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  • 1.
    Alehagen, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Division of Biological Psychology, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fear, pain and stress hormones during childbirth2005In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To investigate the course of fear, pain and stress hormones during labor, and the associations between fear, pain, stress hormones and duration of labor in nulliparous women with and without epidural analgesia (EDA).

    Method.  One day during gestation weeks 37–39, urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure catecholamines and cortisol. Hourly during labor, the participants answered the Delivery Fear Scale and a pain intensity scale, and urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure stress hormones.

    Results. The course of fear, pain and stress hormones differed throughout labor in women with and without EDA. Pain and cortisol increased throughout labor in women without EDA. Women who received EDA had more fear, but not more pain, before the administration of the EDA than women who did not receive EDA. Pain, fear and catecholamines decreased when women received EDA, but fear and pain increased again later in labor. Fear and pain correlated, as well as levels of fear in the different phases of labor. During phase one of labor epinephrine and duration of the phase were negatively correlated.

    Conclusion.  The course of fear, pain and concentrations of stress hormones differed, highly influenced by the administration of EDA. Fear and pain correlated more pronounced than stress hormones and fear, pain and duration of labor.

  • 2.
    Elmerstig, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandell, Kerstin
    Centrum för genusvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Sexual pleasure on equal terms": Young women´s ideal sexual situations2012In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 129-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We wanted to identify young women’s ideal images of sexual situations and expectations of themselves in sexual situations.

    Methods: We conducted audiotaped qualitative individual interviews with 14 women aged 14 to 20 years, visiting two youth centers in Sweden. The data were analyzed with constant comparative analysis, the basis of grounded theory methodology.

    Results: The women’s ideal sexual situations in heterosexual practice were characterized by sexual pleasure on equal terms, implying that no one dominates and both partners get pleasure. There were obstacles to reaching this ideal, such as influences from social norms and demands, and experiences of the partner’s “own race”. An incentive to reach the ideal sexual situation was the wish to experience the source of pleasure.

    Conclusions: Our research further accentuates the importance of finding ways to focus on the complexity of unequal gender norms in youth heterosexuality. A better understanding of these cognitions is essential and useful among professionals working with youths´ sexual health.

  • 3.
    Elmerstig, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prioritizing the partners enjoyment: a population-based study on young Swedish women with experience of pain during vaginal intercourse2013In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the prevalence of women who continue to have vaginal intercourse (VIC) despite pain, avoid telling the partner, and feign enjoyment. It also considers the reasons for this behavior. A sample of 1566 female senior high school students (aged 18-22 years) completed a questionnaire concerning their experiences and attitudes toward their body and sexuality. Forty-seven percent (270/576) of those women who reported pain during VIC continued to have VIC despite the pain. The most common reasons were that they did not want to spoil sex for or hurt the partner by interrupting VIC. Feigning enjoyment and not telling the partner about their pain were reported by 22 and 33%, respectively. Continuing to have VIC despite pain was associated with feelings of being inferior to the partner during sex, dissatisfaction with their own sex lives and feigning enjoyment while having pain. Pain during VIC is reported by every third young Swedish woman, and almost half of those still continue to have VIC. The major reason given is noteworthy - prioritizing the partners enjoyment before their own - and indicates that young women who continue to have VIC despite pain take a subordinate position in sexual interactions.

  • 4.
    Grundström, Hanna
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Wallin, Karin
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    'You expose yourself in so many ways': young women's experiences of pelvic examination2011In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe young women's experiences of pelvic examination (PE). Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine women aged 18--23 years, who had undergone at least one PE. Data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Three general themes were identified: (1) relinquishing and regaining control, (2) facilitation of the situation by the examiner and (3) PE is an unpleasant necessity. These general themes had a common structure that represented the essence: an intimate situation. The women experienced PE as an intimate situation, which they associated with their sexuality. They felt exposed both bodily and mentally and were placed in a vulnerable situation. PE was considered as unpleasant but necessary to confirm their health. During the PE, the women felt that they lost control of the situation by exposing their intimate parts. To regain control, the women felt a need for continuous information from the examiner. The vulnerable situation could be made less vulnerable if the examiner built a trusting relationship and made the women feel secure and seen as individuals. A deeper understanding of the situation from the women's perspective could facilitate the examiner's performance of PE, leading to more positive experiences among young women.

  • 5.
    Nedstrand, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine .
    Psychological well-being improves in women with breast cancer after treatment with applied relaxation or electro-acupuncture for vasomotor symptom2006In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applied relaxation and electro-acupuncture (EA) on psychological well-being in breast cancer-treated women with vasomotor symptoms. Thirty-eight breast cancer-treated postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms were included in the study. They were randomized to either treatment with electro-acupuncture (EA) (N = 19, three of them with tamoxifen) or applied relaxation (AR) (n = 19, five of them with tamoxifen) over a 12-week study period with six months follow-up. Vasomotor symptoms were registered daily. A visual analog scale was used to assess climacteric symptom, estimation of general well-being was made using the Symptom Checklist, and mood using the Mood Scale. These were applied during treatment and at follow-up. In total 31 women completed 12 weeks of treatment and six months of follow-up. Hot flushes were reduced by more than 50%. Climacteric symptoms significantly decreased during treatment and remained so six months after treatment in both groups. Psychological well-being significantly improved during therapy and at follow-up visits in both groups. Mood improved significantly in the electro-acupuncture treated group. In conclusion psychological well-being improved in women with breast cancer randomized to treatment with either AR or EA for vasomotor symptoms and we therefore suggest that further studies should be performed in order to evaluate and develop these alternative therapies. © 2006 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 6.
    Nieminen, Katri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutetet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Ryding, Elsa-Lena
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Treatment of nulliparous women with severe fear of childbirth via the Internet: a feasibility study2016In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of Internet interventions among nulliparous women suffering from severe fear of childbirth (FOC) by means of an Internet-delivered therapist-supported self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT).

    Design: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study.Setting: A feasibility study of an ICBT program for the treatment of severe FOC in pregnant women.Sample: Twenty-eight Swedish-speaking nulliparous women with severe FOC recruited via a project home page from January 2012 to December 2013.

    Methods: The main components of the ICBT program for the treatment of severe FOC comprised psycho-education, breathing retraining, cognitive restructuring, imaginary exposure, in vivo exposure and relapse prevention. The study participants were anonymously self-recruited over the Internet, interviewed by telephone and then enrolled. All participants were offered 8 weeks of treatment via the Internet. Participants reported their homework weekly, submitted measurements of their fear and received feedback from a therapist via a secure online contact management system.

    Main outcome measures: Level of FOC measured with the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ A) during screening at enrollment and weekly during the treatment (W-DEQ version A), and after the delivery (W-DEQ version B).

    Results: A statistically significant (p < 0.0005) decrease of FOC [W-DEQ sum score decreased pre to post-therapy, with a large effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.95)].Conclusions: The results of this feasibility study suggest that ICBT has potential in the treatment of severe FOC during pregnancy in motivated nulliparous women. The results need to be confirmed by randomized controlled studies.

  • 7.
    Oscarsson, Marie G.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Kalmar University, Sweden.
    Benzein, Eva G.
    Kalmar University, Sweden.
    Wijma, Barbro E
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The first pelvic examination2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To describe adolescents' experiences of their first pelvic examination.

    Methods. Data were collected by tape-recorded interviews with 15 adolescents, who had had their first pelvic examination (PE) performed by a midwife at a Youth Clinic. Data were analyzed by qualitative latent content analysis.

    Results. The result is presented in terms of the themes: Emotional ambivalence, Being in control and A step into women's world. The adolescents generally believed that PE was beneficial to their health and they were curious to see how they would manage. On the other hand they also felt embarrassed about getting undressed. They described several factors which contributed to feelings of being in control of the situation, e.g., when the examiner shared the process of decision making, thoroughly explained the PE procedure in advance, and assured them that the PE could be discontinued at any time. They considered their first PE as a step into a women's world. It seems important that the examiners perform the first PE in a manner that empowers the adolescents so they can enter womanhood with a positive attitude to their bodies. Furthermore, this empowering process may lay the foundation for subsequent PEs to be educational events for the adolescents.

     

  • 8.
    Salomonsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gullberg, Mats T
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Self-efficacy beliefs and fear of childbirth in nulliparous women2013In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 116-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore how childbirth self-efficacy, i.e. outcome expectancy and efficacy expectancy, was associated with fear of childbirth (FOC) and how efficacy expectancy and FOC, respectively were related to socio-demographic characteristics, mental problems and preference for a caesarean section.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a consecutive sample of 1000 pregnant nulliparous women was sent the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire and Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory. Statistical analyses were performed on data from 423 women.

    Results: Outcome expectancy and efficacy expectancy correlated significantly and positively, FOC correlated significantly and negatively with both outcome expectancy and efficacy expectancy. Women with severe FOC (20.8%) had a significantly lower level of education (p = 0.001), and had more often sought help because of mental problems (p = 0.004). They were more likely to have low-efficacy expectancy (p < 0.001) and to prefer a caesarean section instead of a vaginal birth (p < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Lower efficacy expectancy was associated with higher FOC while preference for a caesarean section was not. Improvement of self-efficacy could be a part of care for women with FOC during pregnancy; however, it would not be enough for fearful women who wish to have a caesarean section.

  • 9.
    Siwe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Validation of the Fear of Pelvic Examination Scale (F-PEXS) - measuring students fear of performing a pelvic examination2015In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Medical students of both genders often show signs of fear before they perform their first pelvic examination. This situation puts a novice in a special setting of intimacy never experienced before and where different emotions may emerge. A specially designed questionnaire, the Fear of Pelvic Examination Scale (F-PEXS) has been developed to assess fear in this context. The aim of this paper is to describe the validation of the F-PEXS. Methods: Undergraduate medical students (N = 100) answered the F-PEXS one week before, prior to and after a learning session with professional patients to assess levels of anxiety towards performing the pelvic exam. The validity of the scale was examined using item analysis, reliability assessments and analysis of the construct validity in comparing the F-PEXS with the Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory and Becks Anxiety Inventory. Results: The F-PEXS has very good reliability (Cronbachs alpha 0.96) and good construct validity. The mean score on the F-PEXS did not differ between gender either before or after the learning session. Conclusions: The F-PEXS can be used to assess students fear of performing the pelvic examination, to evaluate new strategies for learning the pelvic exam and to evaluate the outcome of such interventions.

  • 10.
    Sluijs, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Cleiren, Marc P H D
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Scherjon, Sicco A
    St Lucas Andreas Hospital, Netherlands .
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    No relationship between fear of childbirth and pregnancy-/delivery-outcome in a low-risk Dutch pregnancy cohort delivering at home or in hospital2012In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the relationship of fear of childbirth (FOC), general anxiety and depression during pregnancy and postpartum with birth complications. Methods: For this prospective cohort study 105 healthy women with low-risk pregnancies (until at least 30 weeks gestation) completed the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at 30 weeks gestation and 6 weeks postpartum. These results were related with delivery characteristics. Results: FOC during pregnancy was not related to complications during labour and delivery. In a regression analysis, both multiparity and medical interventions were predictors for higher postpartum FOC. A positive correlation was found between FOC during pregnancy and FOC at six weeks postpartum, corrected for complications during childbirth (r = 0.45, p andlt; 0.001). Conclusions: The birth giving process was not related to FOC during pregnancy, but the pre-partum level of FOC certainly is predictive of the level of postpartum FOC, suggesting that FOC as measured during gestation may influence the interpretation of the birth experience itself. We did find a positive relationship between both parity and medical interventions during childbirth and FOC postpartum.

  • 11.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Nullified: Women's perceptions of being abused in health care2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 161-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. In a study performed with The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) among Nordic gynecological patients, the prevalence of lifetime abuse in health care (AHC) was 13 - 28%. In the present study we chose a qualitative approach. Our aim was to develop a more in-depth understanding of AHC, as experienced by female Swedish patients. Study design. Qualitative interviews with 10 Swedish gynecological patients who had experienced AHC. The interviews were analyzed through Grounded Theory. Results. Saturation was reached after six interviews. In the analyses four categories emerged which explain what AHC meant to the participating women: felt powerless, felt ignored, experienced carelessness, and experienced non-empathy. To be nullified is the core category that theoretically binds the four categories together. The women's narratives described intensive current suffering even though the abusive event had taken place several years ago. Conclusions. The fact that AHC exists is a critical dilemma for an institution that has the society's commission to cure and/or to alleviate pain and suffering. In their narratives, women described the experience of 'being nullified', a core category that embodies AHC. © 2007 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 12.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zbikowski, Anke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Ethical lapses: staff's perception of abuse in health care2010In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 123-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Studies have shown high lifetime prevalence of abuse in health care (AHC) in Nordic gynaecological patients. For patients AHC implies feeling disempowered, dehumanised and devalued. The aim of our study was to apprehend health care staffs perceptions of AHC. Study design. Qualitative interviews with staff at a Swedish gynaecological clinic analysed by Constant comparative analysis (N = 21). Results. The two categories - ethical failures against a patient and staff members avoid responsibility - gives two disparate pictures of what AHC is. The interviews showed that these pictures can exist alongside even if they contradict each other. The core category ethical lapses brings staffs contradictory reflections on AHC together in one picture. Notable is that the dualistic notion of AHC did not result in a moral conflict within staff members. Conclusion. Health care staff perceives AHC primarily as ethical lapses. Avoiding responsibility for AHC might lead to a failing recognition of AHC, implying that the problem is not properly dealt with. Our study highlights the need for a more open attitude in health care staff toward AHC. To counteract AHC, staff members need to accept that AHC occurs also in their own units, bringing in moral conflicts in the everyday work.

  • 13.
    Söderquist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress after childbirth2006In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-traumatic stress was assessed in early and late pregnancy, and 1, 4, 7, and 11 months postpartum by means of questionnaires among 1224 women. Thirty-seven women (3%) had post-traumatic stress (meeting criteria B, C, and D for PTSD) at least once within 1–11 months postpartum. In pregnancy, depression, severe fear of childbirth, ‘pre’-traumatic stress, previous counseling related to pregnancy/childbirth, and self-reported previous psychological problems were associated with an increased risk of having post-traumatic stress within 1–11 months postpartum. Sum-scores of post-traumatic stress did not decrease over time among women who at least once had post-traumatic stress (criteria B, C, and D) within 1–11 months postpartum. Women with post-traumatic stress also showed a decrease in perceived social support over time postpartum.

  • 14.
    Söderquist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Traumatic stress after childbirth: the role of obstetric variables2002In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a sample of 1550 recently delivered women, traumatic stress after childbirth was studied in relation to obstetric variables.

    A post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom profile and traumatic stress symptoms were assessed by means of the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) Obstetric data comprised delivery mode, duration of the second stage of labor (the time from cervical dilation of 10 cm to partus) and the use of analgesia/anesthesia.

    Traumatic stress symptoms and having a PTSD symptom profile were both significantly related to the experience of an emergency cesarean section or an instrumental vaginal delivery It is of clinical importance, however that most women with a PTSD symptom profile were found in the normal vaginal delivery group (NVD) This implies that a normal vaginal delivery can be experienced as traumatic, lust as an emergency cesarian section is not necessarily traumatic Traumatic stress symptoms were neither substantially correlated to the duration of the second stage of labor, nor to the use of analgesia/anesthesia.

  • 15.
    van de Wiel, Harry
    et al.
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Brand, Paul L P
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Schultz,, Willibrord W
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The virtual ISPOG Academy: how E-learning can enrich (our) society2010In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 111-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    van de Wiel, Harry
    et al.
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Brand, Paul L P
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The virtual ISPOG Academy: how E-learning can enrich (our) society2010In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 111-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Wijma, Barbro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Engman, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    A model for critical review of literature - With vaginismus as an example2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present a behavioral model for the critical review of the literature within a certain research field, using vaginismus as an example. We searched the literature for the title word "vaginismus" and analyzed to what extent the articles dealt with the following seven categories: prevention, etiology, maintaining factors, consequences, object of intervention, method of intervention, and method of evaluation. In each category we scrutinized the content of the articles for biological, psychological, social, relational, and gender aspects. Quality requirements of etiological and treatment studies were then added and the results presented in a "quality-adjusted" model. There were 102 articles during 1985-2001, of which 22 were included in the review. Most of the articles deal with supposed predisposing factors of etiology and different aspects of intervention. Only a few articles discuss precipitating factors, maintaining factors, or consequences of the problem. No article had a gender analysis. Only 11 of the articles fulfilled some of the proposed quality criteria. We found the behavioral model with quality requirements useful for classifying and evaluating the literature of vaginismus. The model may also be used as a guide to design methodologically good studies. © 2007 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 18.
    Wijma, Barbro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Thapar-Bjorkert, S.
    Thapar-Björkert, S., Department of Sociology, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Hammarström, N.C.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine.
    Cycles of abuse nurtured by concealment: A clinical report2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 155-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, health care staff do not seem to have sufficient knowledge about their patients' abusive experiences. The aim of the present study is to analyze and discuss what the implications might be for the encounter between patients and health care professionals, when experiences of abuse are concealed. The methodology of this article is varied: a personal narrative, medical records, sociological theoretical literature and empirical evidence. From the narrative we learn that concealment of abuse was devastating for the patient. She was "treated" in vain as a correct diagnosis was not made, while abuse by her father continued. Health care staff also violated her, which she told her therapist, but her protests were not acknowledged. Ten years of treatment thus made her even more sick. This case story focuses on the mechanisms which nurture concealment of a patient's history of abuse, such as structural and symbolic violence. We also suggest ways to break "cycles of abuse". Help the patient to stop concealing also means that she/he leaves a victim role, gets in charge of the situation and takes a first step towards empowerment. In this way, health care settings can become enabling and empowering environments. © 2007 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 19.
    Wijma, Barbro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Thapar-Bjorkert, S.
    Thapar-Björkert, S., Department of Sociology, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine .
    What is an error? [1]2005In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 233-235Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 20.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine .
    Why focus on 'fear of childbirth'?2003In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 141-143Other (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Wijma, Klaas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Development of the delivery fear scale2002In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the development of the Delivery Fear Scale (DFS) to measure fear during labor and delivery.

    In an initial study, 92 women in labor answered a list of 60 items, expressing fear-related appraisals and their contrasts that were characteristic of women in labor. Ten items were then selected by means of an item-total analysis. In a second study, the final list of ten items was tested psychometrically and a semi-structured interview was performed on 45 women in labor, to explore the women s descriptions of the content of each of the ten items. According to the content analysis of the interviews, the dominating connotation of the ten items is fear based on the appraisal of being captured. The studies show that the DFS is a questionnaire that almost effortlessly can be completed within 60-90 seconds during any moment of labor and delivery. The scale has a good reliability: Cronbach‘s alpha was 0.88 in both studies.

  • 22.
    Wijma, Klaas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Paarlberg, Karen Marieke
    Gelre Teaching Hospital Apeldoorn.
    New times for the International Society of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ISPOG)2011In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 22 of 22
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