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  • 1.
    Forsberg, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zheng, Limin
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tumour necrosis factor-α potentiates CR3-induced respiratory burst by activating p38 MAP kinase in human neutrophils2001In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 465-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CR3 and FcγRs are the main receptors involved in the phagocytic process leading to engulfment and killing of microbes by production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and degranulation. Various inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are known to prime neutrophils leading to increased bactericidal responses, but the underlying mechanism of priming has only been partially elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate how TNF-α primes neutrophils for subsequent stimuli via either CR3 or FcγR. The receptors were specifically activated with pansorbins (protein-A-positive Staphylococcus aureus) coated with anti-CR3, anti-FcγRIIa, or anti-FcγRIIIb monoclonal antibody. Activation of neutrophils with these particles resulted in ROI production as measured by chemiluminescence. Anti-CR3 pansorbins induced the most prominent ROI production in neutrophils. TNF-α potentiated the CR3-mediated respiratory burst but had little effect on that mediated by FcγRs. The priming effect of TNF-α on CR3-mediated ROI production is associated with an increased activation of p38 MAPK as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk. Pretreatment of neutrophils with the inhibitors for p38 MAPK and p72syk markedly suppressed the respiratory burst induced by CR3. Furthermore, TNF-α induced about a three-fold increase in the expression of CR3 in neutrophils, an effect which is blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor. Taken together, these results showed that TNF-α potentiates the CR3-mediated respiratory burst in neutrophils not only by triggering a p38 MAPK-dependent up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 but also by modulating the signalling pathways.

  • 2.
    Luetragoon, Thitiya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden; Department of Medical Technology, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand.
    Rutqvist, Lars E.
    Swedish Match AB, Sweden.
    Tangvarasittichai, Orathai
    Naresuan Univ, Thailand.
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Hosp, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Ryhov Hosp, Sweden.
    Usuwanthim, Kanchana
    Naresuan Univ, Thailand.
    Lewin, Nongnit
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Hosp, Sweden.
    Interaction among smoking status, single nucleotide polymorphisms and markers of systemic inflammation in healthy individuals2018In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 154, no 1, p. 98-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cigarette smoke contains toxic and carcinogenic substances that contribute to the development of cancer and various diseases. Genetic variation might be important, because not all smokers develop smoking-related disease. The current study addressed the possible interactions among selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to systemic inflammation, smoking status, the levels of circulating immune response cells and plasma biomarkers of systemic inflammation. Sixty-four healthy blood donors were recruited, 31 of whom were current smokers and 33 were never-users of tobacco products, references. Compared to references, the smokers showed significantly increased levels of circulating total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils and C-reactive protein (CRP). Smokers also more frequently exhibited circulating cell phenotypes that are associated with an immunocompromised state: CD8(dim) cells in the lymphocyte group, CD13(+)CD11(+), CD13(+)CD14(+), CD13(+)CD56(+) cells in the monocyte group and CD13(+)CD11(+), CD13(+)CD56(+) cells in the neutrophil group. We observed an interaction among SNPs, smoking status and some of the studied biomarkers. The average plasma CRP level was significantly higher among the smokers, with the highest level found among those with the CRP rs1800947 CC genotype. Additionally, an increased CD8(+)GZB(+) cells in the CD8(dim) group were found among smokers with the GZB rs8192917 AA genotype. Thus, smoking appears to be associated with systemic inflammation and increased levels of circulating immunosuppressive cells. The extent of these effects was associated with SNPs among the smokers. This observation may contribute to a better understanding of the genetic susceptibility of smoking-related disease and the variations observed in clinical outcomes.

  • 3.
    Luopajärvi, Kristiina
    et al.
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Skarsvik, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ilonen, Jorma
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio and Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Åkerblom, Hans
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reduced CCR4, interleukin-13 and GATA-3 up-regulation in response to type 2 cytokines of cord blood T lymphocytes in infants at genetic risk of type 1 diabetes2007In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 189-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aberrancies in T-cell polarization including expression of chemokine receptors have been reported in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II associated autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) and rheumatoid arthritis. We asked whether these aberrancies are present at birth in newborn infants carrying the HLA risk haplotypes for T1D. Sixty-seven cord blood (CB) samples from infants were screened for T1D-associated HLA risk genotypes (HLA-DR4-DQ8 and/or DR3-DQ2 without protective alleles). CB lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin in type 1 (interleukin (IL)-12, anti-IL4) or type 2 (IL-4, anti-IL12) cytokine environment for 6 days. The expression of chemokine and cytokine receptors on T cells was determined by flow cytometry, secretion of cytokines was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and transcription factors were analysed using real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. After culture of CB lymphocytes in type 2 cytokine environment newborn infants carrying DR4-DQ8 haplotype (n = 18) showed reduced percentage of CD4 T cells expressing CCR4 (P = 0·009) and the level of CCR4 mRNA was decreased (P = 0·008). In addition, lower secretion of IL-13 and expression of GATA-3 in CB lymphocytes cultured in type 2 cytokine environment were found in the infants with DR4-DQ8 haplotype (P = 0·020 and P = 0·004, respectively) in comparison to newborn infants without DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2 haplotypes (n = 37). Poor in vitro induction of type 2 immune responses in newborn infants with DR4-DQ8 haplotype suggests that the HLA genotype associated with risk of autoimmunity may affect the T cell polarization already at birth, which in turn may contribute to the risk for autoimmunity later in life.

  • 4.
    Mjösberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology.
    CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in human pregnancy: Development of a Treg-MLC-ELISPOT suppression assay and indications of paternal specific Tregs2007In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 120, no 4, p. 456-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study was aimed at developing a one-way mixed leucocyte culture-enzyme-linked immunospot (MLC-ELISPOT) assay for the study of CD4 + CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and applying this method in the study of antifetal immune reactions during human pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women and the corresponding fathers-to-be, and 10 non-pregnant control women and men, participated in the study. CD4+ CD25+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by immunomagnetic selection. Maternal/control PBMC were stimulated with paternal or unrelated PBMC in MLC. Secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from responder cells, with or without the presence of autologous Treg cells, was analysed by ELISPOT. PBMC from pregnant women showed increased secretion of IL-4 compared to controls. In pregnant and non-pregnant controls, Treg cells suppressed IFN-γ reactivity against paternal and unrelated alloantigens. Interestingly, T reg cells suppressed IL-4 secretion against paternal but not unrelated alloantigens during pregnancy. We have successfully developed a model for studying Treg cells in antifetal cytokine reactions during pregnancy. Results indicate that Treg cells contribute to strict regulation of both T helper type 1-like and type 2-like antifetal immune reactions. Interestingly, T helper type 2-like cells specific to unrelated alloantigens are able to escape the suppression of Treg cells, which would allow for IL-4, alongside CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, to control potentially detrimental IFN-γ reactions during pregnancy. © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 5.
    Skarsvik, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aberrant regulation of interleukin-12 receptor β2 chain on type 1 cytokine-stimulated T lymphocytes in type 1 diabetes2005In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 287-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aberrant mitogen-induced polarization of peripheral blood T cells has been associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We studied, in T1D, type 1 and 2 cytokine-induced expression of the interleukin-12 receptor β2 chain (IL-12Rβ2 chain), which plays a critical role in regulating T-cell polarization. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with newly diagnosed T1D (n = 10; mean age 10 years), from children with longstanding T1D (n = 8; mean age 12·9 years) and from healthy children (n = 15; mean age 11·5 years) were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in a type 1 (IL-12 and anti-IL-4) or a type 2 (IL-4 and anti-IL-12) cytokine environment. Secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-5 and IL-13, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and expression of the IL-12Rβ2 chain on CD4 and CD8 cells by flow cytometry, were analysed. Children with newly diagnosed and longstanding T1D had lower expression levels of the IL-12Rβ2 chain on IL-12Rβ2 chain-positive CD4 T cells (for a type 1 or a type 2 cytokine environment: P = 0·01 and P = 0·002 or P = 0·02 and P = 0·01, respectively) and on IL-12Rβ2 chain-positive CD8 T cells (for a type 1 or a type 2 cytokine environment: P = 0·007 and P = 0·0007 or P = 0·003 and P = 0·01, respectively) when compared to healthy children. A decreased percentage of IL-12Rβ2 chain-expressing CD4 T cells (P = 0·07 and P = 0·03) and CD8 T cells (P = 0·004 and P = 0·01) and increased secretion of IL-13 (P = 0·006 and P = 0·04) in a type 1 cytokine environment was seen in both groups of patients. Peripheral blood T cells from patients with both newly diagnosed and longstanding T1D showed poor polarization towards type 1 cells.

  • 6. Tedla, N
    et al.
    Glaros, EN
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Jessup, W
    Garner, B
    Heterogeneous expression of apolipoprotein-E by human macrophages2004In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 338-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apolipoprotein-E (apoE) is expressed at high levels by macrophages. In addition to its role in lipid transport, macrophage-derived apoE plays an important role in immunoregulation. Previous studies have identified macrophage subpopulations that differ substantially in their ability to synthesize specific cytokines and enzymes, however, potential heterogeneous macrophage apoE expression has not been studied. Here we examined apoE expression in human THP-1 macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry methods we reveal a striking heterogeneity in macrophage apoE expression in both cell types. In phorbol-ester-differentiated THP-1 macrophages, 5% of the cells over-expressed apoE at levels more than 50-fold higher than the rest of the population. ApoE over-expressing THP-1 macrophages contained condensed/fragmented nuclei and increased levels of activated caspase-3 indicating induction of apoptosis. In MDM, 3-5% of the cells also highly over-expressed apoE, up to 50-fold higher than the rest of the population, however, this was not associated with obvious nuclear alterations. The apoE over-expressing MDM were larger, more granular, and more autofluorescent than the majority of cells and they contained numerous vesicle-like structures that appeared to be coated by apoE. Flow cytometry experiments indicated that the apoE over-expressing subpopulation of MDM were positive for CD14, CD11b/Mac-1 and CD68. These observations suggest that specific macrophage subpopulations may be important for apoE-mediated immunoregulation and clearly indicate that subpopulation heterogeneity should be taken into account when investigating macrophage apoE expression.

  • 7.
    Widhe, Mona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Grusell, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cytokines in Lyme borreliosis: lack of early tumour necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 responses are associated with chronic neuroborreliosis2002In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical outcome of the tick born infection Lyme borreliosis seems to be influenced by the type of immune response mounted during the disease, as suggested by various animal models. Here we report the serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in samples drawn at different disease intervals during the course of non-chronic neuroborreliosis (n=10), chronic neuroborreliosis (n=15), erythema migrans (n=8, serum only) and controls (n=7). When comparing early neuroborreliosis cerebrospinal fluid samples, significantly higher levels of TNF-α were found in non-chronic patients than in chronic patients (P<0·05). Moreover, TGF-β1 was increased in the early serum samples of non-chronic patients, as compared to chronic patients (P<0·01). Elevated serum levels of TGF-β1 were also found in erythema migrans as compared to neuroborreliosis and controls (P<0·05). The high TNF-α levels noted in early cerebrospinal fluid samples of non-chronic patients only, possibly reflects an ongoing pro-inflammatory immune response in the central nervous system, which could be beneficial in eliminating disease. High serum levels of TGF-β1 probably mirror an anti-inflammatory response, which might play a role in controlling the systemic immune response.

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