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  • 1.
    Ekblad, S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Bergendahl, A
    Enler, P
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Möller, C
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Disturbances in postural balance are common in postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms2000In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 192-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of unsteadiness and rotatory vertigo in peri- and postmenopausal women, and whether balance disturbances are more common in women with vasomotor symptoms and without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Method: A validated questionnaire was sent to all 1523 women aged 54 or 55 years in Linkoping, Sweden. Results: Daily or weekly unsteadiness was reported by 5%, and daily or weekly rotatory vertigo by 4% of all women. The frequency of vasomotor symptoms correlated with reported unsteadiness (rs = 0.23, p < 0.001). Fourteen per cent of women with daily vasomotor symptoms reported weekly or daily unsteadiness, compared with 3% of those without vasomotor symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 7.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.72-15.45). The frequency of vasomotor symptoms correlated with rotatory vertigo (rs = 0.19, p < 0.001). Ten per cent of women with daily vasomotor symptoms reported weekly or daily rotatory vertigo, compared with 2% of women without vasomotor symptoms (OR 5.21, 95% CI 1.07-25.52). No correlation was seen between vasomotor symptoms and falls. Users of HRT had the same prevalence of balance disturbances as non-users. Conclusions: Women with frequent vasomotor symptoms seem to run a greater risk of unsteadiness and rotatory vertigo than do women without symptoms. This association may not be explained by means of a cross-sectional study, but there might exist a causal connection between vasomotor symptoms and balance disturbances.

  • 2.
    Frisk, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Carlhäll, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Källström, Ann-Christin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Malmström, Annika
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Long-term follow-up of acupuncture and hormone therapy on hot flushes in women with breast cancer: a prospective, randomized, controlled multicenter trial2008In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) and hormone therapy (HT) on vasomotor symptoms in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Methods: Forty-five women were randomized to EA (n = 27) for 12 weeks or HT (n = 18) for 24 months. The number of and distress caused by hot flushes were registered daily before, during and up to 24 months after start of treatment.

    Results: In 19 women who completed 12 weeks of EA, the median number of hot flushes/24 h decreased from 9.6 (interquartile range (IQR) 6.6-9.9) at baseline to 4.3 (IQR 1.0-7.1) at 12 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). At 12 months after start of treatment, 14 women with only the initial 12 weeks of EA had a median number of flushes/24 h of 4.9 (IQR 1.8-7.3), and at 24 months seven women with no other treatment than EA had 2.1 (IQR 1.6-2.8) flushes/24 h. Another five women had a decreased number of flushes after having additional EA. The 18 women with HT had a baseline median number of flushes/24 h of 6.6 (IQR 4.0-8.9), and 0.0 (IQR 0.0-1.6; p = 0.001) at 12 weeks.

    Conclusion: Electro-acupuncture is a possible treatment of vasomotor symptoms for women with breast cancer and should be further studied for this group of women.

  • 3.
    Götmar, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samsioe, Göran
    Departments of Clinical Sciences in Lund and Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
    Nerbrand, Christina
    Departments of Clinical Sciences in Lund and Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lidfeldt, Jonas
    Departments of Clinical Sciences in Lund and Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women in relation to testosterone concentrations. Data fromThe Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) study2008In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 304-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between androgen concentrations in perimenopausal women and symptoms that may be associated with low androgen concentrations in the blood.

    Methods: All women born 1935 to 1945 living in a defined geographic area in Sweden (n=10766) were invited to a screening program that included physical and laboratory examinations and a questionnaire. Three groups were identified; premenopausal women, women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and postmenopausal women without HRT. Concentrations of testosterone (T), androstendione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and estradiol were measured. Waist Hip Ratio, Body Mass Index and Free Testosterone Index (FTI) were calculated.

    Results: 6908 women participated. The women on HRT had lower T and FTI and were less satisfied with mood and energy (p<0.05). Women with hot flushes had higher T and FTI and women reporting coldness had lower concentrations (p<0.05). Sexual well-being were not correlated to T or FTI (p>0.05).

    Conclusions: Lower T concentrations were associated with lower quality of life in perimenopausal women but not to sexual well-being. There must be other factors than decrements in sex hormones that contribute to the emergence of some perimenopausal symptoms.

  • 4.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Author's reply [2]2007In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 264-265Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 5.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlner, Johan
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Risk communication in consultations about hormone therapy in the menopause: concordance in risk assessment and framing due to the context2006In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    It is important for the physician and the patient to have a mutual understanding of the possible consequences of different treatment alternatives in order to achieve a partnership in decision-making.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim of this study was to explore to which degree first-time consultations for discussion of climacteric discomfort achieved shared understanding of the risks and benefits associated with hormone therapy in the menopausal transition.

    METHODS:

    Analysis of structure and content of transcribed consultations (n = 20), and follow-up interviews of the women (n = 19 pairs of consultations and interviews), from first-time visits for discussion of climacteric discomfort and/or HT with five physicians at three different outpatient clinics of gynecology in Sweden.

    RESULTS:

    Four distinctively different interpretations of risk, depending on whether or not benefits were discussed in the same context, emerged from the analysis. On average, five advantages (range 0-11) and two (0-3) disadvantages were mentioned during the consultations. In the interviews, the women expressed on average four advantages (0-7) and one disadvantage (0-3). There were major variations between advantages and disadvantages expressed in the consultation and the following interview.

    CONCLUSION:

    Even though the consultations scored high in patient involvement, the information in most consultations was not structured in a way that made it possible to achieve a shared or an informed decision-taking.

  • 6.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Department of Forensic Chemistry, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Risk communication in consultations about hormone therapy in the menopause – concordance in risk assessment and framing due to the context2006In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It is important for the physician and the patient to have a mutual understanding of the possible consequences of different treatment alternatives in order to achieve a partnership in decision making.

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to explore to which degree first-time consultations for discussion of climacteric discomfort achieved shared understanding of the risks and benefits associated with hormone therapy in the menopausal transition (HT).

    Methods

    Analysis of structure and content of transcribed consultations (n=20), and follow-up interviews of the women (n=19 pairs of consultations and interviews), from first-time visits for discussion of climacteric discomfort and/or HT with five physicians at three different out-patient clinics of gynaecology in Sweden.

    Results

    Four distinctively different interpretations of risk, depending on whether or not benefits were discussed in the same context, emerged from the analysis. On average 5 advantages (range 0-11) and 2 (0-3) disadvantages were mentioned during the consultations. In the interviews the women expressed on average 4 advantages (0-7) and 1 disadvantage (0-3). There were major variations between advantages and disadvantages expressed in the consultation and the following interview.

    Conclusion

    Even though the consultations scored high in patient involvement, the information in most consultations was not structured in a way that made it possible to achieve a shared or an informed decision making.

  • 7.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. The NEPI foundation.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hot flushes, hormone therapy and alternative treatments: 30 years of experience from Sweden2015In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The use of hormone therapy (HT) for hot flushes has changed dramatically over the past five decades. In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, the aim was to describe the use of HT and alternative treatments and to study the frequency of hot flushes. A further aim was to compare data from the present questionnaire with data from previous studies made in the same geographic area. Method A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2000 women aged 47-56 years living in Ostergotland County, Sweden. The results were compared with findings from previous studies regarding use of HT, alternative treatment and hot flushes, and the number of HT prescriptions dispensed during the corresponding time using data derived from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry. Results The response rate was 66%. Six percent used HT, in line with prevalence data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry. Alternative treatments were used by 10%. About 70% of postmenopausal women reported flushes and almost one-third of those with flushes stated that they would be positive to HT if therapy could be shown to be harmless, a view more often stated by women with severe complaints of hot flushes (67%). Conclusion The use of HT and alternative treatments is low and many women suffer from flushes that could be treated. Women considered their knowledge of the climacteric period and treatment options as insufficient. Individualized information should be given and women with significant climacteric complaints, without contraindications, should be given the opportunity to try HT.

  • 8.
    Nedstrand, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vasomotor symptoms decrease in women with breast cancer randomized to treatment with applied relaxation or electro-acupuncture: a preliminary study2005In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 243-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of applied  relaxation and electro-acupuncture on vasomotor symptoms in women treated for breast cancer.

    Methods: Thirty-eight postmenopausal women with  breast cancer and vasomotor symptoms were randomized to treatment with electro-acupuncture (n = 19) or applied relaxation (n = 19) during 12 weeks. The number of hot flushes was registered daily in a logbook before and during treatment and after 3 and 6 months of follow-up.

    Results: Thirty-one women completed 12 weeks of treatment and 6  months of follow-up. After 12 weeks of applied relaxation, the number of flushes/24 h had decreased from 9.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6-11.9) at baseline to 4.5 (95% CI 3.2-5.8) and to 3.9 (95% CI 1.8-6.0) at 6 months follow-up (n = 14). The flushes/24 h were reduced from 8.4 (95% CI 6.6-10.2) to 4.1 (95% CI 3.0-5.2) after 12 weeks of treatment with electro-acupuncture and to 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-5.3) after 6 months follow-up (n = 17). In both groups, the mean Kupperman Index score was significantly reduced after treatment and remained unchanged 6 months after end of treatment.

    Conclusion: We suggest that applied relaxation and  electro-acupuncture should be further evaluated as possible treatments for vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  • 9.
    Vikström, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hot flushes still occur in a population of 85-year-old Swedish women2013In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Hot flushes and night sweats often cause discomfort and may negatively affect sleep and quality of life. Studies have shown that menopausal symptoms, like hot flushes, may persist for up to 20 years after the menopausal transition, but there are no published studies regarding the occurrence of hot flushes among women older than 80 years. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hot flushes in 85-year-old women.

    Methods All 85-year old women living in Linköping municipality in 2007 (n = 415) received a postal questionnaire. The majority, 74% (n = 307), answered the questionnaire and 47% (n = 194) agreed to visit the Department of Geriatric Medicine; during this visit questions regarding hot flushes and use of hormone therapy were asked.

    Results About 16% (n = 29) of the women experienced hot flushes during the day and/or during the night and 6.5% (n = 12) of the women were currently using hormone therapy. Almost 10% (n = 17) of all responding women were very to moderately distressed by their hot flushes.

    Conclusion Our results confirm and extend previous knowledge based on studies of younger postmenopausal women in showing that menopausal symptoms still occur in elderly women. We found that, while the prevalence of menopausal symptoms decreases with age, these symptoms are still experienced by some 85-year-old women.

  • 10.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nedstrand, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A comparison of acupuncture and oral estradiol treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women2004In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To compare the effects of electro-acupuncture with oral estradiol and superficial needle insertion on hot flushes in postmenopausal women.

    Material and methods  Forty-five postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms were randomized to electro-acupuncture, superficial needle insertion or oral estradiol treatment during 12 weeks, with 6 months' follow-up. The number and severity of flushes were registered daily and the Kupperman index and a general estimate of climacteric symptoms were completed before, during and after therapy.

    Results In the electro-acupuncture group, the mean number of flushes/24 h decreased from 7.3 to 3.5 (ANOVA, p  < 0.001). Eleven of the 15 women had at least a 50% decrease in number of flushes (with a mean decrease of 82%). Superficial needle insertion decreased the number of flushes/24 h from 8.1 to 3.8 (p  < 0.001). In seven out of 13 women, the number of flushes decreased by at least 50% (mean decrease 83%). In the estrogen group, the number of flushes decreased from 8.4 to 0.8 (p < 0.001). The decrease in number of flushes persisted during the 24-week follow-up period in all treatment groups. The Kupperman index and the general climacteric symptom score decreased, and remained unchanged 24 weeks after treatment in all groups (p < 0.001). Electro-acupuncture decreased the number of flushes/24 h significantly over time, but not to the same extent as the estrogen treatment. No significant difference in effect was found between electro-acupuncture and the superficial needle insertion.

    Conclusion We suggest that acupuncture is a viable alternative treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women and cannot recommend superficial needle insertion as an inactive control treatment.

  • 11.
    Zaborowska, Ewa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Damberg, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Nedstrand, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Effects of acupuncture, applied relaxation, estrogens and placebo on hot flushes in postmenopausal women – an analysis of two prospective, parallel, randomised studies2007In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess if transdermal or oral estrogens, acupuncture and applied relaxation decrease the number of menopausal hot flushes/24 h and improve climacteric symptoms, as assessed by the Kupperman index, more than transdermal placebo treatment.

    Setting: An outpatient clinic at a Swedish university hospital.

    Methods: A total of 102 postmenopausal women were recruited to two studies performed in parallel. In Study I, the women were randomized between transdermal placebo or estrogen treatment and, in Study II, between oral estrogens, acupuncture or applied relaxation for 12 weeks. Climacteric symptoms were measured with daily logbooks on hot flushes. Women completed the assessment questionnaire for the Kupperman index at baseline and after 12 weeks.

    Results: The number of flushes/24 h decreased significantly after 4 and 12 weeks in all groups except the placebo group. Both at 4 and 12 weeks, acupuncture decreased the number of flushes more (p < 0.05; p < 0.01, respectively) than placebo. At 12 weeks, applied relaxation decreased the number of flushes more (p < 0.05) than placebo. The Kupperman index score decreased in all groups except the placebo group. The decrease in score was significantly greater in all treatment groups than in the placebo group (p < 0.01).

    Conclusion: Acupuncture and applied relaxation both reduced the number of hot flushes significantly better than placebo and should be further evaluated as alternatives to hormone therapy in women with menopausal vasomotor complaints.

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