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  • 1.
    Journath, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol, Ctr Family & Community Med, Care Sci & Soc, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden .
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol, Ctr Family & Community Med, Care Sci & Soc, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden .
    Petersson, Ulla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice.
    Theobald, Holger
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol, Ctr Family & Community Med, Care Sci & Soc, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Med, Malmo, Sweden.
    Sex differences in risk factor control off treated hypertensives: a national primary healthcare-based study in Sweden2008In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 258-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To evaluate potential sex differences, this study aimed to investigate blood pressure and lipid control and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in treated hypertensive (tHT) patients from primary healthcare. Design and methods This cross-sectional survey of tHT patients was carried out between 2002 and 2005 by 264 primary care physicians from Sweden who consecutively recruited 6537 tHT patients (48% men and 52% women) from medical records. Results tHT men more often reached the treatment goal for systolic/diastolic blood pressure, less than 140/90 mmHg, than tHT women (30 vs. 26%, P < 0.01). Men had lower systolic blood pressure than women, however, women had lower diastolic blood pressure and higher pulse pressure. More tHT women had total cholesterol >= 5.0 mmol/l than corresponding men (75 vs. 64% P < 0.001). Men more often had diabetes (25 vs. 20% P < 0.001), left ventricular hypertrophy (20 vs. 16% P < 0.001), and microalbuminuria (24 vs. 16% P < 0.001). Women were more often treated with diuretics (64 vs. 48%) and P-receptor blockers, (54 vs. 51%), and men more often treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (27 vs. 18%), calcium channel blockers (34 vs. 26%), and lipid-lowering drugs (34 vs. 29%). Conclusion A need still exists for more intensified treatment of elevated blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, especially in women. In hypertensives of both sexes, smoking and other risk factors also need to be addressed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • 2.
    Petersson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Motala.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, Malmö , Sweden.
    A consultation-based method is equal to SCORE and an extensive laboratory-based method in predicting risk of future cardiovascular disease2009In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 536-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common causes of mortality worldwide, much interest has been focused on reliable methods to predict cardiovascular risk.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional, population-based screening study with 17-year follow-up in Southern Sweden.

    METHODS: We compared a non-laboratory, consultation-based risk assessment method comprising age, sex, present smoking, prevalent diabetes or hypertension at baseline, blood pressure (systolic >/=140 or diastolic >/=90), waist/height ratio and family history of CVD to Systemic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) and a third model including several laboratory analyses, respectively, in predicting CVD risk. The study included clinical baseline data on 689 participants aged 40-59 years without CVD. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, serum lipids, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, C-reactive protein, asymmetric dimethyl arginine and symmetric dimethyl arginine. During 17 years, the incidence of total CVD (first event) and death was registered.

    RESULTS: A non-laboratory-based risk assessment model, including variables easily obtained during one consultation visit to a general practitioner, predicted cardiovascular events as accurately [hazard ratio (HR): 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.18-3.39, P<0.001] as the established SCORE algorithm (HR: 2.73; 95% CI: 2.10-3.55, P<0.001), which requires laboratory testing. Furthermore, adding a combination of sophisticated laboratory measurements covering lipids, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, did not confer any additional value to the prediction of CVD risk (HR: 2.72; 95% CI: 2.19-3.37, P<0.001). The c-statistics for the consultation model (0.794; 95% CI: 0.762-0.823) was not significantly different from SCORE (0.767; 95% CI: 0.733-0.798, P=0.12) or the extended model (0.806; 95% CI: 0.774-0.835, P=0.55).

    CONCLUSION: A risk algorithm based on non-laboratory data from a single primary care consultation predicted long-term cardiovascular risk as accurately as either SCORE or an elaborate laboratory-based method in a defined middle-aged population.

  • 3.
    Stagmo, M.
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden, Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, S-205 02 Malmö, Sweden.
    Israelsson, B.
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Brandstrom, H.
    Brandström, H., Gråbo Health Centre, Visby, Sweden.
    Hedbäck, Bo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lingfors, H.
    Primary Health Care Centre, Habo, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P.
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Erhardt, L.
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    The Swedish national programme for quality control of secondary prevention of coronary artery disease - Results after one year2004In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 18-24Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guidelines for the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) have been developed both in Europe and in the USA. However, several surveys have shown that these guidelines are poorly implemented in clinical practice. Design/methods: The Swedish Quality Control Programme on Secondary Prevention of CAD includes patients after myocardial infarction, or having undergone coronary artery surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention. Fifty of Sweden's 79 hospital districts are currently participating. Patients are asked to send report-cards regarding risk factor management to a central registry after discharge from hospital, at a 3-6 month visit and then yearly for 5 years. Results: Results based on data from 1 year after the index event show that a majority of patients reach targets for serum cholesterol (70%), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (71%). Mean value for total cholesterol is 4.6 (± SD 0.9) mmol/l, LDL-cholesterol 2.7 (± SD 0.8) mmol/l. Blood pressure targets are less often achieved, with 58% reaching the European Society of Cardiology target for systolic (< 140 mmHg) and 81% for diastolic (< 90 mmHg) blood pressure. A large proportion of patients are prescribed preventive drugs: aspirin (96%), beta-blockers (78%) and lipid-lowering drugs (83%). Conclusions: The Swedish Quality Control Programme is one of the first attempts to assess implementation of guidelines on a national level based on patient participation. It is hoped that shared care programmes and increased patient involvement with feedback on achieved treatment goals in relation to guidelines will improve outcomes in patients with CAD. © 2004 The European Society of Cardiology.

  • 4.
    Stenström, Ulf
    et al.
    Jönköpings Universitet.
    Nilsson, Anna-Karin
    Eksjö.
    Stridh, Camilla
    Eksjö.
    Nijm, Johnny
    Eksjö.
    Nyrinder, Ingela
    Jönköping.
    Jonsson, Åsa
    Jönköping.
    Karlsson, Jan-Erik
    Jönköping.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Denial in patients with a first-time myocardial infarction: Relations to pre-hospital delay and attendance to a cardiac rehabilitation programme2005In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 568-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Survival of a myocardial infarction and subsequent prognosis are highly dependent on the time between onset of symptoms and medical intervention. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study examines whether patients who used the psychological defence mechanism of denial when faced with symptoms of a first-time myocardial infarction tended to also show a prolonged delay in going to the hospital and to be less willing to participate in a cardiac rehabilitation programme. METHODS: One hundred and seven patients, 78 men and 29 women, were enrolled in this study. The sample was divided into two groups depending on whether the patients sought medical help within 4 h after they began experiencing myocardial infarction symptoms (non-delayers) or whether they waited longer (delayers). Denial was measured with the Hackett and Cassem semi-structured interview 3-5 days after the patients entered the hospital. Data on participation (attenders) or not (non-attenders) in the rehabilitation programme was also obtained. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients exhibited a prolonged delay and 76 patients did not attend the rehabilitation programme. Both prolonged delay and a lesser readiness to attend the rehabilitation programme that was offered were related to a greater use of denial. In addition, the great majority of the patients categorized as being high deniers were found to also be both delayers and non-attenders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest denial to increase the health risks of persons potentially prone to myocardial infarction. If our knowledge about this psychological defence mechanism is increased, we might be able to reach more patients in alternative and individually based cardiac rehabilitation programmes. © 2005 European Society of Cardiology.

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