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  • 1.
    Chew, Michelle
    Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Anestesi- och intensivvårdskliniken US.
    Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) in shock: a valuable echocardiographic parameter in intensive care patients2013Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 1, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Assessing left ventricular (LV) dysfunction by echocardiography in ICU patients is common. The aim of this study was to investigate mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) in critically ill patients with shock and its relation to LV systolic and diastolic function, myocardial injury and to outcome.

    Methods

    In a prospective, observational, cohort study we enrolled 50 patients with SIRS and shock despite fluid resuscitation. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) measuring LV function was performed within 12 hours after admission and daily for a 7-day observation period. TTE and laboratory measurements were related to 28-day mortality.

    Results

    MAPSE on day 1 correlated significantly with LV ejection fraction (LVEF), tissue Doppler indices of LV diastolic function (é, E/é) and high-sensitive troponin T (hsTNT) (p< 0.001, p= 0.039, p= 0.009, p= 0.003 respectively) whereas LVEF did not correlate significantly with any marker of LV diastolic function or myocardial injury. Compared to survivors, non-survivors had a significantly lower MAPSE (8 [IQR 7.5-11] versus 11 [IQR 8.9-13] mm; p= 0.028). Other univariate predictors were age (p=0.033), hsTNT (p=0.014) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (p=0.007). By multivariate analysis MAPSE (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.5- 0.9), p= 0.015) and SOFA score (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.1- 2.3), p= 0.018) were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Daily measurements showed that MAPSE, as sole echocardiographic marker, was significantly lower in most days in non-survivors (p<0.05 at day 1–2, 4–6).

    Conclusions

    MAPSE seemed to reflect LV systolic and diastolic function as well as myocardial injury in critically ill patients with shock. The combination of MAPSE and SOFA added to the predictive value for 28-day mortality.

  • 2.
    de Geer, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Anestesi- och intensivvårdskliniken US.
    Oscarsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Anestesi- och intensivvårdskliniken US.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Variability in echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function in septic shock patients2015Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 19-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is increasingly used for haemodynamic evaluation and titration of therapy in intensive care, warranting reliable and reproducible measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the observer dependence of echocardiographic findings of left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic dysfunction in patients with septic shock.

    METHODS: Echocardiograms performed in 47 adult patients admitted with septic shock to a general intensive care unit (ICU) were independently evaluated by one cardiologist and one intensivist for the following signs: decreased diastolic tissue velocity of the base of the LV septum (e), increased early mitral inflow (E) to e ratio (E/e), decreased LV ejection fraction (EF) and decreased LV global longitudinal peak strain (GLPS). Diastolic dysfunction was defined as e <8.0cm/s and/or E/e [greater than or equal to]15 and systolic dysfunction as EF <50% and/or GLPS>15%. Ten randomly selected examinations were re-analysed two months later. Pearson’s r was used to test the correlation and Bland-Altman plots to assess the agreement between observers. Kappa statistics were used to test the consistency between readers and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for inter- and intraobserver variability.

    RESULTS: In 44 patients (94%), image quality was sufficient for echocardiographic measurements. The agreement between observers was moderate (k=0.60 for e, k=0.50 for E/e and k=0.60 for EF) to good (k=0.71 for GLPS). Pearson’s r was 0.76 for e, 0.85 for E/e, 0.78 for EF and 0.84 for GLPS (p<0.001 for all four). The ICC between observers for e was very good (0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.92), good for E/e (0.70; 95% CI 0.45 - 0.84), very good for EF (0.87; 95% CI 0.77 - 0.93), excellent for GLPS (0.91; 95% CI 0.74 - 0.95), and very good for all measures repeated by one of the observers. On Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences and 95% limits of agreement for e, E/e, EF and GLPS were 0.01 (0.04 - 0.07), 2.0 (14.2 - 18.1), 0.86 (16 - 14.3) and 0.04 (5.04 - 5.12), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Moderate observer-related differences in assessing LV dysfunction were seen. GLPS is the least user dependent and most reproducible echocardiographic measurement of LV function in septic shock.

  • 3.
    Maret, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lindström, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Ohlsson, Jan L
    Ryhov City Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Computer-assisted determination of left ventricular endocardial borders reduces variability in the echocardiographic assessment of ejection fraction2008Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 6, nr 55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Left ventricular size and function are important prognostic factors in heart disease. Their measurement is the most frequent reason for sending patients to the echo lab. These measurements have important implications for therapy but are sensitive to the skill of the operator. Earlier automated echo-based methods have not become widely used. The aim of our study was to evaluate an automatic echocardiographic method (with manual correction if needed) for determining left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) based on an active appearance model of the left ventricle (syngo (R) AutoEF, Siemens Medical Solutions). Comparisons were made with manual planimetry (manual Simpson), visual assessment and automatically determined LVEF from quantitative myocardial gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

    Methods: 60 consecutive patients referred for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were included in the study. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed within one hour of MPI at rest. Image quality did not constitute an exclusion criterion. Analysis was performed by five experienced observers and by two novices.

    Results: LVEF (%), end-diastolic and end-systolic volume/BSA (ml/m(2)) were for uncorrected AutoEF 54 +/- 10, 51 +/- 16, 24 +/- 13, for corrected AutoEF 53 +/- 10, 53 +/- 18, 26 +/- 14, for manual Simpson 51 +/- 11, 56 +/- 20, 28 +/- 15, and for MPI 52 +/- 12, 67 +/- 26, 35 +/- 23. The required time for analysis was significantly different for all four echocardiographic methods and was for uncorrected AutoEF 79 +/- 5 s, for corrected AutoEF 159 +/- 46 s, for manual Simpson 177 +/- 66 s, and for visual assessment 33 +/- 14 s. Compared with the expert manual Simpson, limits of agreement for novice corrected AutoEF was lower than for novice manual Simpson (0.8 +/- 10.5 vs. -3.2 +/- 11.4 LVEF percentage points). Calculated for experts and with LVEF (%) categorized into < 30, 30-44, 45-54 and >= 55, kappa measure of agreement was moderate (0.44-0.53) for all method comparisons (uncorrected AutoEF not evaluated).

    Conclusion: Corrected AutoEF reduces the variation in measurements compared with manual planimetry, without increasing the time required. The method seems especially suited for unexperienced readers.

  • 4.
    Maret, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ohlsson, Jan
    1Department of Clinical Physiology, Ryhov County Hospital, SE-551 85 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Feasibility and diagnostic power of transthoracic coronary Doppler for coronary flow velocity reserve in patients referred for myocardial perfusion imaging2008Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 6, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a validated method for detecting coronary artery disease. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) of flow at rest and during adenosine provocation has previously been evaluated in selected patient groups. We therefore wanted to compare the diagnostic ability of TTDE in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to that of MPI in an unselected population of patients with chest pain referred for MPI. Our hypothesis was that TTDE with high accuracy would identify healthy individuals and exclude them from the need for further studies, enabling invasive investigations to be reserved for patients with a high probability of disease.

    METHODS: Sixty-nine patients, 44 men and 25 women, age 61 +/- 10 years (range 35-82), with a clinical suspicion of stress induced myocardial ischemia, were investigated. TTDE was performed at rest and during adenosine stress for myocardial scintigraphy.

    RESULTS: We found that coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) determined from diastolic measurements separated normal from abnormal MPI findings with statistical significance. TTDE identified coronary artery disease, defined from MPI, as reversible ischemia and/or permanent defect, with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 79%. The positive predictive value was 43% and the negative predictive value was 88%. There was an overlap between groups which could be due to abnormal endothelial function in patients with normal myocardial perfusion having either hypertension or diabetes.

    CONCLUSION: TTDE is an attractive non-invasive method to evaluate chest pain without the use of isotopes, but the diagnostic power is strongly dependent on the population investigated. Even in our heterogeneous clinical cardiac population, we found that CFVR>2 in the LAD excluded significant coronary artery disease detected by MPI.

  • 5.
    Maret, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tödt, Tim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Kardiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Swahn, Eva
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Kardiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ohlsson, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Functional measurements based on feature tracking of cine magnetic resonance images identify left ventricular segments with myocardial scar.2009Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 7, nr 53, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim of the study was to perform a feature tracking analysis on cine magnetic resonance (MR) images to elucidate if functional measurements of the motion of the left ventricular wall may detect scar defined with gadolinium enhanced MR.

    Myocardial contraction can be measured in terms of the velocity, displacement and local deformation (strain) of a particular myocardial segment. Contraction of the myocardial wall will be reduced in the presence of scar and as a consequence of reduced myocardial blood flow.

    Methods

    Thirty patients (3 women and 27 men) were selected based on the presence or absence of extensive scar in the anteroseptal area of the left ventricle. The patients were investigated in stable clinical condition, 4-8 weeks post ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Seventeen had a scar area >75% in at least one anteroseptal segment (scar) and thirteen had scar area <1% (non-scar). Velocity, displacement and strain were calculated in the longitudinal direction, tangential to the endocardial outline, and in the radial direction, perpendicular to the tangent.

    Results

    In the scar patients, segments with scar showed lower functional measurements than remote segments. Radial measurements of velocity, displacement and strain performed better in terms of receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC) than the corresponding longitudinal measurements. The best area-under-curve was for radial strain, 0.89, where a cut-off value of 38.8% had 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity for the detection of a segment with scar area >50%. As a percentage of the mean, intraobserver variability was 16-14-26% for radial measurements of displacement-velocity-strain and corresponding interobserver variability was 13-12-18%.

    Conclusion

    Feature tracking analysis of cine-MR displays velocity, displacement and strain in the radial and longitudinal direction and may be used for the detection of transmural scar. The accuracy and repeatability of the radial functional measurements is satisfactory and global measures agree.

  • 6.
    Åström, Meriam Aneq
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brudin, Lars
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden .
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Evaluation of right and left ventricular function using speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and their first degree relatives2012Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 10, nr 37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aim: The identification of right ventricular abnormalities in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in early stages is still difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate if longitudinal strain based on speckle tracking can detect subtle right (RV) or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction as an early sign of ARVC. Methods and results: Seventeen male patients, fulfilling Task force criteria for ARVC, 49 (32-70) years old, nineteen male first degree relatives 29 (19-73) y.o. and twenty-two healthy male volunteers 36 (24-66) y.o participated in the study. Twelve-lead and signal-averaged electrocardiograms were recorded. All subjects underwent echocardiography. LV and RV diameters, peak systolic velocity from tissue Doppler and longitudinal strain based on speckle tracking were measured from the basal and mid segments in both ventricles. RV longitudinal strain measurement was successful in first degree relatives and controls (95 resp. 86%) but less feasible in patients (59%). Results were not systematically different between first degree relatives and controls. Using discriminant analysis, we then developed an index based on echocardiographic parameters. All normal controls had an index less thanl while patients with abnormal ventricles had an index between 1-4. Some of the first degree relatives deviated from the normal pattern. Conclusion: Longitudinal strain of LV and RV segments was significantly lower in patients than in relatives and controls. An index was developed incorporating dimensional and functional echocardiographic parameters. In combination with genetic testing this index might help to detect early phenotype expression in mutation carriers.

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