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  • 1.
    Berin, Emilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Nygatan, Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lindblom, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lindh Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Spetz Holm, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Resistance training for hot flushes in postmenopausal women: A randomised controlled trial2019In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 126, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of 15 weeks of resistance training on the frequency of moderate to severe hot flushes in postmenopausal women. Study design: Postmenopausal women with at least 4 moderate or severe hot flushes or night sweats per day day were randomized to a 15-week resistance training intervention or unchanged physical activity. Participants did not exercise regularly at baseline and had not used any therapy for hot flushes two months prior to study entry. The resistance training was performed three times per week and the program contained 8 exercises performed with 8-12 repetitions in 2 sets. Loads were set individually from eight-repetition maximum-strength tests and increased progressively. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was change in mean moderate or severe hot flushes per day from baseline to week 15, assessed with symptom diaries. Secondary outcomes included change in hot flush score and time spent on physical activity. Results: Between November 19, 2013, and October 26, 2016, 65 women were enrolled; 58 completed the trial and were included in the analyses. The mean age was 55 and the mean number of moderate or severe hot flushes per day at baseline was 7.1; there were no baseline differences between groups. The frequency of hot flushes decreased more in the intervention group than in the control group (mean difference -2.7, 95% CI -4.2 to -1.3). The mean percentage change was -43.6% (-56.0 to -31.3) in the intervention group and -2.0% (16.4-12.4) in the control group. Conclusion: A 15-week resistance-training program decreased the frequency of moderate and severe hot flushes among postmenopausal women and could be an effective and safe treatment option to alleviate vasomotor symptoms.

  • 2.
    Berin, Emilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lindblom, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindh Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Resistance training for hot flushes in postmenopausal women: Randomized controlled trial protocol2016In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 85, p. 96-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Hot flushes and night sweats affect 75% of all women after menopause and is a common reason for decreased quality of life in mid-aged women. Hormone therapy is effective in ameliorating symptoms but cannot be used by all women due to contraindications and side effects. Engagement in regular exercise is associated with fewer hot flushes in observational studies, but aerobic exercise has not proven effective in randomized controlled trials. It remains to be determined whether resistance training is effective in reducing hot flushes and improves quality of life in symptomatic postmenopausal women. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of standardized resistance training on hot flushes and other health parameters in postmenopausal women. Study design: This is an open, parallel-group, randomized controlled intervention study conducted in Linkoping, Sweden. Sixty symptomatic and sedentary postmenopausal women with a mean of at least four moderate to severe hot flushes per day or 28 per week will be randomized to an exercise intervention or unchanged physical activity (control group). The intervention consists of 15 weeks of standardized resistance training performed three times a week under supervision of a physiotherapist. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome is hot flush frequency assessed by self-reported hot flush diaries, and the difference in change from baseline to week 15 will be compared between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusion: The intention is that this trial will contribute to the evidence base regarding effective treatment for hot flushes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Bjarnason, K
    et al.
    Cerin, Å
    Lindgren, R
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Weber, T
    Adverse endometrial effects during long cycle hormone replacement therapy.1999In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 32, p. 161-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lipids and clotting factors during low dose transdermal estradiol/norethisterone use2005In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 344-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To demonstrate the effects of 2-year transdermal continuous combined low-dose estradiol (0.025 mg/day) and norethisterone acetate (0.125 mg/day) on lipid/lipoprotein profile and coagulation/fibrinolysis. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel, 1-year trial enrolled 266 healthy women at least 2 years post menopause. Patients received either 0.025 mg estradiol and 0.125 mg norethisterone acetate daily or placebo transdermally. One hundred and thirty five women completed a second year open follow-up (96 had used Estragest TTS, 39 placebo during the first year), where all women had the estradiol/norethisterone patch. Lipid/lipoprotein profile and coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters were studied at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 weeks. Results: In women on estradiol/norethisterone total cholesterol, Lp(a) and VLDL cholesterol decreased significantly more than in the placebo group after 24 weeks and LDL cholesterol after 48 weeks. Women on estradiol/norethisterone had no change in HDL, triglycerides or Lp(a), an increased HDL/total cholestrol ratio and decreased LDL, VLDL and total cholesterol at 48 weeks compared to placebo. Women with active treatment also showed a significant reduction compared with the placebo group of Factor VII and antithrombin III at 24 and 48 weeks and a reduction of fibrinogen at 24 weeks. These changes persisted over the second year. Conclusions: A continuous combined low-dose transdermal patch daily delivering 0.025 mg estradiol and 0.125 mg norethisterone acetate provided beneficial effects on lipid/lipoprotein profile and coagulation/fibrinolysis. The changes were similar to those previously described after higher dose oral and transdermal estrogen/progestogen regimens.

  • 5.
    Frisk, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery VHN.
    Managing hot flushes in men after prostate cancer-A systematic review2010In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 15-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and objective: The aim of this study was to describe hot flushes in men with prostate cancer, and their treatment methods. Method: A systematic review was conducted of the literature indexed between 1966 and 2009 on the MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Knowledge, Cinahl and PsycINFO. Of 252 articles identified, 32 were selected for consideration of their complete texts, of which five were subject to detailed analysis. Results: Diethylstilbestrol, megestrol acetate and cyproterone acetate have the strongest effect, giving a 75% or larger decrease of the number of hot flushes, but they may have severe or bothersome side-effects. Gabapentin has an uncertain effect. Clonidine is not proven effective for hot flushes. Long-term effects were not evaluated in any of the studies. SSRI/SNRI and acupuncture may have a moderate effect on hot flushes but are not proven in any RCTs. Conclusion: Hot flushes are common and bothersome symptoms in men with prostate cancer and those taking anti-androgen treatment, and reduce quality of life. Few treatments are available and some are avoided for these patients. Additional prospective treatment studies are needed, with long-term follow-up, in order to evaluate the effects and risks of treatments. Treatments with few or no severe side-effects should be prioritised in future investigations. Experimental studies are also needed to elucidate the mechanism behind hot flushes in men and to suggest routes for the development of new treatments.

  • 6.
    Gladh, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Rahgozar, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Prevalence of symptoms possibly related to PADAM, in a Swedish population aged 55, 65 and 75 years2005In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 161-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: With age there is an average decline in the concentration of biologically active testosterone. It is still controversial if this leads to a clinically relevant deficit, "partial androgen deficiency of the ageing man" (PADAM). Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of a series of symptoms possibly associated with PADAM in an assumed normal-population of older men. Methods: We developed a questionnaire including items about symptoms possibly associated with PADAM as well as background data covering demography, medical history, mood status, medication, castration therapy, as well as smoking, exercise and alcohol habits. The 10 items of the ADAM-questionnaire, designed to predict low bio-available T, were also included. The questionnaire was sent to all 1885 men 55, 65 or 75-years-old, living in Linköping, Sweden. Results: We identified a number of symptoms that differed significantly (P<0.01) between age groups, e.g., "increased abdominal circumference", "decrease in muscle strength and/or endurance", "decreased libido", "less strong erection" and "lack of energy". From factorial analysis we found that the symptoms co-varied in four different groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of a number of symptoms differed significantly between age groups, but we cannot infer that there is a causal connection between an average age-dependent decline in testosterone function and these symptoms. There are several other ways to interpret these results like the existence of concurrent somatic and/or mood disorders or ageing as such. For this purpose further studies including measurements of testosterone concentrations relating to the findings of this study have to be performed. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7. Granberg, S
    et al.
    Eurenius, K
    Lindgren, R
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Wilhelmsson, L
    The effects of oral estriol on the endometrium in postmenopausal women2002In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study the long-term effects of oral estriol tablets on the endometrium of postmenopausal women by TVS and histology. Method: This was a cross sectional, parallel-group, multicenter trial of 241 postmenopausal women, out of whom 125 were treated with oral estriol and 116 were untreated controls. Endometrial histology using Pipelle biopsies and/or dilatation and curettage (D&C) was taken, endometrial thickness was assessed by use of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), and the relation between endometrial thickness and histology was calculated. Results: No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found in endometrial histology. There were found more polyps in the oral estriol group (14.0%) as compared with the control group (2.9%). The mean endometrial thickness in the oral estriol group was 3.0 mm compared with a mean value of 2.4 mm in the control group: P=0.01. Conclusions: No clinically relevant difference was found between the endometrium status (assessed by histology and TVS) of postmenopausal women on long-term oral estriol therapy and untreated controls. This trial supports the endometrial safety of maintenance treatment with oral estriol tablets. However, there are signs, not statistically significant, that may be associated with more endometrial polyps in postmenopausal women than if therapy is not given and that TVS is a useful instrument for the diagnosis. ⌐ 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Ekblad, S
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Lönnberg, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Lindgren, R
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Postmenopausal women without previous or current vasomotor symptoms do not flush after abruptly abandoning estrogen replacement therapy. 1999In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 31, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Hammar-Henriksson, MB
    Frisk, J
    Rickenlund, A
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Few oligo-amenorrheic athletes have vasomotor symptoms2000In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess whether women with athletic oligo-amenorrhea have vasomotor symptoms. Material and methods: A mailed questionnaire was sent to 252 female athletes about vasomotor symptoms. Identical questions were also mailed to 1523 peri- and postmenopausal women. Results: The prevalence of vasomotor symptoms was low in female athletes with oligo- and amenorrhea and similar to that found in athletes with regular menstruations. The prevalence was significantly lower than in menopausal women. Although more than a third of the menopausal women had hormone replacement therapy, 30% of them still had vasomotor symptoms at least every week compared with only 2% of the oligo-amenorrheic athletes. Conclusion: Vasomotor symptoms are very uncommon in oligo-amenorrheic athletes, although many of them are hypoestrogenic. It was suggested that one factor contributing to these symptoms around menopause is low hypothalamic activity of ▀-endorphins, which makes the thermoregulatory centre labile. On the other hand, supraphysiological activity in hypothalamic ▀-endorphins may cause the oligo-amenorrhea in athletes, but may stabilise the thermoregulatory centre and thus prevent hot flushes. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  • 10.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kjellgren, Karin I.
    Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Changes in women’s attitudes towards and use of hormone therapy after HERS and WHI2005In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To assess changes in women's attitudes towards risk and benefits of, and use of hormone treatment in the menopausal transition (HT) before and after Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the oestrogen and progestin trial of Women's Health Initiative (WHI).

    Methods:

    Postal questionnaires to all women 53 and 54 years of age in a Swedish community in 1999 (n = 1.760) and 2003 (n = 1.733). Data on sales of HT were collected from the database of the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies.

    Results:

    The fraction of women reporting current use of HT fell from 40.5 to 25.3% (p < 0.001, χ2-test) both by fewer women starting and more women discontinuing treatment. This corresponded to a decrease in dispensation of HT in Linköping and nationwide for the same age group. The fraction of women who had tried complementary treatment for climacteric discomfort, increased from 9.6 to 18.1% for natural remedies (p < 0.001, χ2-test).

    Women perceived HT as more risky and less beneficial in 2003 as compared with 1999 (both p < 0.001, χ2-test). The most frequent source of information about HT during the last year before the 2003 questionnaire were newspaper or magazines (43.8%) and television or radio (31.7%).

    Conclusions:

    The decreased use of HT in the community correlated with pronounced changes in the attitudes towards HT. Media were a more frequent source of information than health care personnel. This indicates that media reports about major clinical studies might have influenced the use of HT among women.

  • 11.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlner, Johan
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kjellgren, Karin I.
    Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hormone replacement therapy in the menopause - structure and content of risk talk2005In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate how risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are communicated to women in clinical practice. To evaluate the usefulness of a risk classification based on context framing, i.e. whether the risk is discussed for one or several alternative treatments, and/or in the same context as possible benefits.

    Design: Analysis of structure and content of transcribed consultations (n=20) from first-time visits for discussion of climacteric discomfort and/or HRT with five physicians at three different out-patient clinics of gynecology.

    Results: All women received a prescription of HRT. An alternative to HRT was discussed in seven of the consultations. No decision aids were used. Risk discussion was dominated by the physicians giving information about long-time risk and benefits. The decision to prescribe was made either before the risk discussion was initiated, or before it was finished, in 8 of the 18 consultations where risk discussion was present. Risk classification according to context framing was performed and indicated use of different communication strategies by the physicians.

    Conclusions: The perspective of the physicians was mainly on prevention while the women were more focused on symptom alleviation. Each physician had a strategy of his/her own for the risk discussion. Thus, the major differences found between the consultations were between physicians, and not between the women. Risk discussion seemed to be aimed at motivating the woman to follow the physician’s decision rather than to help her participate in the decision-making process.

  • 12.
    Holmqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Wallberg, Malin
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Symptoms of multiple sclerosis in women in relation to sex steroid exposure2006In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 149-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate if women with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience changes in MS symptoms related to pregnancy, the postpartum period, menopause or use of oral contraception (OC) or postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Methods: Women with diagnosed MS were recruited from registers of all MS patients known in two counties of Sweden, respectively. Ninety-four women were recruited in Linköping and 52 in Sundsvall. The women answered a questionnaire with categorized alternatives regarding their MS symptoms related to menstruation, pregnancy, delivery, menopause and use of OC or HT. Results: Forty percent of the women reported worsening of MS symptoms related to menopause, whereas 56% reported no change of symptoms and 5% reported decreased symptoms. More than a fourth of the women reported decreased symptoms during pregnancy, 64% reported unchanged symptoms and 10% reported increased symptoms. Every third woman reported increased symptoms after delivery, 59% reported no change and 5% reported decreased symptoms. Few women reported changes in MS symptoms in relation to use of HT or OC. Conclusion: The presented data indicate a relationship between high-oestrogen states and ameliorated symptoms whereas low-oestrogen states seem to relate to a worsening of the disease. A majority of women, however, reported no changes in MS symptoms in relation to the different oestrogen states. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Ivarsson, Ted
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Physical exercise and vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women1998In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 139-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mechanisms causing postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms are unknown, but changes in hypothalamic beta-endorphins have been suggested to be involved. beta-endorphin production may be increased by regular physical exercise. Objective: To assess if physically active women suffered from vasomotor symptoms to a lower extent than sedentary women. Material and methods: All women (n = 1323) in the ages ranging from 55-56 years in the community of Linkoping Sweden, were included. In a questionnaire these women were asked about their physical exercise habits and their complaints from vasomotor symptoms. Only those 793 women who had reached a natural menopause were grouped into sedentary, moderately or highly active women, based on a physical activity score. Results: Only 5% of highly physically active women experienced severe hot flushes as compared with 14-16% of women who had little or no weekly exercise (P less than 0.05; relative risk 0.26; CI 95%: 0.10-0.71). This was not explained by differences in body mass index, smoking habits or use of hormone replacement therapy. Women who used hormone replacement therapy were more physically active than non-users (P less than 0.05). Conclusion: Fewer physically active women had severe vasomotor symptoms compared with sedentary women. This may be due to a selection bias but also to the fact that physical exercise on a regular basis affects neurotransmitters which regulate central thermoregulation.

  • 14. Jansson, C
    et al.
    Johansson, S
    Lindh-Åstrand, L
    Hoffman, M
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    The prevalence of symptoms possibly related to the climacteric in pre- and postmenopausal women in Link÷ping, Sweden2003In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Some extragenital symptoms have been suggested to be associated with the menopause and thus to be affected by estrogen status. In such case extragenital symptoms may be more frequent in postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT) than in premenopausal women or women using HRT. Objective: To assess if the prevalence of a number of extragenital symptoms is higher in postmenopausal women without than with HRT, or in premenopausal women of the same age. Material and methods: All women aged 53 and 54 years in the community of Link÷ping (n=1760) were sent a validated questionnaire about use of HRT, time since last menstruation and about different extragenital symptoms. Results: 1298 (73.8%) women answered the questionnaire and answers from 1180 (67%) women were possible to analyze. Postmenopausal women woke up significantly more often during night than premenopausal, and those without HRT often due to hot flushes and sweating. Women with HRT reported more muscular pain than the others. We found no other significant difference in prevalence of extragenital symptoms between the three groups of women. Conclusions: Sleeping disorders, arthralgia, xerophthalmia, xerostomia and dry skin are not more prevalent in 53 and 54 years old postmenopausal women without HRT than in women with HRT or in premenopausal women of the same age. It may still be that some of these symptoms are related to estrogen deficiency, but do not develop until some years after menopause. It may also be that women with the most severe symptoms decided to use HRT and thereby decreased symptoms to the same level as in non-users. ⌐ 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Lindgren, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Jakobsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Hypersecretion of ovarian androgens may be gonadotrophin dependent many years after menopause2000In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 43-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In fertile women both adrenals and ovaries contribute to androgen production, whereas after the menopause the ovarian contribution normally decreases. Objective: The objective of this case study was to assess whether ovarian androgen secretion was responsive to decreased gonadotrophin stimulation and whether gonadotrophins were sensitive to negative feedback from sex steroids many years after the menopause. Methods: In this uncontrolled case study a 72 years old slightly overweight woman with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus presented with hirsuitism and elevated serum testosterone concentrations. The woman was reluctant to have an oophorectomy, and received an oral estradiol/progestagene preparation. Serum testosterone and gonadotrophin concentrations were measured before and after steroid hormone therapy. Results: Serum gonadotrophin concentrations decreased and testosterone levels returned to normal during therapy. When the hormone therapy was stopped for 1 month the high testosterone concentrations returned, but were again normalized when the hormone therapy was reinitiated. Conclusion: The ovaries of this woman were apparently still responsive to pituitary stimulation and her hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian feed-back system still seemed to be working after 70 years of age.

  • 16.
    Lindh Åstrand, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Spetz Holm, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Use of hormone therapy (HT) among Swedish women with contraindications - A pharmacoepidemiological cohort study2019In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 123, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess how women in Sweden with breast cancer (BC), endometrial cancer (EC), and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) were dispensed menopausal hormone therapy (HT). Study design: A retrospective study of Swedish women aged 40 years or more on 31 December 2005 (n = 2,863,643), followed through to December 2011. The study analysed three mandatory national healthcare registries: the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, the National Inpatient Register and the Cancer Register. New users were defined as having a first dispensation after at least a 9-month break, and thus were possible to identify from April 2006. New users with at least one of the diagnoses BC, EC or PE before the first dispensation were classified as having a relative or absolute contraindication for HT. Main outcome measures: The relative risks of having HT dispensed after being diagnosed with BC, EC and/or PE. Results: In total, 171,714 women had at least one of the diagnoses BC, EC or PE. The relative risk of having hormone therapy dispensed (current and new users) after being diagnosed with any of the diagnoses was significantly lower (PE, IRR 0.11, 95% CI 0.10-0.12;/ BC, IRR 0.12, 95% CI 0.11-0.13; EC, IRR 0.43, CI 0.40-0.46) than for women without these diagnoses. Conclusions: One in about 250 women started treatment with HT after being diagnosed with BC, PE or EC. Swedish prescribers seem to be well aware of the recommendations for HT use in women with contraindications. A few women, however, are prescribed HT despite having BC, EC or PE, possibly after careful evaluation of the risks and benefits and giving informed consent. Women with a history of PE were prescribed transdermal HT to a larger extent than women in general, in line with results from observational studies.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-23 16:02
  • 17.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liffner, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Attitudes towards the menopause and hormone therapy over the turn of the century2007In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess attitudes and beliefs about the menopausal transition in a population of peri- and postmenopausal women, and if these attitudes differed before and after publication of studies on risks and benefits with hormone therapy (HT).

    Material and methods: In 1999 and 2003 all women aged 53 and 54 years in the community of Linköping, Sweden, were sent a questionnaire about use of HT, menopausal status and attitudes regarding menopause and HT.

    Results: Most women regarded menopause as a natural process characterized by both hormonal deficiency and aging and these views did not differ between 1999 and 2003. A majority of women thought that significant climacteric symptoms were a good reason to use HT, but not that women without symptoms should use HT. The fraction of women who supported HT use was, however, significantly lower in 2003 than in 1999. Most women agreed that menopause leads to increased freedom and that it is a relief not to have to think about contraception and pregnancies.

    Conclusions: Most Swedish women had a mainly biological view on menopause but nevertheless they thought that only women with climacteric symptoms should use HT. Women’s attitudes towards HT have changed after recent reports on risks from long-term use of HT whereas the attitudes towards the menopausal transition were stable. Other factors than attitudes towards menopause affect women’s actual use of HT. Probably women’s and health care provider’s apprehension of the risk-benefit balance of HT use is one such factor.

  • 18.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Nedstrand, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Vasomotor symptoms and quality of life in previously sedentary postmenopausal women randomised to physical activity or estrogen therapy2004In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess if regular physical exercise or oral oestradiol therapy decreased vasomotor symptoms and increased quality of life in previously sedentary postmenopausal women. Setting: A prospective, randomised trial at a University Hospital. Methods: 75 postmenopausal, sedentary women with vasomotor symptoms were randomised to: exercise three-times weekly over 12 weeks (15 women), oral oestradiol therapy for 12 weeks (15 women) and 45 women to three other treatment arms. Results from the exercise and oestradiol groups are presented here. The effects on vasomotor symptoms and wellbeing were assessed with logbooks and validated questionnaires. Results: Ten women fulfilled 12 weeks of exercise. The number of flushes was rather unchanged in five women and decreased to 28% (range 18-42%) of baseline in the other five women. Five of the ten women continued to exercise another 24 weeks, thus in all 36 weeks. The mean number of flushes decreased by about 50% in these five women (from 6.2/24 to 3.2 flushes/24 h at 36 weeks). In the same group a score made as the product of reduction in number and severity of flushes decreased by 92% at 12 weeks, 75% at 24 weeks and 72% at 36 weeks compared with baseline. In the estrogen group flushes decreased from 8.4 to 0.8 (P<0.001) after 12 weeks of therapy and remained at this level after 36 weeks. Well-being according to different measurements improved significantly in both groups, albeit more markedly in the estrogen group. Conclusions: Apart from many other health benefits regular physical exercise may decrease vasomotor symptoms and increase quality of life in postmenopausal women, but this has to be further evaluated scientifically. Exercise should be introduced gradually to ensure compliance.

  • 19.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden..
    Nedstrand, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Internet-delivered applied relaxation for vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women: Lessons from a failed trial.2015In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 432-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered therapies have a short history and promising results have been shown for several health problems, particularly for psychiatric conditions. This study was a first attempt to evaluate whether Internet-delivered applied relaxation for hot flushes in postmenopausal women may be useful. Due to a high drop-out rate the study was prematurely terminated after inclusion of approximately two thirds of calculated women. The Internet-delivered applied relaxation must probably be modified for such populations and settings before it can be used further. This article will discuss the benefits and pitfalls to learn in order to meet the challenges of future studies.

  • 20.
    Nedstrand, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Applied relaxation and oral estradiol treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women2005In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate and compare the effects of applied relaxation and oral estradiol treatment on hot flushes, mood and psychological wellbeing in postmenopausal women.

    Patients and methods: In a prospective study, 30 postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms were randomized to applied relaxation or oral estradiol treatment during 12 weeks with 6 months follow-up. Number and severity of flushes were registered daily and Kupperman’s Index and a general estimate of climacteric symptoms, Mood Scale and Symptom Check List were completed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, and 3 and 6 months after therapy.

    Results: After 12 weeks of treatment, the number of flushes/24 h decreased significantly over time in both treatment groups. In the group receiving applied relaxation, the mean number of flushes/24 h decreased from 6.0 (95% CI 4.5–7.6) to 3.0 (95% CI 2.1–3.9) after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean number of flushes/24 h was 1.7 (95% CI 0.7–2.5) at 6 months follow-up; i.e. a 72% decrease. In the estrogen group, the mean number of flushes/24 h decreased from 8.4 to 0.8; i.e a 90% decrease in the number of flushes after 12 weeks of treatment. The significant change in flushes reached after 12 weeks of treatment and remained to 6 months after end of treatment in both groups. Estrogen therapy reduced flushes significantly faster than applied relaxation. General climacteric symptoms according to the Visual Analogue Scale and the Kupperman’s Index decreased significantly over time in both groups. General mood (Mood Scale) increased significantly in the estrogen group, but not in the group receiving applied relaxation. Psychological wellbeing according to Symptom Checklist, increased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks in both groups.

    Conclusions: We suggest that applied relaxation may be used as an alternative treatment of vasomotor symptoms for postmenopausal women but should be further evaluated.

  • 21.
    Nedstrand, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, BKC - Barn och kvinnocentrum, KK - Kvinnokliniken.
    Ekseth, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, BKC - Barn och kvinnocentrum, KK - Kvinnokliniken.
    Lindgren, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, BKC - Barn och kvinnocentrum, KK - Kvinnokliniken.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, BKC - Barn och kvinnocentrum, KK - Kvinnokliniken.
    The climacteric among South-American women, who immigrated to Sweden and age-matched Swedish women1995In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-nine immigrated South-American (SA) and 48 Swedish women, aged 42-67 years, were studied in a comparative semi-structured interview survey, concerning the climacteric and its treatment. The mean age at natural menopause was 47 for the South-American women and 50 for the Swedish women. The prevalence of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms at the time of the survey did not differ significantly between the non-treated, non-operated, postmenopausal South-American and Swedish women (36% and 21%; N.S.). One reason for the trend towards a higher prevalence among South-American women could be that a greater number of Swedish women used hormone replacement treatment compared to South-American women (11 vs. 4). The general attitude to hormone replacement therapy was more positive among South-American women, although they did not use hormone therapy, as could be expected from their symptoms. These results are probably an illustration of the difficulties in getting access to treatment for the immigrated SA women.

  • 22.
    Nedstrand, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, BKC - Barn och kvinnocentrum, KK - Kvinnokliniken.
    Pertl, J.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, County Hospital of Kladno, Kladno, Czech Republic.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, BKC - Barn och kvinnocentrum, KK - Kvinnokliniken.
    Climacteric symptoms in a postmenopausal Czech population1996In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 85-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of climacteric symptoms and the use of hormone replacement therapy in a former eastern European country. All 55-, 57-, 59- and 61-year-old women in Kladno in the Czech Republic were asked to participate in the study.

    METHOD: In 1993, 1505 women in Kladno of the Czech Republic were sent a postal questionnaire concerning age at menopause and their climacteric symptoms.

    RESULTS: Answers were received from 799 women (53%); 98% were postmenopausal. The median age at spontaneous menopause was 50 years, 49.5 years among women smoking at least 5 cigarettes/day and 51.0 years among non-smokers (P < 0.05). About every fifth woman smoked. Totally 22% of the women had undergone hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy and 3% had been treated for a gynaecological malignancy. The majority of the women (58%) reported ongoing vasomotor symptoms; half of them had moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. In all, 79% of the women reported ever having vasomotor symptoms. Only 3% of the women had ever tried hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and one woman had current treatment. Dysuria was reported by 22% and 4% had recurrent urinary tract infections; 70% of the women had a partner and 50% were sexually active. Reasons for not being sexually active were mostly lack of a partner, loss of sexual desire or partner's disease or impotence.

    CONCLUSION: Climacteric symptoms including vasomotor and urogenital symptoms had the same prevalence in the Czech Republic as previously reported in other Western Countries. Only a few women had tried HRT. Smokers had a slightly earlier menopause.

  • 23.
    Nedstrand, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Monica
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The relationship between stress-coping and vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women1998In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective was to assess whether menopausal women with vasomotor symptoms had a lower stress-coping than menopausal women without symptoms and if stress-coping changed when vasomotor symptoms had been effectively treated with estrogens. The objective was also to assess whether menopausal women, effectively treated for vasomotor symptoms, had a higher neuroticism score than women without such symptoms.

    Methods: Two groups of physically and mentally healthy postmenopausal women were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. Sixteen women with vasomotor symptoms (target group) were treated with oral 17β-estradiol, 2 mg/day during 3 months. A comparison group was formed comprising 17 women without vasomotor symptoms. The Kupperman Index was used to cover menopausal characteristics in all women at baseline as well as at the second visit after 3 months. Stress-coping was measured by means of the Stress Coping Inventory, which is an instrument developed to measure of the individual's appraisal of having adaptive resources for handling stressful situations. At the second visit all women were also asked to complete the Eysenck Personality Inventory.

    Results: Women in the target group had a significantly lower stress-coping than women in the comparison group at baseline as well as after 3 months. Stress-coping did not change after estrogen therapy, although the vasomotor symptoms had virtually disappeared. Women in the target group successfully treated for vasomotor symptoms, had a significantly higher neuroticism score compared to the comparison group.

    Conclusions: Differences in behaviour patterns and personality are probably two reasons why some women report or seek advice due to vasomotor symptoms and some women do not. Stress-coping in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms is unaffected by estrogens.

  • 24.
    Salminen, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Sääf, Maria
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ringertz, Hans
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    The effect of transvaginal estradiol on bone in aged women; a randomised controlled trial2007In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 57, p. 370-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of transvaginal estradiol on bone mineral density and bone metabolism.

    Methods: One hundred and fifteen women (mean age 73.8 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to a 2-year open-label parallel group clinical trial and were treated with either transvaginal estradiol (7.5 μg/24 h), or no estradiol. Both groups received 400 IU vitamin D and 500 mg calcium/day. The bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in the hip and spine using DXA technique and in the heel using DXL technique.

    Results: The intention to treat analysis showed that the increase in BMD in the estradiol group was significant at total hip by 0.6% (P = 0.04) while the control group decreased in their BMD by 0.7%. At lumbar spine the estradiol group increased in BMD by 2.6% (P = 0.011) while the control group increased by 2.2%. Bone turnover markers and PTH-levels decreased while 25-OH vitamin D levels increased in both groups, a probable effect of the calcium and vitamin D supplementation. The bone resorption marker CTx decreased more significantly in the treatment group (P = 0.016).

    Conclusions: The transvaginal estradiol treatment of 7.5 μg/24 h had a small but significant effect on the BMD of total hip and lumbar spine after a follow-up of 2 years.

  • 25. Skarsgård, Constance
    et al.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Ekblad, G
    Wiklund, I
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Effects of estrogen therapy on well-being in postmenopausal women without vasomotor complaints2000In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish whether estrogen treatment affects well-being in postmenopausal women without current or previous vasomotor symptoms. Design: Forty postmenopausal women, aged 45-59 years, without current or previous vasomotor complaints, were included. They were randomized to masked treatment with either transdermal 17▀-estradiol 50 ╡g/24 h or to placebo. At baseline and after 12 and 14 weeks of treatment, the women completed a questionnaire which reflects well-being, the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) Index. Results: The women scored high on the PGWB Index, both at baseline and after 12 and 14 weeks of treatment. There was no significant difference in well- being according to PGWB Index between the groups treated with estrogen and placebo, neither at baseline, nor after therapy. Furthermore, there was no difference in change during therapy between the treatment groups. Conclusion: There is a gradual decline in estrogen during the climacteric, and it is controversial to which extent this affects women's mental health. The PGWB scores in this study were high before therapy, reflecting that these women without previous or current vasomotor complaints represented a selected sample. Neither short-term estrogen treatment over 12 weeks nor addition with medroxyprogesterone acetate during 2 weeks improved well-being in postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms who had high well-being at baseline. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  • 26. Verheul, HAM
    et al.
    Coelingh-Bennink, HJT
    Kenemans, PD
    Atsma, WJ
    Burger, CW
    Eden, JA
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Marsden, JB
    Purdie, DW
    Effects of estrogens and hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk and on efficacy of breast cancer therapies2000In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 36, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarises preclinical and clinical data on effects of endogenous and exogenous estrogens on probability of breast cancer diagnosis, and on the course and efficacy of breast cancer therapies. The data indicate that higher endogenous estrogen exposure (e.g. pregnancy, early menarche and late menopause, estrogen levels in future breast cancer patients, obesity) or exogenous estrogens (oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapies) may be associated with an increased probability of breast cancer diagnosis. However, there is little evidence that estrogens have deleterious effects on the course of breast cancer. Moreover, increased incidence of breast cancer diagnosis after prolonged hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use seems to be associated with clinically less advanced disease. In studies assessing both diagnosis and mortality, HRT is frequently associated with reduced mortality compared to never users. The interaction of progestagens and estrogens on the probability of breast cancer diagnosis is complex and dependent on type of progestagens and regimens employed. Efficacy of current treatment modalities for breast cancer (surgery, irradiation, adjuvant therapy or chemotherapy) is not negatively influenced by estrogens at concentrations considerably higher than those attained with current HRT preparations. Although it cannot be excluded that estrogens increase the probability of breast cancer diagnosis, available data fail to demonstrate that, once breast cancer has been diagnosed, estrogens worsen prognosis, accelerate the course of the disease, reduce survival or interfere with the management of breast cancer. It may therefore be concluded that the prevalent opinion that estrogens and estrogen treatment are deleterious for breast cancer, needs to be revisited. However, results of ongoing prospective, randomised clinical trials with different HRT regimens in healthy women or breast cancer survivors are needed to provide more definite conclusions about risks and benefits of HRT.

  • 27.
    Wilczek, Michael L.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kälvesten, Johan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Sectra AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bergström, Ingrid
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Pernow, Ylva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Saaf, Maria
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Freyschuss, Bo
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Brismar, Torkel B.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Can secondary osteoporosis be identified when screening for osteoporosis with digital X-ray radiogrammetry?: Initial results from the Stockholm Osteoporosis Project (STOP)2017In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 101, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To identify causes of low age-adjusted bone mass at digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in individuals attending an osteoporosis screening program. Study design: In a descriptive observational cohort study, women aged 40-75 years who attended a general mammography screening program had their bone mass investigated with DXR and answered a questionnaire regarding several clinical risk factors for osteoporosis. Each month the 2% with the lowest Z-scores were selected for further clinical examination with DXA of the hip and lumbar spine and pre-defined blood tests. Main outcome measure: Causes of secondary osteoporosis determined by clinical and laboratory evaluation. Results: 14,783 women attended mammography screening and had their bone mass evaluated. In total, 327 women had a low DXR BMD and 281 accepted further DXA examination. Of these, 93 (33.1%) had osteoporosis. The diagnosis was new in 79 cases (84.9%) and in 32 (34.4%) a potential underlying cause was identified. Primary hyperparathyroidism was found in 8.6% and secondary hyperparathyroidism in 13.5%. Several self reported risk factors for osteoporosis, including rheumatic disease, insulin-treated diabetes, cortisone treatment, smoking, reduced mobility, hyperparathyroidism, and malabsorption, were significantly more common among those selected for DXA referral than in the total cohort. For example, rheumatic disease and insulin-treated diabetes were reported 3.4 and 2.3 times as often, respectively. Conclusion: The prevailing potential cause of secondary osteoporosis according to DXR was primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Most of the women with these conditions were previously undiagnosed, indicating that further follow-up of patients with low age-adjusted DXR BMD is justified.

  • 28.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frisk, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundeberg, Thomas
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Karolinska lnstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms have increased urinary excretion of calcitonin gene-related peptide1998In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 289-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To establish whether 24 h urinary excretion of the potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was higher in postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms compared to the level in women without symptoms. We also wanted to establish whether urinary excretion of CGRP changed during the menstrual cycle in women of fertile age.

    Material and methods: Thirteen postmenopausal women with and 13 women without vasomotor symptoms were included. Urine was collected over 24 h and CGRP excretion was measured utilizing radio-immuno assay technique. Twenty-four hour CGRP excretion was also measured in ten fertile women with regular cycles in early follicular, preovulatory and midluteal phase.

    Results: Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of CGRP was significantly higher in women with vasomotor symptoms compared to non-flushing women (median 7.16 vs 5.15 pmol/24h; P=0.028). CGRP concentrations were stable throughout the ovulatory cycles.

    Conclusion: The 24 h urinary excretion of CGRP is higher in women with vasomotor symptoms than in women without these symptoms. CGRP may be the mediator of vasodilator signals originating from the thermoregulatory center.

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