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  • 1.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Hals Berglund, Maria
    University Hospital Norrland, Sweden.
    Ström, Jakob O.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry. University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Transient Ischemic Attack2017In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 43, no 1-2, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the absence of active management, the stroke risk after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be high. Almost 10 years ago, the results of the EXPRESS and SOS-TIA studies called for a more rapid management of TIA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the other stroke risks in the longer term, after the implementation of a more active approach to TIA. We also wanted to assess the predictive value of the ABCD2 score in this context. Methods: Riksstroke is the national stroke registry in Sweden. Data from Riksstrokes TIA module, and the national cause-of-death register, for the years 2011 and 2012 were used in this study. Stroke occurrence was monitored via Riksstroke. Coxs regression was used for risk evaluation. The predictive value of the ABCD2 score was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve. Results: A total of 15,068 TIA episodes occurred in 14,102 patients. The follow-up time varied between 0 and 819 days, with an average of 417 days. The mortality for all TIA patients during the follow-up time was 7.1%. Of the unique patients, 545 had one or more strokes (3.9%), corresponding to 34 events per 1,000 person years. Significant risk factors for stroke were: age, previous TIA, atrial fibrillation (AF), oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment, hypertension treatment, and the ABCD2 items speech impairment, unilateral weakness, and diabetes mellitus. The ABCD2 score correlated with a subsequent stroke, but its predictive value was low. Conclusion: The risk of stroke is low after the acute phase of a TIA, probably lower than in previous studies. This may be due to better secondary prevention in recent years. Several risk factors predict stroke, notably hypertensive treatment, which may be inadequate; and AF, where OACs may be under-used. It is difficult to identify the role of the ABCD2 score in clinical practice. (C) 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Olsson, Jan-Edvin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Survival and recurrent strokes in patients with different subtypes of stroke: A fourteen-year follow-up study2001In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 339 patients (154 men, 185 women) with a median age of 74 years (range 23-97) admitted to the Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology in 1986, have been followed up for 14 years. The diagnoses were intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH, 30, 8.8%), cardioembolic cerebral infarction (CE, 71, 20.9%), lacunar infarction (LI, 47, 13.9%) and atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI, 191, 56.3%). The cumulative probabilities of recurrent stroke rates at 1-, 5- and 10-year follow-ups were 13.5% (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.6-17.4), 38.7% (95% CI 32.6-44.8) and 53.9% (95% CI 46.7-61.1). According to Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, age, severity of stroke, previous stroke and systolic blood pressure are each of importance in predicting recurrent stroke. During the observation period, 290 patients (85.5%) died. The mortality rate of 24.5% during the first year was 4.5 times higher compared to the normal population of the same age and gender. Patients with LI had lower mortality rates compared to ICH by the log rank test (p =0.0275), to CE (p =0.000) and to ACI (p =0.049). Thirty-nine percent of all vascular deaths after the first year were caused by recurrent strokes. Fatal index/recurrent stroke occurred statistically more frequently in the CE group versus the non-CE one (p =0.005). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis indicated that age, severity of stroke, previous stroke, heart failure and fasting blood glucose exceeding 6 mmol/l or history of diabetes were each predictors of mortality. In conclusion, this study has shown the worse outcomes for all subtypes of stroke compared to the normal population and also clearly pointed out independent predictors of recurrent stroke or death at the time of diagnosis. Copyright

  • 3.
    Holm, Hannes
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Nägga, Katarina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik D
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ricci, Fabrizio
    University G. d'Annunzio, Chieti, Italy.
    Cinosi, Eduardo
    Foundation G. d'Annunzio, Chieti, Italy; NHS Hertfordshire Partnership University Foundation Trust, Hatfield, UK.
    Melander, Olle
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bachus, Erasmus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Fedorowski, Artur
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    N-Terminal Prosomatostatin and Risk of Vascular Dementia2017In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 44, no 5-6, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increased somatostatin plasma concentration has been found in patients with vascular dementia. However, it is unknown whether or not somatostatin levels may predict dementia development in the general population. To this end, we sought to assess the association of circulating N-terminal prosomatostatin (NT-proSST) with incident dementia among community-dwelling older adults.

    METHODS: In the prospective population-based Malmö Preventive Project, 5,347 study participants (mean age: 69 ± 6years; 70% men) provided plasma for the determination of NT-proSST concentration. Of these, 373 participants (7%) were diagnosed with dementia (120 Alzheimer's disease, 83 vascular, 102 mixed, and 68 other aetiology) during a follow-up period of 4.6 ± 1.3 years. The association of NT-proSST with the risk of dementia and its subtypes was studied using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models controlling for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, smoking, diabetes, lipid levels and prevalent stroke.

    RESULTS: Higher levels of NT-proSST were significantly associated with an increased risk of vascular dementia (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD: 1.29; 95% CI 1.05-1.59; p = 0.016), whereas no association was observed with Alzheimer's disease (HR per 1 SD: 0.99; 95% CI 0.81-1.20; p = 0.91), all-cause dementia (HR per 1 SD: 1.04; 95% CI 0.94-1.16; p = 0.44), and mixed dementia (HR per 1 SD: 0.98; 95% CI 0.79-1.21; p = 0.84). Levels of NT-proSST above 563 pmol/L (highest quartile) conferred distinctly increased risk of vascular dementia (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.05-2.63; p = 0.029) compared with lower values.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of circulating N-terminal-prosomatostatin are associated with increased incidence of vascular dementia. Our findings might be of importance for the understanding of dementia development in older adults.

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