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  • 1.
    Bousquet, J.
    et al.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France ARIA, France European Academic Allergy and Clin Immunol, France European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    Addis, A.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, Italy .
    Adcock, I.
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England Royal Brompton and Harefield NIHR Biomed Research Unit, England .
    Agache, I.
    ARIA, France Romanian Alliance Chron Resp Disease, Romania Transylvania University, Romania .
    Agusti, A.
    University of Barcelona, Spain CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Spain .
    Alonso, A.
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain .
    Annesi-Maesano, I.
    ARIA, France .
    M. Anto, J.
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Bachert, C.
    ARIA, France Ghent University Hospital, Belgium Ghent University Hospital, Belgium .
    E. Baena-Cagnani, C.
    ARIA, France Catholic University, Argentina .
    Bai, C.
    Chinese Medical Assoc, Peoples R China .
    Baigenzhin, A.
    EuroAsian Resp Soc, Kazakhstan .
    Barbara, C.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France Portuguese National Programme Resp Disease, Portugal .
    Barnes, P.J.
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England Royal Brompton and Harefield NIHR Biomed Research Unit, England .
    Bateman, E.D.
    ARIA, France University of Cape Town, South Africa .
    Beck, L.
    Health Innovat Centre Southern Denmark, Denmark .
    Bedbrook, A.
    MACVIA LR, France ARIA, France .
    Bel, E.H.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Benezet, O.
    MACVIA LR, France .
    Bennoor, K.S.
    ARIA, France Bangladesh Lung Fdn, Bangladesh National Institute Disease Chest and Hospital, Bangladesh .
    Benson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Bernabeu-Wittel, M.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Hlthy Ageing, Spain Andalusian Healthcare Serv, Spain .
    Bewick, M.
    NHS England, England .
    Bindslev-Jensen, C.
    ARIA, France Odense University Hospital, Denmark Odense University Hospital, Denmark .
    Blain, H.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    Blasi, F.
    University of Milan, Italy .
    Bonini, M.
    ARIA, France University of Roma La Sapienza, Italy .
    Bonini, S.
    ARIA, France University of Naples 2, Italy Italian National Research Council, Italy .
    Boulet, L.P.
    ARIA, France University of Laval, Canada .
    Bourdin, A.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France University of Montpellier I, France INSERM, France .
    Bourret, R.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France .
    Bousquet, P.J.
    ARIA, France .
    Brightling, C.E.
    Glenfield Hospital, England .
    Briggs, A.
    University of Glasgow, Scotland .
    Brozek, J.
    ARIA, France McMaster University, Canada McMaster University, Canada .
    Buh, R.
    Mainz University Hospital, Germany .
    Bush, A.
    ARIA, France University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England .
    Caimmi, D.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France .
    Calderon, M.
    University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England .
    Calverley, P.
    University of Liverpool, England Aintree University Hospital NHS Fdn Trust, England .
    Camargos, P.A.
    ARIA, France University of Federal Minas Gerais, Brazil .
    Camuzat, T.
    MACVIA LR, France .
    Canonica, G.W.
    ARIA, France University of Genoa, Italy .
    Carlsen, K.H.
    ARIA, France University of Oslo, Norway Oslo University Hospital, Norway .
    Casale, T.B.
    ARIA, France .
    Cazzola, M.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Cepeda Sarabia, A.M.
    ARIA, France University of Simon Bolivar, Colombia Soc Latinoamer Allergia Asma and Immunol, Italy .
    Cesario, A.
    IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Italy .
    Chen, Y.Z.
    Peking and Centre Asthma Research and Educ, Peoples R China .
    Chkhartishvili, E.
    Grigol Robakidze University, Rep of Georgia .
    Chavannes, N.
    ARIA, France Int Primary Care Resp Grp, Netherlands Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Chiron, R.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France .
    Chuchalin, A.
    ARIA, France WHO, Russia Pulmonol Research Institute, Russia Russian Resp Soc, Russia .
    Chung, K.F.
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England Royal Brompton and Harefield NIHR Biomed Research Unit, England .
    Cox, L.
    ARIA, France Nova SE University, FL USA .
    Crooks, G.
    NHS Scotland, Scotland .
    G. Crooks, M.
    Hull York Medical Sch, England .
    A. Cruz, A.
    ARIA, France WHO, Russia University of Federal Bahia, Brazil CNPq, Brazil .
    Custovic, A.
    ARIA, France European Academic Allergy and Clin Immunol, France University of Manchester, England .
    Dahl, R.
    ARIA, France Odense University Hospital, Denmark Odense University Hospital, Denmark .
    E. Dahlen, S.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    De Blay, F.
    ARIA, France Soc Francaise Allergol, France Strasbourg University, France .
    Dedeu, T.
    European Regional and Health Author, Belgium .
    Deleanu, D.
    ARIA, France University of Medical and Pharm Iuliu Hatieganu, Romania .
    Demoly, P.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France ARIA, France European Academic Allergy and Clin Immunol, France European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    Devillier, P.
    ARIA, France University of Versailles St Quentin, France .
    Didier, A.
    Soc Pneumol Langue Francaise, France University of Toulouse, France .
    T. Dinh-Xuan, A.
    Paris Descartes University, France .
    Djukanovic, R.
    University of Southampton, England NIHR, England .
    Dokic, D.
    ARIA, France University of Ss Cyril and Methodius, Macedonia .
    Douagui, H.
    ARIA, France Centre Hospital University of Beni Messous, Algeria .
    Dubakiene, R.
    ARIA, France Lithuanian Soc Allergol and Clin Immunol, Lithuania Vilnius State University, Lithuania .
    Eglin, S.
    University of Liverpool, England .
    Elliot, F.
    NHS Scotland, Scotland .
    Emuzyte, R.
    ARIA, France Lithuanian Soc Allergol and Clin Immunol, Lithuania Vilnius State University, Lithuania .
    Fabbri, L.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy .
    Fink Wagner, A.
    Global Allergy and Asthma Patient Platform, Austria .
    Fletcher, M.
    WHO, Russia Educ Heatlh, England .
    Fokkens, W.J.
    ARIA, France University of Amsterdam, Netherlands European Rhinol Soc, Portugal .
    Fonseca, J.
    ARIA, France Portuguese National Programme Resp Disease, Portugal Porto Age Up Consortium, Portugal University of Porto, Portugal University of Porto, Portugal Institute and Hospital CUF Porto, Portugal .
    Franco, A.
    University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France .
    Frith, P.
    Repatriat Gen Hospital, Australia .
    Furber, A.
    Wakefield Council, England .
    Gaga, M.
    Athens Chest Hospital, Greece Athens Chest Hospital, Greece .
    Garces, J.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, Spain University of Valencia, Spain .
    Garcia-Aymerich, J.
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Gamkrelidze, A.
    ARIA, France National Centre Disease Control and Public Health Georgia, Rep of Georgia .
    Gonzales-Diaz, S.
    ARIA, France Soc Latinoamer Allergia Asma and Immunol, Italy .
    Gouzi, F.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France INSERM, France .
    A. Guzman, M.
    ARIA, France University of Chile, Chile .
    Haahtela, T.
    ARIA, France Helsinki University Hospital, Finland .
    Harrison, D.
    Public Health Blackburn Darwen, England .
    Hayot, M.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    G. Heaney, L.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland .
    Heinrich, J.
    MeDALL, Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy.
    Hellings, P. W.
    ARIA, France European Academic Allergy and Clin Immunol, France University Hospital Leuven, Belgium .
    Hooper, J.
    Public Health Kirklees, England .
    Humbert, M.
    Soc Pneumol Langue Francaise, France .
    Hyland, M.
    University of Plymouth, England .
    Iaccarino, G.
    University of Salerno, Italy IRCCS Multimed, Italy .
    Jakovenko, D.
    MACVIA LR, France .
    R. Jardim, J.
    University of Federal Sao Paulo, Brazil .
    Jeandel, C.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    Jenkins, C.
    George Institute Global Heatlh, Australia University of Sydney, Australia .
    L. Johnston, S.
    ARIA, France University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England .
    Jonquet, O.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    Joos, G.
    Ghent University Hospital, Belgium .
    S. Jung, K.
    Hallym University, South Korea .
    Kalayci, O.
    ARIA, France European Academic Allergy and Clin Immunol, France Hacettepe University, Turkey .
    Karunanithi, S.
    Director of Public Health, Lancashire, UK.
    Keil, T.
    Charite, Germany University of Wurzburg, Germany .
    Khaltaev, N.
    ARIA, France WHO, Russia .
    Kolek, V.
    Czech Alliance Against Chron Resp Disease, Poland .
    L. Kowalski, M.
    Medical University of Lodz, Poland .
    Kull, I.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Kuna, P.
    ARIA, France European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France WHO, Russia Medical University of Lodz, Poland .
    Kvedariene, V.
    ARIA, France European Academic Allergy and Clin Immunol, France Lithuanian Soc Allergol and Clin Immunol, Lithuania Vilnius State University, Lithuania .
    T. Le, L.
    ARIA, France WHO, Russia University of Medical and Pharm, Vietnam .
    C. Lodrup Carlsen, K.
    ARIA, France University of Oslo, Norway Oslo University Hospital, Norway .
    Louis, R.
    University of Liege, Belgium .
    MacNee, W.
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Mair, A.
    Scottish Govt, Scotland .
    Majer, I.
    University of Bratislava, Slovakia .
    Manning, P.
    Bon Secours Hospital, Ireland .
    de Manuel Keenoy, E.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France Kronikgune, Spain .
    R. Masjedi, M.
    Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Iran .
    Meten, E.
    ARIA, France Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Melo-Gomes, E.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France Portuguese National Programme Resp Disease, Portugal .
    Menzies-Gow, A.
    Royal Brompton Hospital, England .
    Mercier, G.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    Mercier, J.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    P. Michel, J.
    Geneva School Med, Switzerland University Hospital Geneva, Switzerland .
    Miculinic, N.
    University Hospital Pulm Disease, Croatia .
    Mihaltan, F.
    ARIA, France Institute Pneumol Marius Nasta, Romania .
    Milenkovic, B.
    University of Belgrade, Serbia COPD Serbia, Serbia .
    Molimard, M.
    Bordeaux University, France .
    Mamas, I.
    Paris Descartes University, France Paris Municipal, France .
    Montilla-Santana, A.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Hlthy Ageing, Spain .
    Morais-Almeida, M.
    Hospital CUF Descobertas, Portugal .
    Morgan, M.
    NHS England, England .
    NDiaye, M.
    Hop Polyclin Dakar IHS, Senegal .
    Nafti, S.
    ARIA, France Mustapha Hospital, Algeria .
    Nekam, K.
    ARIA, France Hospital Hospital Bros Buda, Hungary .
    Neou, A.
    Charite, Germany .
    Nicod, L.
    CHUV Lausanne, Switzerland .
    OHehir, R.
    ARIA, France Alfred Hospital, Australia Monash University, Australia .
    Ohta, K.
    ARIA, France Tokyo National Hospital, Japan Teikyo University, Japan .
    Paggiaro, P.
    University Hospital Pisa, Italy .
    Palkonen, S.
    ARIA, France .
    Palmer, S.
    University of York, England .
    Papadopoulos, N. G.
    ARIA, France European Academic Allergy and Clin Immunol, France University of Manchester, England University of Athens, Greece .
    Papi, A.
    University of Ferrara, Italy .
    Passalacqua, G.
    ARIA, France University of Genoa, Italy .
    Pavord, I.
    University of Oxford, England .
    Pigearias, B.
    SPLF, Espace francophone de Pneumologie.
    Plavec, D.
    University of JJ Strossmayer, Croatia .
    Postma, D. S.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands .
    Price, D.
    ARIA, France Int Primary Care Resp Grp, Netherlands University of Aberdeen, Scotland .
    Rabe, K. F.
    University of Kiel, Germany .
    Radier Pontal, F.
    MACVIA LR, France .
    Redon, J.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France University of Valencia, Spain .
    Rennard, S.
    University of Nebraska Medical Centre, NE USA .
    Roberts, J.
    Salford Royal NHS Fdn Trust, England .
    Robine, J. M.
    MACVIA LR, France INSERM, France .
    Roca, J.
    University of Barcelona, Spain CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Spain .
    Roche, N.
    University of Paris 05, France Soc Pneumol Langue Francaise, France .
    Rodenas, F.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, Spain University of Valencia, Spain .
    Roggeri, A.
    Arcispedale S Maria Nuova Hospital, Italy .
    Rolland, C.
    Assoc Asthme and Allergies, France .
    Rosado-Pinto, J.
    ARIA, France European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France Portuguese National Programme Resp Disease, Portugal WHO, Russia .
    Ryan, D.
    ARIA, France Int Primary Care Resp Grp, Netherlands Woodbrook Medical Centre, England University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Samolinski, B.
    European Innovat Partnership Act and Health Ageing, France Medical University of Lodz, Poland Medical University of Warsaw, Poland .
    Sanchez-Borges, M.
    Centre Medical Docente La Trinidad, Venezuela .
    Schunemann, H. J.
    McMaster University, Canada McMaster University, Canada .
    Sheikh, A.
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland Harvard University, MA 02115 USA .
    Shields, M.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland Royal Belfast Hospital Sick Children, North Ireland .
    Siafakas, N.
    University Hospital Heraklion, Greece .
    Sibille, Y.
    Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium .
    Similowski, T.
    University of Paris 06, France INSERM, France Grp Hospital Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix, France Fonds Dotat Rech Sante Resp Fdn Souffle, France .
    Small, I.
    National Advisory Group, Respiratory Managed Clinical Networks in Scotland.
    Sola-Morales, O.
    Health Institute Technology Transfer, Spain .
    Sooronbaev, T.
    ARIA, France WHO, Russia EuroAsian Resp Soc, Kyrgyzstan National Centre Cardiol and Internal Med, Kyrgyzstan .
    Stelmach, R.
    University of Sao Paulo, Brazil .
    Sterk, P. J.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Stiris, T.
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Sud, P.
    Regional Medical Manager (North), NHS England, UK.
    Tellier, V.
    Observatoire wallon de la santé, Direction générale opérationnelle Pouvoirs locaux, action sociale et Santé, Service public de Wallonie, Belgium .
    To, T.
    WHO, Russia .
    Todo-Bom, A.
    Coimbra University Hospital, Portugal .
    Triggiani, M.
    University of Salerno, Italy .
    Valenta, R.
    ARIA, France Medical University of Vienna, Austria .
    Valero, A. L.
    University of Barcelona, Spain CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Spain .
    Valiulis, A.
    ARIA, France Lithuanian Soc Allergol and Clin Immunol, Lithuania Vilnius State University, Lithuania .
    Valovirta, E.
    University of Turku, Finland .
    Van Ganse, E.
    CHU Lyon, France CHU Lyon, France University of Lyon 1, France .
    Vandenplas, O.
    ARIA, France INSERM, France .
    Vasankari, T.
    FILHA, Finnish Lung Association.
    Vestbo, J.
    University of Manchester, England Odense University Hospital, Denmark .
    Vezzani, G.
    Arcispedale S Maria Nuova IRCCS, Italy .
    Viegi, G.
    CNR, Italy CNR, Italy Clin Physiol IFC, Italy .
    Visier, L.
    University Hospital Montpellier, France MACVIA LR, France University of Montpellier I, France .
    Vogelmeier, C.
    University of Marburg, Germany .
    Vontetsianos, T.
    Sotiria Hospital, Greece .
    Wagstaff, R.
    Cumbria County Council, PA USA .
    Wahn, U.
    Charite, Germany .
    Wallaert, B.
    Soc Francaise Allergol, France CHRU, France .
    Whalley, B.
    University of Plymouth, England .
    Wickman, M.
    ARIA, France Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    M. Williams, D.
    University of N Carolina, NC USA .
    Wilson, N.
    North England EU Health Partnership, Belgium .
    Yawn, B. P.
    ARIA, France Olmsted Medical Centre, MN USA University of Minnesota, MN USA .
    Yiallouros, P.K.
    ARIA, France Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus .
    Yorgancioglu, A.
    ARIA, France .
    Yusuf, O. M.
    WHO, Russia Allergy and Asthma Institute, Pakistan .
    Zar, H. J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa .
    Zhong, N.
    Guangzhou Medical University, Peoples R China Guangzhou Medical University, Peoples R China .
    Zidarn, M.
    ARIA, France University of Clin Resp and Allerg Disease, Slovenia .
    Zuberbier, T.
    Charite, Germany .
    Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)2014In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 304-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5) proposing a common simulation tool to assist physicians; and 6) ultimately reducing the healthcare burden (emergency visits, avoidable hospitalisations, disability and costs) while improving quality of life. In the longer term, the incidence of disease may be reduced by innovative prevention strategies. AIRWAYS-ICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers).

  • 2.
    Butler, C.C.
    et al.
    Cardiff University.
    Kelly, M.J.
    Cardiff University.
    Hood, K.
    Cardiff University.
    Schaberg, T.
    Deaconess Hospital Rotenburg.
    Melbye, H.
    University of Tromso.
    Serra-Prat, M.
    Hospital Mataro.
    Blasi, F.
    University of Milan.
    Little, P.
    University of Southampton.
    Verheij, T.
    University Medical Centre Utrecht.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Godycki-Cwirko, M.
    Medical University of Lodz.
    Edwards, P.
    Ely Bridge Surgery.
    Almirall, J.
    Hospital Mataro.
    Torres, A.
    University Barcelona.
    Rautakorpi, U-M.
    Natl Institute Hlth and Welf THL.
    Nuttall, J.
    Cardiff University.
    Goossens, H.
    University of Antwerp.
    Coenen, S.
    University of Antwerp.
    Antibiotic prescribing for discoloured sputum in acute cough/lower respiratory tract infection2011In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether discoloured sputum and feeling unwell were associated with antibiotic prescription and benefit from antibiotic treatment for acute cough/lower respiratory tract infection (LTRI) in a prospective study of 3,402 adults in 13 countries. A two-level model investigated the association between producing discoloured sputum or feeling generally unwell and an antibiotic prescription. A three-level model investigated the association between an antibiotic prescription and symptom resolution. Patients producing discoloured sputum were prescribed antibiotics more frequently than those not producing sputum (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.1-5.0), unlike those producing clear/white sputum (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.61-1.48). Antibiotic prescription was not associated with a greater rate or magnitude of symptom score resolution (as measured by a 13-item questionnaire completed by patients each day) among those who: produced yellow (coefficient 0.00; p=0.68) or green (coefficient -0.01; p=0.11) sputum; reported any of three categories of feeling unwell; or produced discoloured sputum and felt generally unwell (coefficient -0.01; p=0.19). Adults with acute cough/LRTI presenting in primary care settings with discoloured sputum were prescribed antibiotics more often compared to those not producing sputum. Sputum colour, alone or together with feeling generally unwell, was not associated with recovery or benefit from antibiotic treatment.

  • 3.
    Chesov, Dumitru
    et al.
    State University of Medical and Pharm Nicolae Testemitanu, Moldova.
    Ciobanu, Nelly
    Phthisiopneumol Institute Chiril Draganiuc, Moldova.
    Lange, Christoph
    German Centre Infect Research DZIF, Germany; University of Lubeck, Germany; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Heyckendorf, Jan
    German Centre Infect Research DZIF, Germany.
    Crudu, Valeriu
    Phthisiopneumol Institute Chiril Draganiuc, Moldova.
    Lack of evidence of isoniazid efficacy for the treatment of MDR/XDR-TB in the presence of the katG 315T mutation2017In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 50, no 4, article id 1701752Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 4. Ellwood, P
    et al.
    Asher, MI
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Burr, M
    Pearce, N
    Robertsson, N
    Diet and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema symptom prevalence: An ecological analysis of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).2001In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 17, p. 436-443Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Kallen, Bengt
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Letter: The term asthma" should be avoided in describing the chronic pulmonary disease of prematurity2013In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1431-1431Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6. Haahtela, T
    et al.
    Tamminen, K
    Malmberg, LP
    Zetterström, Olle
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Allergy Centre. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Allergy Centre UHL.
    Karjalainen, J
    Ylä-Outinen, H
    Svahn, T
    Ekström, T
    Selroos, O
    Formoterol as needed with or without budesonide in patients with intermittent asthma and raised NO levels in exhaled air: A SOMA study2006In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 748-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with mild intermittent asthma sometimes show signs of inflammation, and guidelines suggesting bronchodilator therapy alone as needed may be questioned. The current study compared as-needed use of a rapid-acting β2-agonist with as-needed use of a β2-agonist and corticosterold combination as the only medication in asthma patients with intermittent symptoms. A total of 92 nonsmoking asthma patients (of 187 screened) using only an inhaled β2-agonist as needed (28 males, 64 females, mean age 37 yrs, mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 101% predicted, mean reversibility 6.5% pred and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) ≥20 parts per billion (ppb)) were randomised to treatment with formoterol (Oxis® Turbuhaler®) 4.5 μg as needed (n=47) or budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort® Turbuhaler®) 160/4.5 pg as needed (n=45) in a double-blind, parallel-group 24-week study. The primary variable of efficacy was change in FeNO. Baseline FeNO was 60 ppb and 59 ppb in the budesonide/formoterol and formoterol groups, respectively. Mean reductions in FeNO in the budesonide/formoterol and formoterol groups were 18.2 ppb and 2.8 ppb, respectively (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5-23.5 ppb). The reduction in the budesonide/formoterol group occurred during the first 4 weeks of treatment and remained at this low level. Mean FEV1 increased by 1.8% pred normal value in the budesonide/formoterol group and decreased by 0.9% pred normal value in the formoterol group (95% Cl -4.7 - -0.7). In the budesonide/formoterol group, use of ≥4 inhalations-day-1 of study medication was seen on 21 treatment days compared with 74 in the formoterol group. In conclusion, as-needed use of an inhaled corticosteroid together with a rapid-acting bronchodilator may be more beneficial than a β2-agonist alone in patients with intermittent asthma and signs of airway inflammation. The long-term benefits are unknown. Copyright © ERS Journals Ltd 2006.

  • 7.
    Kallen, Bengt
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Nygren, Karl-Gosta
    IVF and Fertil Clin, Sweden .
    Otterblad Olausson, Petra
    National Board Health and Welf, Sweden .
    Association between preterm birth and intrauterine growth retardation and child asthma2013In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 671-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An association between preterm birth and an increased risk of childhood asthma has been demonstrated, but the importance of intrauterine growth retardation on asthma risk is unclear. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanUsing data from Swedish health registers, infant characteristics and childhood asthma were studied. Analyses were made using Mantel-Haenszel methodology with adjustment for year of birth, maternal age, parity, smoking in early pregnancy and maternal body mass index. Preterm birth, birth weight and birth weight for gestational week were analysed and childhood asthma was evaluated from prescriptions of anti-asthmatic drugs. Neonatal respiratory problems and treatment for them were studied as mediating factors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanBoth short gestational duration and intrauterine growth retardation appeared to be risk factors and seemed to act separately. The largest effect was seen from short gestational duration. Use of mechanical ventilation in the newborn period and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were strong risk factors. A moderately increased risk was also seen in infants born large for gestational age. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe conclude that preterm birth is a stronger risk factor for childhood asthma than intrauterine growth disturbances; however, the latter also affects the risk, and is also seen in infants born at term.

  • 8.
    Lindbom, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expression of members of the phospholipase A2 family of enzymes in human nasal mucosa2001In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a family of enzymes thought to play a key role in inflammation by releasing arachidonic acid for the synthesis of eicosanoids and lysophospholipid for the synthesis of platelet-activating factor. However, the precise contribution of different PLA2 types to the formation of inflammatory lipid mediators in the upper airways is not known and the expression of different PLA2 genes in the human nasal mucosa has not been examined.

    This study therefore investigated the occurrence of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) for different PLA2 forms (IB, IIA, IID, IIE, III, IVA, IVB, IVC, V, VI, VII, X, acid calcium-independent (aiPLA2), and calcium-independent membrane bound PLA2, (iPLA2-2)) in the nasal mucosa of five healthy human subjects.

    Using reversed transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques it was found that all these PLA2 types except PLA2 V were expressed in all subjects, whereas PLA2 V was detected in only one individual on one single occasion. The relative abundance of the different PLA2 transcripts were aiPLA2>X≈IVA>IIA≈IIE≈IVB≈VI>IB≈IID≈III≈IVC≈VII≈iPLA2-2. To further quantify the mRNA-expression of PLA2 X, IVA and IIA, the samples were reanalysed with a quantitative PCR-technique utilizing competitive deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mimics as references. The amounts of PLA2 X, IVA and IIA mRNA were then estimated to 0.9±0.2, 1.1±0.7, and 0.0025±0.0021 amol (mean±se), respectively, confirming the relative abundance of these PLA2 transcripts and indicating that the recently described PLA2 X form is relatively strongly expressed.

    These findings demonstrate that a large number of PLA2 types are expressed in the normal human nasal mucosa. Moreover, this investigation demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of the newly discovered phospholipase A2 forms IID, IIE, III, IVB, IVC, X and calcium-independent membrane bound phospholipase A2 in the human nasal mucosa and raises the possibility that one or several of these may be involved in inflammatory reactions in the nose.

  • 9. Pearce, N
    et al.
    Sunyer, J
    Cheng, S
    Chinn, S
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Burr, M
    Keil, U
    Anderson, R
    Burney, P
    Comparison of asthma prevalence in the ISAAC and the ECRHS.2000In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 16, p. 420-426Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Riikjarv, M.-A.
    et al.
    Riikjärv, M.-A., Tallinn Children's Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Annus, T.
    Tallinn Children's Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Braback, L.
    Bråbäck, L., Dept. of Paediatrics, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahu, K.
    Dept. of Epidemiol. and Biostatist., Inst. of Exp. and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Similar prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopy in estonian schoolchildren with changing lifestyle over 4 yrs2000In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 86-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of allergic sensitization and clinical manifestations is low in Eastern Europe, despite a continuous increase in industrialized countries with a market economy. The aim of the present study was to study changes in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitization over time among schoolchildren in Estonia, in relation to environmental changes as the country transformed into a market economy. A cross-sectional study of 10-yr-old children was carried out between October 1996 and April 1997, employing a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of wheezing, rhinitis and itching rash (n=979) and skin-prick tests with seven inhalant allergens (n=640). The results were compared with those of a similar study performed in 19921993. The 12-month prevalence of wheeze was 8.3%, as compared to 9.4% in 1992-1993 (NS) and of asthma was 2.5 versus 3.2% (NS). The prevalence of a positive skin-prick test result was 14.3% in both studies. Furthermore, the prevalence of sensitivity to the individual allergens was similar, except for a significantly higher prevalence of dog sensitivity in 1996-1997 (4.7 versus 2.0%). The prevalence of respiratory and other potentially allergic symptoms, as well as the prevalence of atopic sensitization, remains low in Estonian 10-yr-old children, despite a changing lifestyle over the past 4 yrs. This could indicate that the time period was too short for environmental changes to affect the prevalence of allergy, or alternatively that risk factors associated with a 'western lifestyle' are of particular significance earlier in life. (C)ERS Journals Ltd 2000.

  • 11.
    Sahlin, C.
    et al.
    Dept. of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology .
    Stenlund, H.
    Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
    Franklin, K.A.
    Dept. of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
    Cheyne-stokes respiration and supine dependency2005In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 829-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of position during sleep on central apnoeas during Cheyne-Stokes respiration has not previously been studied systematically. The current authors aimed to study the effect of body position and sleep stages on central sleep apnoeas during Cheyne-Stokes respiration. A total of 20 consecutive patients with cardiovascular diseases and central sleep apnoea during Cheyne-Stokes respiration were investigated using nocturnal polysomnography, including a body position sensor mounted on the patient's sternum. The mean central apnoea-hypopnoea index was significantly higher in the supine position than in nonsupine positions (41±13 versus 26±12). The central apnoea-hypopnoea index was highest in sleep stages 1 and 2, and lowest in slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. In every sleep stage, central apnoeas and hypopnoeas were more prevalent in the supine position compared with nonsupine positions. In conclusion, sleep in the supine body position increases the frequency of apnoeas and hypopnoeas in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Copyright©ERS Journals Ltd 2005.

  • 12.
    Schmekel, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rydberg, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Norlander, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Naidu Sjöswärd, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of S-salbutamol after administration of the racemate in healthy volunteers1999In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1230-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Racemic R,S-salbutamol is taken to relieve bronchial constriction. Only the R-enantiomer has bronchodilating properties. The S-enantiomer has been proposed to cause in vitro bronchial hyperreactivity in guinea-pigs. Stereoselective elimination of salbutamol has been shown, with S-salbutamol being eliminated at a slower rate than R-salbutamol. This study questioned whether rates of stereoselective elimination were similar after oral or lung delivery, and whether the S:R ratio would increase after repeated inhalations in a situation resembling a common clinical use. Eighteen healthy volunteers received single-dose racemic salbutamol as a solution instilled in the trachea during anaesthesia, as inhaled micronized powder and/or as ingested tablets. Five volunteers inhaled repeated doses of racemic salbutamol. Concentrations in plasma and urine were measured using a technique which allowed chiral separation of samples with concentrations as low as 0.1 ng·mL -1. The bioavailability of S-salbutamol was significantly higher than that of R-salbutamol after the different modes of administration. Stereoselective elimination was more pronounced after oral administration than after inhalation. Repeated inhalations resulted in successive increases in the S:R ratio as steady state was approached. In conclusion, the clinical consequences of increasing plasma concentrations of S-salbutamol need to be further assessed.

  • 13.
    Schön, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elias, D.
    Microbiology and Tumour Biology Centre, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden and Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), Addis Ababa.
    Moges, F.
    Gondar College of Medical Sciences (GCMS), Gondar, Ethiopia .
    Melese, E.
    Gondar College of Medical Sciences (GCMS), Gondar, Ethiopia .
    Tessema, T.
    Gondar College of Medical Sciences (GCMS), Gondar, Ethiopia .
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Britton, Sven
    Dept of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arginine as an adjuvant to chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in active tuberculosis2003In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 483-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB). Patients with TB exhibit increased catabolism and reduced energy intake. Thus the hypothesis for this study was that restoring a relative deficiency in the amino acid arginine, the substrate for mycobactericidal NO production, would improve the clinical outcome of TB by increasing NO production.

    In a randomised double-blind study, patients with smear-positive TB (n=120) were given arginine or placebo for 4 weeks in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Primary outcomes were sputum conversion, weight gain, and clinical symptoms after week 8. Secondary outcomes were sedimentation rate and levels of NO metabolites, arginine, citrulline, and tumour necrosis factor‐α.

    Compared with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)−/TB+ placebo group, the HIV−/TB+ patients in the arginine group showed significant improvement, defined as increased weight gain, higher sputum conversion rate and faster reduction of symptoms, such as cough. The arginine level increased after week 2 in the HIV−/TB+ arginine group (100.2 µM (range 90.5–109.9) versus 142.1 µM (range 114.1–170.1)) compared with the HIV−/TB+ placebo group (105.5 µM (range 93.7–117.3) versus 95.7 µM (range 82.4–108.9)). HIV seroprevalence was 52.5%. No clinical improvement or increase in serum arginine was detected in arginine supplemented HIV+/TB+ patients compared with placebo.

    Arginine is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with active tuberculosis, most likely mediated by increased production of nitric oxide.

  • 14.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Korsgaard, J
    Aarhus University Hospital.
    Olcén, Per
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Evaluation of a multiplex PCR for bacterial pathogens applied to bronchoalveolar lavage.2006In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 28, p. 568-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study assessed the diagnostic usefulness of a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).

    Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed on 156 hospitalised adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 36 controls. BAL fluid was analysed with bacterial culture and mPCR.

    By conventional diagnostic methods, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were aetiological agents in 14, 21, 3.2 and 0% of the LRTI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by BAL mPCR in 28, 47, 3.2 and 0.6% of cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities of 86% for S. pneumoniae, 88% for H. influenzae, 100% for M. pneumoniae and 0% for C. pneumoniae, and specificities of 81, 64, 100 and 99% for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae, respectively. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to bronchoscopy, S. pneumoniae was identified by culture in 2.9% and by mPCR in 31%. Among the controls, mPCR identified S. pneumoniae in 11% and H. influenzae in 39%.

    In lower respiratory tract infection patients, bronchoalveolar lavage multiplex PCR can be useful for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. The method appears to be particularly useful in patients treated with antibiotics.

     

  • 15.
    Torres, Antoni
    et al.
    University of Barcelona, Spain; CIBERES, Spain.
    Niederman, Michael S.
    Weill Cornell Med, NY USA.
    Chastre, Jean
    Grp Hospital Pitie Salpetriere, France.
    Ewig, Santiago
    Evangel Hospital Herne, Germany; Augusta Hospital Bochum, Germany.
    Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia
    CIBERES, Spain.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Kollef, Marin
    Washington University, MO USA.
    Li Bassi, Gianluigi
    University of Barcelona, Spain; CIBERES, Spain.
    Luna, Carlos M.
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland; CIBERES, Spain.
    Artur Paiva, J.
    University of Porto, Portugal; University of Porto, Portugal.
    Read, Robert C.
    University of Southampton, England; University of Southampton, England; University of Southampton, England.
    Rigau, David
    Iberoamer Cochrane Centre, Spain.
    Francois Timsit, Jean
    Paris Diderot University, France; Hop Xavier Bichat, France.
    Welte, Tobias
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany; German Centre Lung Research DZL, Germany.
    Wunderink, Richard
    Northwestern University, IL 60611 USA.
    International ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/ALAT guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia2017In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 50, no 3, article id 1700582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most recent European guidelines and task force reports on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were published almost 10 years ago. Since then, further randomised clinical trials of HAP and VAP have been conducted and new information has become available. Studies of epidemiology, diagnosis, empiric treatment, response to treatment, new antibiotics or new forms of antibiotic administration and disease prevention have changed old paradigms. In addition, important differences between approaches in Europe and the USA have become apparent. The European Respiratory Society launched a project to develop new international guidelines for HAP and VAP. Other European societies, including the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, were invited to participate and appointed their representatives. The Latin American Thoracic Association was also invited. A total of 15 experts and two methodologists made up the panel. Three experts from the USA were also invited (Michael S. Niederman, Marin Kollef and Richard Wunderink). Applying the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology, the panel selected seven PICO (population-intervention-comparison-outcome) questions that generated a series of recommendations for HAP/VAP diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-10 10:35
  • 16.
    Zetterström, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Allergy Centre UHL.
    Buhl, R
    Mellem, H
    Perpina, M
    Hedman, J
    O'Neill, S
    Ekström, T
    Improved asthma control with budesonide/formeterol in a single inhaler, compared with budesonide alone2001In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 262-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler was compared with budesonide alone, and with concurrent administration of budesonide and formoterol from separate inhalers, in patients with asthma, not controlled with inhaled glucocorticosteroids alone. In this 12-week, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy study, 362 adult asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second 73.8% of predicted, inhaled glucocorticosteroid dose 960 ╡g╖day-1) received single inhaler budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort « Turbuhaler «) 160/4.5 ╡g, two inhalations b.i.d., or corresponding treatment with budesonide, or budesonide plus formoterol via separate inhalers. There was a greater increase in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) with single-inhaler (35.7 L╖min-1) and separate-inhaler (32.0 L╖min-1) budesonide and formoterol, compared with budesonide alone (0.2 L╖min-1, p<0.001, both comparisons), the effect was apparent after 1 day (p<0.001 versus budesonide, both comparisons). Similarly, evening PEF, use of rescue medication, total asthma symptom scores and percentage of symptom-free days improved more with both single inhaler and separate inhaler therapy than with budesonide alone, as did asthma control days (~15% more, p<0.001 versus budesonide, both comparisons, with a marked increase in the first week). All treatments were well tolerated and the adverse event profile was similar in all three treatment groups. It is concluded that single inhaler therapy with budesonide and formoterol is a clinically effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with asthma that is not fully controlled by inhaled glucocorticosteroids alone.

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