000 200-m squares and geocoded likewise. A socioeconomic index was calculated using a signed χ2 method. Rural–urban gradients were defined by overlay analysis in a geographic information system.

    Results  The incidence during the past 25 years has been rising steadily, particularly in the last 6 years. The incidence was highest in areas with a high proportion of small families, of families with a high family income and better education, and this was found both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of birth. In the rural–urban analysis, the lowest incidence was found in the urban area with > 20 000 inhabitants, where there was also a higher frequency of deprivation.

    Conclusions  Our findings indicate that geographical variations in incidence rates of Type 1 diabetes in children are associated with socioeconomic factors and population density, although other contributing factors remain to be explained.

  • 8.
    Jansson, S. P. O.
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Fall, K.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Brus, O.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnuson, A.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Wandell, P.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Rolandsson, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Letter: Response to Carlsson et al.: Prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based pharmaco-epidemiological study in Sweden in DIABETIC MEDICINE, vol 33, issue 8, pp 1150-11522016In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1150-1152Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 9.
    Jansson, S. P. O.
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Fall, K.
    University of Örebro, Sweden; University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Brus, O.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnuson, A.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Wandell, P.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Rolandsson, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based pharmaco-epidemiological study in Sweden2015In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 1319-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To investigate the changes in prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated diabetes in Sweden during 2005 to 2013. Methods We obtained data on gender, date of birth and pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated diabetes from national registers for all Swedish residents. Results During the study period a total of 240 871 new cases of pharmacologically treated diabetes was found. The age-standardized incidence during the follow-up was 4.34 and 3.16 per 1000 individuals in men and women, respectively. A decreasing time trend in incidence for men of 0.6% per year (0.994, 95% CI 0.989-0.999) and for women of 0.7% per year (0.993, 95% CI 0.986-0.999) was observed. The age-standardized prevalence increased from 41.9 and 29.9 per 1000 in 2005/2006 to 50.8 and 34.6 in 2012/2013 in men and women, respectively. This corresponds to an annually increasing time trend for both men (1.024, 95% CI 1.022-1.027) and women (1.019, 95% CI 1.016-1.021). The total age-standardized prevalence of pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated diabetes (2012) was 46.9 per 1000 (55.6 for men and 38.8 for women). This corresponds to an annually increasing time trend (2010-2012) for both men (1.017, 95% CI 1.013-1.021) and women (1.012, 95% CI 1.008-1.016). Conclusions The prevalence of pharmacologically treated diabetes increased moderately during 8 years of follow-up, while the incidence decreased modestly. This is in contrast to the results reported by most other studies. The total prevalence of diabetes (both pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated) in Sweden is relatively low, from a global viewpoint.

  • 10.
    Jennersjö, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Motala.
    Pedometer-determined physical activity is linked to low systemic inflammation and low arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetes2012In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1119-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabet. Med. 29, 11191125 (2012) Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to explore the association between pedometer-determined physical activity versus measures of obesity, inflammatory markers and arterial stiffness in people with Type 2 diabetes. Methods We analysed data from 224 men and 103 women with Type 2 diabetes, aged 5466 years. Physical activity was measured with waist-mounted pedometers during three consecutive days and the number of steps/day were calculated and classified in four groups: andlt; 5000 steps/day, 50007499 steps/day, 75009999 steps/day and andgt;= 10000 steps/day. Blood samples were analysed for lipids, HbA1c, inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Nurses measured blood pressure and anthropometrics. Aortic pulse wave velocity was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries. Results Mean steps/day was 7683 +/- 3883 (median 7222, interquartile range 486910 343). There were no differences in age, diabetes duration, blood pressure, lipids or glycaemic control between the four groups of pedometer-determined physical activity. Subjects with higher steps/day had lower BMI (28.8 vs. 31.5 kg/m2, P andlt; 0.001), waist circumference (101.7 vs. 108.0 cm, P andlt; 0.001), lower levels of C-reactive protein (1.6 vs. 2.6 mg/l, P = 0.007), lower levels of interleukin-6 (1.9 vs. 3.8 pg ml, P andlt; 0.001) and lower pulse wave velocity (10.2 vs. 11.0 m/s, P = 0.009) compared with less physically active people. Conclusions We conclude that physical activity measured with pedometer was associated not only with less abdominal obesity, but also with decreased systemic low-grade inflammation as well as with low arterial stiffness, in people with Type 2 diabetes.

  • 11.
    Jennersjö, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Nyström, Fredrik H.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Pedometer-determined physical activity level and change in arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetes over 4 years2016In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 992-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To explore prospectively the correlation between the level of pedometer-determined physical activity at the start of the study and the change in pulse wave velocity from baseline to 4 years later in people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Methods We analysed data from 135 men and 53 women with Type 2 diabetes, aged 54–66 years. Physical activity was measured with waist-mounted pedometers on 3 consecutive days and the numbers of steps/day at baseline were classified into four groups: <5000 steps/day, 5000–7499 steps/day, 7500–9999 steps/day and ≥10 000 steps/day. Pulse wave velocity was measured using applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and after 4 years.

    Results The mean (±sd; range) number of steps/day was 8022 (±3765; 956–20 921). The participants with the lowest level of physical activity had a more pronounced increase in the change in pulse wave velocity compared with the participants with the highest. When change in pulse wave velocity was analysed as a continuous variable and adjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, BMI, systolic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity at baseline, β-blocker use, statin use, unemployment, smoking and diabetes medication, the number of steps/day at baseline was significantly associated with a less steep increase in change in pulse wave velocity (P=0.005). Every 1000 extra steps at baseline corresponded to a lower increase in change in pulse wave velocity of 0.103 m/s.

    Conclusions We found that a high level of pedometer-determined physical activity was associated with a slower progression of arterial stiffness over 4 years in middle-aged people with Type 2 diabetes.

  • 12. Johansson, BL
    et al.
    Borg, K
    Fernqvist-Forbes, E
    Kernell, A
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Odergren, T
    Wahren, J
    Beneficial effects of C-peptide on incipient nephropathy and neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus2000In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 181-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Recent studies have indicated that proinsulin C-peptide shows specific binding to cell membrane binding sites and may exert biological effects when administered to patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to determine if combined treatment with C-peptide and insulin might reduce the level of microalbuminuria in patients with Type 1 diabetes and incipient nephropathy. Methods: Twenty-one normotensive patients with microalbuminuria were studied for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. The patients received s.c. injections of either human C-peptide (600 nmol/24 h) or placebo plus their regular insulin regimen for 3 months. Results: Glycaemic control improved slightly during the study and to a similar extent in both treatment groups. Blood pressure was unaltered throughout the study. During the C-peptide treatment period, urinary albumin excretion decreased progressively on average from 58 ╡g/min (basal) to 34 ╡g/min (3 months, P < 0.01) and it tended to increase, but not significantly so, during the placebo period. The difference between the two treatment periods was statistically significant (P < 0.01). In the 12 patients with signs of autonomic neuropathy prior to the study, respiratory heart rate variability increased by 21 ▒ 9% (P < 0.05) during treatment with C-peptide but was unaltered during placebo. Thermal thresholds were significantly improved during C-peptide treatment in comparison to placebo (n = 6, P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results indicate that combined treatment with C-peptide and insulin for 3 months may improve renal function by diminishing urinary albumin excretion and ameliorate autonomic and sensory nerve dysfunction in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  • 13. Korpinen, E
    et al.
    Groop, PH
    Fagerudd, JA
    Teppo, AM
    Akerblom, H
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Increased secretion of TGF-beta1 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus with diabetic nephropathy.2001In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 18, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Kullberg, C
    et al.
    Abrahamsson, M
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, EMK-endokrin.
    Finnström, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Ophthalmology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Prevalence of retinopathy differs with age at onset of diabetes in a population of patients with Type 1 diabetes2002In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 924-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The VISS study (Vascular complications in South-east Sweden) investigates prevalence and incidence of vascular complications in a population with Type 1 diabetes, from a well-defined geographical area and followed from diag-nosis with HbA1c measurement. Method. The study population comprised all 440 patients with Type 1 diabetes onset before the age of 36 years, onset during 1983-1987, and at the time of onset living within the counties of J÷nk÷ping, Kalmar or ╓sterg÷tland. Retinopathy was examined with fundus photography 1994-1995, and classified according to a modified Airlie House protocol. Results. Fundus photographs from 390 patients were evaluated. In 277 (71%) patients no retinopathy was seen. The prevalence of retinopathy increased from 11% among patients < 5 years old at diabetes onset, to 48% among those 15-19 years old at diabetes onset, and then decreased to 30% for patients 30-35 years old at diabetes onset (P for ?2 for linear trend for all ages 0.017, for age at onset 0-19 yearsP = 0.0003), without corresponding differences in duration or HbA1c between patients with different onset age. Patients with HbA1c in the highest quartile (> 8.3% HbA1c) had a relative risk of 2.4 (95% confidence) interval (CI) 1.7-3.2) of having any retinopathy compared with patients with lower HbA1c, and a relative risk of 7.1 (95% CI 3.0-16.7) of having other forms of retinopathy than microaneurysms. Conclusion. In patients with diabetes duration of 6-13 years, the prevalence of retinopathy is clearly related to glycaemic control. Furthermore, the risk of retinopathy varies with different age at onset, independently of differences in duration or glycaemic control.

  • 15.
    Leslie, R D
    et al.
    University of London.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Editorial Material: The viral aetiology of diabetes: a tribute to Keith Taylor (1929-2012)2012In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 419-419Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 16.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    Ottosson, A-M
    Med Norrköping.
    The lipoprotein profile differs during insulin treatment alone and combination therapy with insulin and sulphonylureas in patients with type2 diabetes mellitus.1999In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 16, p. 820-826Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Lionis, C
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Bathianiaki, M
    Antonakis, N
    Papavasiliou, S
    Philalithis, A
    A high prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a municipality of rural Crete, Greece [1]2001In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 768-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 18.
    Peterson, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pingel, R.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Dahlin, L. B.
    Hand Surg Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rolandsson, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Association between HbA(1c) and peripheral neuropathy in a 10-year follow-up study of people with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes2017In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1756-1764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To explore the association between HbA(1c) and sural nerve function in a group of people with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a 10-year follow-up study in 87 out of an original 119 participants. At study commencement (2004), 64 men and 55 women (mean age 61.1 years) with normal glucose tolerance (n=39), impaired glucose tolerance (n=29), or Type 2 diabetes (n=51) were enrolled. At the 2014 follow-up (men, n=46, women, n=41; mean age 71.1 years), 36, nine and 42 participants in the normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes categories, respectively, were re-tested. Biometric data and blood samples were collected, with an electrophysiological examination performed on both occasions. Results At follow-up, we measured the amplitude of the sural nerve in 74 of the 87 participants. The mean amplitude had decreased from 10.9 V (2004) to 7.0 mu V (2014; Pamp;lt;0.001). A 1% increase in HbA(1c) was associated with a similar to 1% average decrease in the amplitude of the sural nerve, irrespective of group classification. Crude and adjusted estimates ranged from -0.84 (95% CI -1.32, -0.37) to -1.25 (95% CI -2.31, -0.18). Although the mean conduction velocity of those measured at both occasions (n=73) decreased from 47.6 m/s to 45.8 m/s (P=0.009), any association with HbA(1c) level was weak. Results were robust with regard to potential confounders and missing data. Conclusions Our data suggest an association between sural nerve amplitude and HbA(1c) at all levels of HbA(1c). Decreased amplitude was more pronounced than was diminished conduction velocity, supporting the notion that axonal degeneration is an earlier and more prominent effect of hyperglycaemia than demyelination.

  • 19. Robertson, KJ
    et al.
    Schoenle, E
    Gucev, Z
    Mordhorst, L
    Gall, MA
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Insulin detemir compared with NPH insulin in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes2007In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study compared the effect of insulin detemir on glycaemic control (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and variability thereof) with that of Neutral Protamine Hagedorn human isophane (NPH) insulin, both combined with insulin aspart, in children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and compared the safety of these treatments. Methods: In this 26-week, open-label, randomized (2 : 1), parallel-group study, 347 (140 prepubertal and 207 pubertal) children with Type 1 diabetes, aged 6-17 years, received insulin detemir (n = 232) or NPH insulin (n = 115) once or twice daily, according to the prestudy regimen, plus premeal insulin aspart. Results: The mean HbA1c decreased by ∼0.8% with both treatments. After 26 weeks, the mean difference in HbA 1c was 0.1% (95% confidence interval -0.1, 0.3) (insulin detemir 8.0%, NPH insulin 7.9%). Within-subject variation in self-measured fasting plasma glucose was significantly lower with insulin detemir than with NPH insulin (SD 3.3 vs. 4.3, P < 0.001), as was mean fasting plasma glucose (8.4 vs. 9.6 mmol/l, P = 0.022). The risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia (22.00-07.00 h) was 26% lower with insulin detemir (P = 0.041) and the risk of 24-h hypoglycaemia was similar with the two treatments (P = 0.351). The mean body mass index (BMI) Z-score was lower with insulin detemir (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Basal-bolus treatment with insulin detemir or NPH insulin and premeal insulin aspart in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus improved HbA1c to a similar degree. The lower and more predictable fasting plasma glucose, lower risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia and lower BMI observed with insulin detemir are clinically significant advantages compared with NPH insulin. © 2007 The Authors.

  • 20.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis.
    Chalmers, J.
    The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Use of antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction: a nationwide register study2016In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To explore the gender- and age-specific risk of developing a first myocardial infarction in people treated with antidiabetic and/or antidepressant drugs compared with people with no pharmaceutical treatment for diabetes or depression.

    Methods

    A cohort of all Swedish residents aged 45–84 years (n = 4 083 719) was followed for a period of 3 years. Data were derived from three nationwide registers. The prescription and dispensing of antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs were used as markers of disease. All study subjects were reallocated according to treatment and the treatment categories were updated every year. Data were analysed using a Cox regression model with a time-dependent variable. The outcome of interest was first fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction.

    Results

    During follow-up, 42 840 people had a first myocardial infarction, 3511 of which were fatal. Women aged 45–64 years, receiving both antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs had a hazard ratio for myocardial infarction of 7.4 (95% CI 6.3–8.6) compared with women receiving neither. The corresponding hazard ratio for men was 3.1 (95% CI 2.8–3.6).

    Conclusions

    The combined use of antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction compared with use of either group of drugs alone. The increase in relative risk was greater in middle-aged women than in middle-aged men.

  • 21.
    Samefors, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Scragg, R.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Association between serum 25(OH)D-3 and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes: a community-based cohort study2017In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim We aimed to explore the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes recruited from a community-based study because there is limited and inconsistent research of this group. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study among people aged 55-66 years with Type 2 diabetes as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes -A Prospective Study in Primary Care (CARDIPP). We analysed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [25(OH)D-3] at baseline. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for the first myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality according to 25(OH)D-3. Results We examined 698 people with a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. Serum 25(OH)D-3 was inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: HR 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 0.99, P = 0.001]. Compared with the fourth quartile (Q4) [25(OH)D-3 amp;gt; 61.8 nmol/l], HR (with 95% CI) was 3.46 (1.60 to 7.47) in Q1 [25(OH)D-3 amp;lt; 35.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.002); 2.26 (1.01 to 5.06) in Q2 [25(OH)D-3 35.5-47.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.047); and 1.62 (0.70 to 3.76) in Q3 [25(OH)D-3 47.5-61.8 nmol/l] (P = 0.26) when adjusting for age, sex and season. The results remained significant after adjusting also for cardiovascular risk factors, physiological variables including parathyroid hormone and previous cardiovascular disease (P = 0.027). Conclusions Low 25(OH)D-3 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes independent of parathyroid hormone. Vitamin D could be considered as a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to explore whether vitamin D deficiency is a modifiable risk factor in Type 2 diabetes.

  • 22.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and other microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from children with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes and control children and their family members2004In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 64-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The gut flora is quantitatively the most important source of microbial stimulation and may provide a primary signal in the maturation of the immune system. We compared the microflora-associated characteristics (MACs) in 22 children with newly diagnosed diabetes, 27 healthy controls, and their family members to see if there were differences between the children and if there was a familial pattern. Methods: The MACs were assessed by determining the concentrations of eight short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), mucin, urobilin, b-aspartylglycine, coprastanol and faecal tryptic activity (FTA). Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the concentrations of SCFA in the diabetes and control children. Members of families with a diabetic child had a higher concentration of acetic acid (P < 0.02) and lower concentrations of several other SCFAs than control families (P < 0.05-0.02). The other MACs showed no differences between the children or between the two family groups. Conclusion: In this pilot study we saw no differences in the MACs between children with diabetes and their controls. There were, however, some differences between the family members of diabetic children and controls that may indicate a familial pattern regarding the production of SCFAs by the gut flora. The role of the gut flora in relation to the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes needs to be analysed in larger and/or prospective studies.

  • 23. Schölin, A
    et al.
    Törn, C
    Nyström, L
    Berne, C
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Blohmé, G
    Bolinder, J
    Eriksson, JW
    Kockum, I
    Landin-Olsson, M
    Östman, J
    Karlsson, FA
    Sundkvist, G
    Björk, E
    Normal weight promotes remission and low number of islet antibodies prolong the duration of remission in Type 1 diabetes2004In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 447-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To identify clinical, immunological and biochemical factors that predict remission, and its duration in a large cohort of young adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: In Sweden, 362 patients (15-34 years), classified as Type 1 DM were included in a prospective, nation-wide population-based study. All patients were followed at local hospitals for examination of HbA1c and insulin dosage over a median period after diagnosis of 5 years. Duration of remission, defined as an insulin maintenance dose ≤ 0.3 U/kg/24 h and HbA1c within the normal range, was analysed in relation to characteristics at diagnosis. Results: Remissions were seen in 43% of the patients with a median duration of 8 months (range 1-73). Sixteen per cent had a remission with a duration > 12 months. Among patients with antibodies (ab+), bivariate analysis suggested that adult age, absence of low BMI, high plasma C-peptide concentrations, lack of ketonuria or ketoacidosis at diagnosis and low insulin dose at discharge from hospital were associated with a high possibility of achieving remission. Multiple regression showed that normal weight (BMI of 20-24.9 kg/m2) was the only factor that remained significant for the possibility of entering remission. In survival analysis among ab+ remitters, a low number of islet antibodies, one or two instead of three or four, were associated with a long duration of remissions. Conclusion: In islet antibody-positive Type 1 DM, normal body weight was the strongest factor for entering remission, whilst a low number of islet antibodies was of importance for the duration.

  • 24.
    Soderstrom, U.
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden; Malarsjukhuset Hospital, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sahlqvist, L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Aman, J.
    University of Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Impaired metabolic control and socio-demographic status in immigrant children at onset of Type 1 diabetes2014In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 1418-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe aim of the present study was to compare clinical and socio-demographic conditions at the onset of Type1 diabetes in children born to immigrant families and children born to Swedish families, and to assess whether those conditions had an impact on metabolic status. Methods and designThis was an observational nationwide population-based matched cohort study on prospectively recorded registry data of all children with diabetes in Sweden and their families during 2000-2010. Out of a total of 13415 children from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry (SWEDIABKIDS), 879 children born to immigrant parents were collected. To these we added 2627 children with Swedish-born parents, matched for gender, age and year of onset of Type1 diabetes. ResultsThe proportion of low capillary pH (less than7.30) at onset was higher in the immigrant cohort [25.8% vs. 16.4% in the Swedish cohort (Pless than0.001)]. HbA(1c) was also higher [95mmol/mol (10.8%) vs. 88mmol/mol (10.2%), respectively (Pless than0.001)]. In a logistic regression model with low pH as the dependent variable, we were unable to reveal any significant association to socio-demographic factors, but the odds ratio for HbA(1c) was 0.983 (95%CI 0.976-0.991) and for plasma glucose was 0.953 (95%CI 0.933-0.973). ConclusionChildren born to immigrant parents have lower capillary pH and higher HbA(1c) at diabetes onset. Immigrant families harbour lower socio-demographic living conditions, but this fact does not seem to influence the inferior metabolic condition at diabetes onset.

  • 25.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Primary Health Care Centres.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Age-specific direct health care costs attributable to diabetesin a Swedish population: a register-based analysis2008In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 732-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this population-based study was to explore the age-specific additional direct healthcare cost for patients with diabetes compared with the non-diabetic population.

    Methods: In 1999-2005, patients with diabetes in the Swedish county of Östergötland (n = 20 876) were identified from an administrative database. Cost data on the healthcare expenditure in primary healthcare, out-patient hospital care and in-patient care for the entire county population (n = ∼415 000) in 2005 were extracted from a cost per patient (CPP) database, which includes information on all utilized healthcare resources in the county. Data on drug sales were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.

    Results: The cost per person was 1.8 times higher in patients with diabetes than in the non-diabetic population, 7.7 times higher in children and 1.3 times higher in subjects aged > 75 years. The additional cost per person for diabetes was €1971; €3930 and €1367, respectively, for children and subjects aged > 75 years. The proportion of total additional diabetes costs attributable to in-patient care increased with age from 25 to 50%; in-patient care was the most expensive component at all ages except in children, for whom visiting a specialist was most expensive. The diabetes-related segment of the total healthcare cost was 6.6%, increasing from 2.0% in children to 10.3% in the age group 65-74 years, declining to 6.2% in the oldest age group.

    Conclusions: The direct medical cost of diabetes varies considerably by age. Knowledge about the influence of age on healthcare costs to society will be important in future planning of diabetes management.

  • 26.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Finspång, Primary Health Care Centre.
    Sundstrom, J
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Svennblad, B
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Lohm, L
    AstraZeneca Nord, Sweden .
    Nilsson, P M
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Johansson, G
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Associations of HbA1c and educational level with risk of cardiovascular events in 32871 drug-treated patients with Type2 diabetes: a cohort study in primary care2013In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 30, no 5, p. E170-E177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To explore the association of HbA1c and educational level with risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with Type2 diabetes. Methods A cohort of 32871 patients with Type2 diabetes aged 35years and older identified by extracting data from electronic patient records for all patients who had a diagnosis of Type2 diabetes and had glucose-lowering agents prescribed between 1999 and 2009 at 84 primary care centres in Sweden. Associations of mean HbA1c levels and educational level with risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality were analysed. Results The associations of HbA1c with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were J-shaped, with the lowest risk observed for cardiovascular mortality at an HbA1c level of 51mmol/mol (6.8%) for subjects on oral agents and 56mmol/mol (7.3%) in insulin-treated patients. The lowest risk observed for all-cause mortality was at an HbA1c level of 51mmol/mol (6.8%) for subjects on oral agents and 56mmol/mol (7.3%) in insulin-treated patients. There was an increased risk for cardiovascular death [hazard ratio1.6 (1.22.1), P=0.0008] at the lowest HbA1c decile for subjects in the low education category. For subjects with higher education there was no evident J curve for cardiovascular death [hazard ratio1.2 (0.81.6), P=0.3873]. Conclusions Our results lend support to the recent American Diabetes Association/ European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement that emphasizes the importance of additional factors, including the propensity for hypoglycaemia, which should influence HbA1c targets and treatment choices for individual patients. (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 01121315)

  • 27. Östman, J
    et al.
    Landin-Olsson, M
    Törn, C
    Palmer, J
    Lernmark, Å
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    Björk, E
    Bolinder, J
    Blohmé, G
    Eriksson, J
    Littorin, B
    Nyström, L
    Scherstén, B
    Sundkvist, G
    Wibell, L
    Ketoacidosis in young adults is not related to the islet antibodies at the diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus - A nationwide study2000In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 269-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that there is lower prevalence of islet antibodies in subjects with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes mellitus in young adulthood than in children is associated with less severe diabetes at time of diagnosis. Methods: This investigation was based on a nationwide study (Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden) of 15-34-year-old newly diagnosed diabetic subjects. During 1992-1993, all diabetic subjects (excluding secondary and gestational diabetes) were reported on standardized forms, with information about clinical characteristics at diagnosis. The study examined islet cell antibodies (ICA) by indirect immunofluorescence, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase- like antigen (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) as well as C-peptide by radioimmunoassay. Results: Blood samples were available from 78 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and 517 non-acidotic patients. The prevalence of ICA (63% vs. 57%), GADA (63% vs. 66%), IA-2A (35% vs. 44%) and IAA (20% vs. 15%) were very similar in patients with or without DKA. The median levels of the four autoantibodies did not differ between the two groups. High blood glucose (P < 0.001) and low C-peptide levels (P < 0.001) were the only parameters found to be related to DKA. Conclusions: The similarities in findings of newly diagnosed diabetic patients with or without DKA regarding ICA, GADA, IA-2A and IAA suggest that there is no relationship between the expression of antigenicity and the severity of ▀-cell dysfunction. The lower prevalence of the four autoantibodies in 15-34-year-old diabetic subjects compared with previous findings in children is not explained by misclassification of diabetes type.

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