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  • 1.
    Bednarska, Olga
    et al.
    Oskarshamn Hospital, Sweden.
    Ignatova, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Ström, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Magtarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Intraepithelial lymphocyte distribution differs between the bulb and the second part of duodenum2013Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Evaluation of intraepithelial duodenal lymphocytosis (IDL) is important in celiac disease (CD). There is no established cut-off value for increased number of IELs in the bulb.

    We therefore investigated the relation between IEL counts in the bulb and duodenal specimens in non-celiac subjects.

    Methods

    The number of CD3+ IELs was determined in specimens from the second part of the duodenum and from the bulb in 34 non-celiac subjects. The numbers of IELs in the villus tip and sides were counted and the quotient tip/side was calculated. HLA DQ2/DQ8 and serum antibodies against transglutaminase were analysed.

    Results

    The mean number of IELs per 100 enterocytes (95% CI) in specimens was 14.7 (11.8-17.6) in the bulb, and 21.2 (17.0-25.5) in the second part of the duodenum (p<0.01). There was no difference in IEL count or distribution comparing patients carrying or lacking HLA DQ2/DQ8.

    Conclusions

    IEL count in non-celiac, HLA DQ2/DQ8 positive or negative patients is significantly lower in the bulb than in the second part of the duodenum. These findings implicate that the site of biopsy should be taken into account when considering duodenal lymphocytosis.

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  • 2.
    Berg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Redéen, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ericson, Ann-Charlott
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöstrand, Sven-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nitric oxide-an endogenous inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in isolated human gastric glands2004Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 4, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has previously been detected in the glandular part of the human gastric mucosa. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to influence gastric secretion in various animal models. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of exogenously and endogenously derived NO on histamine- and cAMP-stimulated gastric acid secretion in isolated human oxyntic glands.

    Methods

    Oxyntic glands were isolated from human gastric biopsies and were subsequently pre-treated with NO donors and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and then exposed to histamine or dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP). The secretory response of the glands was determined as accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine.

    Results

    The histamine- or db-cAMP-induced acid secretion was attenuated by L-arginine, a known source of endogenous NO, and also by the NO-donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Pre-treatment with either of the NOS inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) enhanced the secretory response.

    Conclusion

    Our results show that NO inhibits gastric acid secretion in isolated human gastric glands, and that there is endogenous formation of NO within the glandular epithelium in the vicinity of the parietal cells.

  • 3.
    Bragde, Hanna
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Soederman, Jan
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Potential blood-based markers of celiac disease2014Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 14, nr 176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Blood-based diagnostics has the potential to simplify the process of diagnosing celiac disease (CD). Although high levels of autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2) are strongly indicative of active CD, several other scenarios involve a need for additional blood-based CD markers. Methods: We investigated the levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) in whole blood (n = 49) and protein in plasma (n = 22) from cases with active CD (n = 20), with confirmed CD and normalized histology (n = 15), and without a CD diagnosis (n = 14). Group differences were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks. We also investigated correlations between levels of potential markers, histopathology according to the modified Marsh scale, and CD risk gradient based on HLA type, using Spearman rank correlation. The relation between HLA-DQ2 gene dose effect and the expression levels of selected blood-based markers was investigated using the Mann-Whitney U test. Finally, the diagnostic performance of anti-TG2, potential blood-based CD markers, and logistic regression models of combined markers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: CXCL11 protein levels and TNFRSF9 and TNFSF13B mRNA levels were identified as potential CD markers. These are all affected by or involved in the regulation of the NF-kappa B complex. CXCL11 protein levels and IL21 and IL15 mRNA levels were correlated with histopathology according to the modified Marsh scale, as were the established CD markers. HLA genotype risk and HLA-DQ2 gene dose effect did not show any significant relations with either the potential CD markers or the established CD markers. ROC curve analysis revealed a slight, non-significant increase in the area under the curve for the combined use of anti-TG2 and different constellations of potential blood-based CD markers compared to anti-TG2 alone. Conclusions: The CD markers identified in this study further emphasize the significance of components related to NF-kappa B regulation in relation to CD. However, the relevance of CXCL11, TNFSF13B, TNFRSF9, and other NF-kappa B interacting proteins recognized by pathway analysis, needs to be further investigated in relation to diagnosis and monitoring of CD.

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  • 4.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lindfors, Perjohan
    Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Sweden .
    Lackner, Jeffrey M
    SUNY Buffalo, NY 14260 USA .
    Gronberg, Karin
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Molin, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Noren, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Romberg, Karin
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Evelyn
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Prediction of symptomatic improvement after exposure-based treatment for irritable bowel syndrome2013Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 13, nr 160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies show that psychological treatments relieve symptoms for patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, there are no consistent findings that show what patient characteristics make a psychological treatment more or less likely to result in improvement. We have previously conducted a study of a newly developed internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) that emphasized exposure to IBS symptoms and IBS-related situations and reduced symptom-related avoidance. The study showed that the treatment led to improvement in IBS symptoms compared to a waiting list and that treatment gains were maintained over a 15-18 month follow-up period. The aim of the present study was to investigate several possible predictors of short-and long-term treatment outcome in terms of symptom improvement, based on data collected in the previously conducted treatment trial. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Demographics, comorbid psychological distress, IBS-related fear and avoidance behaviors, and IBS-related disability were investigated as predictors of treatment outcome in the sample consisting of 79 participants diagnosed with IBS who had undergone 10 weeks of ICBT. Predictors that were significantly correlated with symptom levels at post-treatment and follow-up were entered into multiple regression analyses that controlled for pre-treatment symptom levels. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: There were measures within each domain, i.e., comorbid psychological distress, IBS-related fear and avoidance behaviors, and IBS-related disability, with the exception of demographic data, that were correlated with the symptom levels at post-treatment and follow-up. However, when these were entered into a multiple regression analyses that controlled for pre-treatment levels, none remained a significant predictor of the post-treatment and follow-up symptomatic status. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The study did not find any individual characteristics that made patients more or less likely to respond to the exposure-based ICBT. The finding that comorbid psychological distress did not predict outcome is in accordance with previous studies. Reliable predictors for response to any type of psychological treatment for IBS remain to be established.

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  • 5.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institute.
    Lindfors, Perjohan
    Sabbatsberg Hospital.
    Andreewitch, Sergej
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute.
    Acceptability, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of internet-based exposure treatment for irritable bowel syndrome in a clinical sample: a randomized controlled trial2011Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 11, nr 110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has shown promising effects in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, to date no study has used a design where participants have been sampled solely from a clinical population. We aimed to investigate the acceptability, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of ICBT for IBS using a consecutively recruited sample from a gastroenterological clinic. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Sixty-one patients were randomized to 10 weeks of ICBT (n = 30) or a waiting list control (n = 31). The ICBT was guided by an online therapist and emphasized acceptance of symptoms through exposure and mindfulness training. Severity of IBS symptoms was measured with the Gastrointestinal symptom rating scale - IBS version (GSRS-IBS). Patients in both groups were assessed at pre- and post-treatment while only the ICBT group was assessed 12 months after treatment completion. Health economic data were also gathered at all assessment points and analyzed using bootstrap sampling. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Fifty of 61 patients (82%) completed the post-treatment assessment and 20 of 30 patients (67%) in the ICBT group were assessed at 12-month follow-up. The ICBT group demonstrated significantly (p andlt; .001) larger improvements on the IBS-related outcome scales than the waiting list group. The between group effect size on GSRS-IBS was Cohens d = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.19-1.34). Similar effects were noted on measures of quality of life and IBS-related fear and avoidance behaviors. Improvements in the ICBT group were maintained at 12-month follow-up. The ICBT condition was found to be more cost-effective than the waiting list, with an 87% chance of leading to reduced societal costs combined with clinical effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness was sustained over the 12-month period. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: ICBT proved to be a cost-effective treatment when delivered to a sample recruited from a gastroenterological clinic. However, many of the included patients dropped out of the study and the overall treatment effects were smaller than previous studies with referred and self-referred samples. ICBT may therefore be acceptable and effective for only a subset of clinical patients. Study dropout seemed to be associated with severe symptoms and large impairment. Objective and empirically validated criteria to select which patients to offer ICBT should be developed.

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  • 6.
    Marlid, Karl
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Sanz, Yolanda
    IATA CSIC, Spain .
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden. Univ Orebro, Sweden .
    Antibiotic exposure in pregnancy and risk of coeliac disease in offspring: a cohort study2014Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 14, nr 75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The infant microbiota may play a pathogenic role in coeliac disease (CD). Antibiotic treatment in pregnancy is common and could significantly impact the infant microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring. Methods: Prospective questionnaire data on antibiotic exposure in pregnancy were available in 8729 children participating in the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort study, and of these 46 developed CD until December 2006. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for CD in the offspring among mothers exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, with adjustment for parent-reported diary data on breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and number of infections in the childs first year of life. Results: Of the 1836 children exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, 12 (0.7%) children developed CD as compared with 34/6893 (0.5%) unexposed children (HR = 1.33; 95% Cl = 0.69-2.56). Risk estimates remained unchanged after adjustment for breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and infection load in the childs first year of life (HR = 1.28; 95% Cl = 0.66-2.48). Conclusions: We found no statistically significant association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring. This lack of association may either be true or the result of limited statistical power.

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  • 7.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nayeri, Tayeb
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Xu, Junyang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in fecal samples: rapid detection by surface plasmon resonance2005Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 5, nr 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The development of biosensors, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, enables monitoring of a variety of biospecific interactions without the need for chemical-, biological- or radiological-labelled reagents.

    Method

    We utilised SPR to detect hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in reconstituted faecal samples and studied samples from patients with infectious gastroenteritis (n = 20) and normal controls (n = 10). Mouse anti-human HGF monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human HGF receptor (c-Met)/Fc chimera were immobilised in flow cells of a CM5 biosensor chip.

    Results

    We found that infectious gastroenteritis produced a higher signal response compared to controls, due to binding of HGF to monoclonal anti-HGF antibody as well as binding of HGF to c-Met receptor (p < 0.01). The SPR signal response correlated with results from ELISA (r = 72%, p > 0.001). The signal response decreased significantly (p < 0.05) when samples were diluted with dextran, because of reduction in both specific as well as unspecific binding of HGF to dextran. The decrease in the specific response might imply that the dextran- binding site for HGF overlaps with the antibody binding epitope, or that dextran binding induces a conformational change of the HGF molecule. Bands corresponding to HGF were found by gel electrophoresis of purified faeces in an affinity chromatography column immobilised by HGF ligands.

    Conclusion

    Determination of HGF by SPR might be beneficial in diagnosis of acute situations that present with symptoms of gastroenteritis and may, possibly, guide appropriate medical treatments. This is to our knowledge the first report on the use of SPR for detection of HGF in faeces samples.

  • 8.
    Noren, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Regional Jonköping County, Sweden.
    Almer, Sven
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Söderman, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Regional Jonköping County, Sweden.
    Genetic variation and expression levels of tight junction genes identifies association between MAGI3 and inflammatory bowel disease2017Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 17, artikel-id 68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased intestinal permeability, which involves paracellular passage regulated through tight junctions (TJ). The aim of the study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in genes encoding interacting TJ proteins and corresponding expressions, in relation to IBD. Methods: Allelic associations between TJ-related genes (F11R, MAGI1, MAGI2, MAGI3, PARD3, PTEN, and TJP1) and IBD, Crohns disease (CD), or ulcerative colitis (UC) were investigated. PTPN22 was included since its located in the same genetic region as MAGI3. Gene expression levels were investigated in relation to genotype, inflammatory status, phenotype, and medical treatment. Results: The two strongest allelic associations were observed between IBD and SNPs in MAGI2 (rs6962966) and MAGI3 (rs1343126). Another MAGI3 SNP marker (rs6689879) contributed to increased ileal MAGI3 expression level in non-IBD controls. Furthermore, association between inflammation and decreased expression levels of MAGI3, PTEN, and TJP1 in colonic IBD as well as UC mucosa, and between inflammation and increased expression of PTPN22 in colonic IBD mucosa, was observed. Conclusions: Our findings lend support to a genetic basis for modulation of intestinal epithelial barrier in IBD, and we have identified MAGI3 as a new candidate gene for IBD.

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  • 9.
    Tack, J.
    et al.
    University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, Leuven, 3000, Belgium.
    Stanghellini, V.
    University Hospital S.Orsola, Bologna, Italy.
    Mearin, F.
    Centro Médico Teknon, Barcelona, Spain.
    Yiannakou, Y.
    County Durham and Darlington NHS Trust, Durham, United Kingdom.
    Layer, P.
    Israelitic Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.
    Coffin, B.
    AP-HP Louis-Mourier Hospital, Colombes, Paris Diderot University, Paris, France.
    Simren, M.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Mackinnon, J.
    TFS Develop S.L, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wiseman, G.
    Allergan International, Marlow, United Kingdom.
    Marciniak, A.
    Allergan International, Marlow, United Kingdom.
    Economic burden of moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in six European countries2019Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) is a complex disorder with gastrointestinal and nervous system components. The study aim was to assess the economic burden of moderate to severe IBS-C in six European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK). Methods: An observational, one year retrospective-prospective (6 months each) study of patients diagnosed in the last five years with IBS-C (Rome III criteria) and moderate to severe disease at inclusion (IBS Symptom Severity Scale score = 175). The primary objective was to assess the direct cost to European healthcare systems. Results: Five hundred twenty-five patients were included, 60% (range: 43.1-78.8%) suffered from severe IBS-C. During follow-up 11.1-24.0% of patients had a hospitalisation/emergency room (ER) visit, median stay range: 1.5-12.0 days and 41.1-90.4% took prescription drugs for IBS-C. 21.4-50.8% of employed patients took sick leave (mean: 11.6-64.1 days). The mean annual direct cost to the healthcare systems was €937.1- €2108.0. The total direct cost (combined costs to healthcare systems and patient) for IBS-C was €1421.7-€2487.1. Conclusions: IBS-C is not a life-threatening condition; however, it has large impact on healthcare systems and society. Direct and indirect costs for moderate to severe IBS-C were high with the largest direct cost driver being hospitalisations/ER visits. © 2019 The Author(s).

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  • 10.
    Thomson, Amanda
    et al.
    Sch Med, Wales; Newcastle Univ, England.
    Smart, Kathryn
    Sch Med, Wales.
    Somerville, Michelle S.
    Sch Med, Wales.
    Lauder, Sarah N.
    Sch Med, Wales.
    Appanna, Gautham
    Sch Med, Wales; Univ Hosp Wales, Wales.
    Horwood, James
    Univ Hosp Wales, Wales.
    Raj, Lawrence Sunder
    Univ Hosp Wales, Wales.
    Srivastava, Brijesh
    Univ Hosp Wales, Wales.
    Durai, Dharmaraj
    Univ Hosp Wales, Wales.
    Scurr, Martin J.
    Sch Med, Wales.
    Keita, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gallimore, Awen M.
    Sch Med, Wales.
    Godkin, Andrew
    Sch Med, Wales; Univ Hosp Wales, Wales.
    The Ussing chamber system for measuring intestinal permeability in health and disease2019Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 19, artikel-id 98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe relationship between intestinal epithelial integrity and the development of intestinal disease is of increasing interest. A reduction in mucosal integrity has been associated with ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease and potentially could have links with colorectal cancer development. The Ussing chamber system can be utilised as a valuable tool for measuring gut integrity. Here we describe step-by-step methodology required to measure intestinal permeability of both mouse and human colonic tissue samples ex vivo, using the latest equipment and software. This system can be modified to accommodate other tissues.MethodsAn Ussing chamber was constructed and adapted to support both mouse and human tissue to measure intestinal permeability, using paracellular flux and electrical measurements. Two mouse models of intestinal inflammation (dextran sodium sulphate treatment and T regulatory cell depletion using C57BL/6-FoxP3(DTR) mice) were used to validate the system along with human colonic biopsy samples.ResultsDistinct regional differences in permeability were consistently identified within mouse and healthy human colon. In particular, mice showed increased permeability in the mid colonic region. In humans the left colon is more permeable than the right. Furthermore, inflammatory conditions induced chemically or due to autoimmunity reduced intestinal integrity, validating the use of the system.ConclusionsThe Ussing chamber has been used for many years to measure barrier function. However, a clear and informative methods paper describing the setup of modern equipment and step-by-step procedure to measure mouse and human intestinal permeability isnt available. The Ussing chamber system methodology we describe provides such detail to guide investigation of gut integrity.

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