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  • 1.
    Jones, A Wayne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research.
    Holmgren, Anita
    National Board for Forensic Medicine.
    Concentration ratios of free-morphine to free-codeine in femoral blood in heroin-related poisoning deaths2011In: Legal Medicine, ISSN 1344-6223, E-ISSN 1873-4162, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 171-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of free-morphine (Mo), free-codeine (Co) and 6-monoacetyl morphine (6-MAM) were determined in femoral blood in N = 747 heroin-related deaths. The opiates were determined by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. The median blood concentrations of 6-MAM, free-morphine and free-codeine were 0.01 mg/L, 0.24 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The mean and median Mo/Co concentration ratios were 13.2 and 11.0, respectively with a range from 0.2 to 124. Despite the fact that all victims had taken heroin, there were eight cases (1.1%) with a Mo/Co ratio less than one and 18 cases (2.4%) with a ratio less than two. The free-morphine concentration in blood did not depend on the Mo/Co ratio; median 0.29 mg/L (Mo/Co less than 2.0) and median 0.25 mg/L (Mo/Co ratio greater than 2.0). By contrast, the concentration of free-codeine in blood was highly dependent on the Mo/Co ratio; median 0.75 mg/L (Mo/Co less than 1.0) and median 0.30 mg/L (Mo/Co ratio less than 2.0). A Mo/Co ratio in post-mortem (PM) femoral blood greater than1.0 is compelling evidence that the deceased had taken illicit heroin. However, finding a low Mo/Co ratio (less than1.0 or less than2.0) does not preclude use of heroin because such low ratios are possible if a person had co-ingested heroin along with use or abuse of codeine medication.

  • 2.
    Petaros, Anja
    et al.
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Med, Artillerigatan 12, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden; Rijeka University, Croatia.
    Garvi, Heather M.
    Mercyhurst University, PA 16546 USA; Des Moines University, IA 50312 USA.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Smithsonian Institute, DC 20560 USA.
    Schlager, Stefan
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. UCLA, CA USA; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sexual dimorphism and regional variation in human frontal bone inclination measured via digital 3D models2017In: Legal Medicine, ISSN 1344-6223, E-ISSN 1873-4162, Vol. 29, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, Portuguese, and Chinese), we test the usefulness of the inclination angles for sex estimation and compare their performance to traditional methods of frontal inclination assessment. Accuracy rates in the range 75-81% were achieved for the U.S. White, U.S. Black, and Portuguese groups. For Chinese the overall accuracy was lower, i.e. 66%. Although some regional variation was observed, a cut-off value of 78.2 for glabellar inclination angles separates female and male crania from all studied populations with good accuracy. As inclination angles measured from glabella captures two sexually dimorphic features (i.e. glabellar prominence and frontal inclination) in a single measure, the observed clear male/female difference is not unexpected. Being continuous variables, inclination angles are suitable for use in statistical methods for sex estimations.

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