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  • 1.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Maternal Obesity and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage2011In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 561-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage more than 1,000 mL and whether there was an association between maternal obesity and causes of postpartum hemorrhage and mode of delivery. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: A population-based cohort study including 1,114,071 women with singleton pregnancies who gave birth in Sweden from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2008, who were divided into six body mass index (BMI) classes. Obese women (class I-III) were compared with normal-weight women concerning the risk for postpartum hemorrhage after suitable adjustments. The use of heparin-like drugs over the BMI strata was analyzed in a subgroup. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: There was an increased prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage over the study period associated primarily with changes in maternal characteristics. The risk of atonic uterine hemorrhage increased rapidly with increasing BMI. There was a twofold increased risk in obesity class III (1.8%). No association was found between postpartum hemorrhage with retained placenta and maternal obesity. There was an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage for women with a BMI of 40 or higher (5.2%) after normal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.45]) compared with normal-weight women (4.4%) and even more pronounced (13.6%) after instrumental delivery (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.34) compared with normal-weight women 8.8%). Maternal obesity was a risk factor for the use of heparin-like drugs (OR 2.86, 95% CI 2.22-3.68). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSION: The increased risk for atonic postpartum hemorrhage in the obese group has important clinical implications, such as considering administration of prophylactic postpartum uterotonic drugs to this group.

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Maternal Obesity, Mode of Delivery, and Neonatal Outcome2013In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether adverse neonatal outcome, defined as birth injuries or severe illnesses in the newborn, was associated with maternal body mass index (BMI) in singleton pregnancies overall and depending on mode of delivery. METHODS: This was a cohort study including 1,024,471 women. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Women were categorized into six classes of BMI. Obese women were compared with normal weight women regarding adverse neonatal outcome after suitable adjustments. Four modes of delivery were evaluated: vaginal delivery; instrumental vaginal delivery; elective cesarean delivery; and emergency cesarean delivery. RESULTS: Compared with neonates born to women of normal weight, neonates born to women with BMIs of 40 or more (morbidly obese) were at increased risk of birth injury to the peripheral nervous system (odds ratio [OR] 3.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-5.12; 0.2% compared with 0.6%), birth injury to the skeleton (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.10-3.21; 0.5% compared with 1.1%), respiratory distress syndrome (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.88-2.30; 2.9 compared with 5.8%), bacterial sepsis (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.43-3.46; 0.6% compared with 1.7%), convulsions (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.63-4.47; 0.2% compared with 0.8%), and hypoglycemia (OR 3.48, 95% CI 3.20-3.78; 2.4% compared with 7.9%). For morbidly obese women, elective cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery were associated with twice the increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes when compared with women of normal weight. CONCLUSION: Neonates born to morbidly obese women are at markedly increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome regardless of mode of delivery. Obstetricians should not disregard the neonatal problems associated with elective cesarean delivery for morbidly obese women.

  • 3.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Maternal morbid obesity and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome2004In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 219-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether morbidly obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort study, 3,480 women with morbid obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than 40, and 12,698 women with a BMI between 35.1 and 40 were compared with normal-weight women (BMI 19.8-26). The perinatal outcome of singletons born to women without insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was evaluated after suitable adjustments. RESULTS: In the group of morbidly obese mothers (BMI greater than. 40) as compared with the normal-weight mothers, there was an increased risk of the following outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval): preeclampsia (4.82, 4.04, 5.74), antepartum stillbirth (2.79, 1.94,4.02), cesarean delivery (2.69, 2.49,2.90), instrumental delivery (1.34, 1.16, 1.56), shoulder dystocia (3.14, 1.86, 5.31), meconium aspiration (2.85, 1.60, 5.07), fetal distress (2.52, 2.12,2.99), early neonatal death (3.41, 2.07,5.63), and large-for-gestational age (3.82, 3.50, 4.16). The associations were similar for women with BMIs between 35.1 and 40 but to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION: Maternal morbid obesity in early pregnancy is strongly associated with a number of pregnancy complications and perinatal conditions. tricians and Gynecologists.

  • 4.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Optimal gestational weight gain for body mass index categories2007In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 110, no 4, p. 759-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To establish optimal gestational weight gain for each maternal body mass index (BMI) category based on significant risk estimates of adverse maternal and fetal outcome. METHODS: The study population consisted of 298,648 singleton pregnancies delivered in Sweden between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The number of individuals in each weight gain class was compared with the number of individuals in all other weight gain classes in the same BMI group with regard to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Odds ratios were calculated after suitable adjustments. RESULTS: The optimal gestational weight gain in women by prepregnancy BMI was 9-22 lb (4-10 kg) for BMI less than 20, 5-22 lb (2-10 kg) for BMI 20-24.9, less than 20 lb (less than 9 kg) for BMI 25-29.9, and less than 13 lb (less than 6 kg) for BMI of 30 or more. CONCLUSION: The gestational weight gain limits for BMI categories determined in this large population-based cohort study from Swedish Medical Registers showed that a decreased risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes was associated with lower gestational weight gain limits than was earlier recommended, especially among obese women. © 2007 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  • 5.
    Ekblad, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Lönnberg, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Estrogen effects on postural balance in postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms: A randomized masked trial2000In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 278-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess whether estrogen treatment given to postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms improves balance more than placebo. Methods: Forty healthy postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms were randomized to transdermal 17▀-estradiol (E2) 50 ╡g/day for 14 weeks or identical transdermal placebo patches. Postural balance was measured with dynamic posturography before and after 4, 12, and 14 weeks of therapy. In this test, the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems were provoked with increasing difficulty and body sway was measured with a dual forceplate. A low score showed large sway and a score of 100 showed no sway at all. Results: Thirty-eight women completed the study. Both groups had normal balance for their ages and near maximum scores in the three easier balance tests at baseline. In the most difficult test, both groups improved their postural balance significantly (from 13 to 32 and from 22 to 39, respectively) after 4 weeks. Thereafter, no change was seen. One problem was low statistical power, but the relative change in balance did not differ between groups. The comparison did not show even a minute advantage of E2 over placebo, so a study with higher power would probably not have shown a more pronounced effect of estrogen than placebo. The change over time did not differ between groups, which indicates a significant learning effect.Conclusion: In women without vasomotor symptoms, estrogen therapy did not seem to increase postural balance significantly more than placebo. However, we could not rule out that estrogens affect postural balance in women with vasomotor symptoms. Copyright (C) 2000 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  • 6. Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Health, sociodemographic data, and pregnancy outcome in women with antepartum depressive symptoms2004In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 459-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women with antepartum depression have an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcome. METHODS: From a sample of 1,489 women, an index group (n = 259) of all women with depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in gestational week 35-36 was selected. Two hundred fifty-nine women with no depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale antepartum or postpartum were randomly chosen as the reference group. Medical, gynecologic, and obstetric history, sodoeconomic status, pregnancy, and perinatal data were collected from standardized medical records for all women. RESULTS: Women with antepartum depressive symptoms were more often multiparas with a history of earlier obstetric complications. Complications during the present pregnancy were more frequent in the antepartum-depressed group of women. There were no differences concerning outcome of delivery, puerperium, and neonatal health between the index and reference groups. Forty-six percent of the women with antepartum depressive symptoms had depressive symptoms at 6-8 weeks or 6 months postpartum or both. CONCLUSION: Women depressed during pregnancy constitute a group without an increased risk for adverse obstetric or neonatal outcome but with a high risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

  • 7. Pikarinen, Ulla
    et al.
    Saisto, Terhi
    Schei, Berit
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Halmesmäki, Erja
    Experiences of physical and sexual abuse and their implications for current health.2007In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 109, no 5, p. 1116-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 8.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Ekholm, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Influence of rest during pregnancy on birth weight in working women2006In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 991-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Birth weight in Sweden has increased during the past decades. We investigated whether rest provided by the combination of time off from work and social benefits among working pregnant women contributed to the observed changes. METHOD: A total of 7,459 consecutively delivered women in 1978, 1986, 1992, and 1997 at 2 delivery wards in southeastern Sweden were studied. RESULTS: Between 1978 and 1997, the average birth weight among the children of the women studied increased from 3,484 to 3,566 grams (P < .001). The increase in weight was most evident among infants born to women who were employed during pregnancy. The use of social benefits and increased rest during pregnancy did not significantly influence birth weight (P = .107), even after adjustment for gestational length, parity, smoking, age, and occupation. CONCLUSION: The continuous increase in infants' birth weight among pregnant women in this study did not correlate with rest periods in the form of leave supported by social benefit programs. The effects of social benefit programs on pregnancy outcome may thus be overrated and merits further research. © 2006 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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