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  • 1.
    Aniansson Zdolsek, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Holt, Patrick G.
    TVW Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Perth, Australia.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Cellbiologi.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Expression of the T–cell markers CD3, CD4 and CD8 in healthy and atopic Children during the first 18 months of life1999Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 6-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is little information available about the development of T–cell immunity in healthy and atopic children. We have studied prospectively the mean fluorescence intensity of the T–cell receptor complex–associated CD3, CD4 and CD8 in relation to atopic family history (AFH) and the development of atopic disease.

    Methods: Children with a defined AFH (n = 172) were followed from birth to 18 months and the cumulative history of atopic disease was recorded. Blood samples were obtained at birth and at 18 months, and in a subgroup of 78 children also at 3, 6 and 12 months. Multicolour flow cytometry was used to analyse pan T–cells (CD3+CD45+CD14–), T–helper–(CD3+CD4+) and T–cytotoxic–(CD3+CD8+) cells.

    Results: At 18 months, 31 children were atopic and 118 non–atopic. Children who developed atopic disease had a higher CD4 expression (mean fluorescence intensity, MFI) on CD4+CD3+ lymphocytes at birth and at 3 months, particularly as compared with non–atopic children without AFH. Furthermore, the CD3 expression on CD3+CD45+CD14– lymphocytes increased more slowly with age in children with double atopic heredity, as compared with children with no or only one atopic family member.

    Conclusions: The higher expression of the CD4 receptor in early infancy in children who developed atopic disease compared with non–atopics suggests a delayed expression in T–helper cells. Children with a strong AFH had a slower increase in the expression of CD3, indicating a delayed T–cell maturation.

  • 2.
    Benson, Mikael
    et al.
    Malmö University Hospital and Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wennergren, Göran
    Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fransson, Mattias
    Malmö University Hospital,Sweden.
    Cardell, Lars Olaf
    Malmö University Hospital, Sweden.
    Altered levels of the soluble IL-1, IL-4 and TNF receptors, as well as the IL-1 receptor antagonist, in intermittent allergic rhinitis2004Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 134, nr 3, s. 227-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of cytokines are modulated by soluble cytokine receptors (SCR) and receptor antagonists. Therefore, allergic disease may depend on altered proportions between cytokines, their SCR and receptor antagonists, rather than absolute changes in cytokine levels. Little is known about SCR in intermittent allergic rhinitis (IAR).

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the concentrations of SCR, i.e. sIL-1R2, sIL-4R, sIL-6R and sTNFR1, as well as the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in nasal fluids from allergen-challenged patients with IAR and healthy controls.

    METHODS: 30 patients with birch- or grass-pollen-induced IAR and 30 healthy controls were studied. In the patients nasal fluids were obtained before as well as 1 and 6 h after allergen provocation.

    RESULTS: Both symptom scores and rhinoscopic signs of rhinitis increased in the patients after allergen challenge. Comparisons between patients and controls showed that sIL-4R was lower in patients before and 1 and 6 h after provocation. IL-1Ra was lower before and 1 h after provocation. In addition, lower concentrations of sTNFR1 were found in patients after 1 h, while sIL-1R2 concentrations were higher after 1 h. Comparisons of patients before and after challenge showed that IL-1Ra and sTNFR1 decreased after 1 h, while sIL-1R2 increased. No significant differences were found compared to 6 h. sIL-6R did not significantly differ between the study groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: After allergen challenge, significant changes in the nasal fluid levels of IL-1Ra, sIL-1R2 and sTNFR1 were found. By contrast, sIL-4R remained at lower levels than in controls both before and after challenge. Since sIL-4R modulates IgE synthesis, this may play a role in the pathogenesis of IAR.

  • 3.
    Casas, Rosaura
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Cat-specific IgA antibodies in breast milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers: detection of Fel D 1->IgG immune complexes in cord blood and sera.1999Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 118, s. 317-318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Cederbrant, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Anderson, C
    Andersson, T
    Marcusson-Ståhl, M
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Cytokine production, lymphocyte proliferation and T-cell receptor Vbeta expression in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from nickel-allergic individuals2003Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 132, nr 4, s. 373-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinical history and patch test constitute the two cornerstones in the diagnosis of nickel (Ni) allergy. Due to technical and interpretative limits of the patch test, the in vitro lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) has been developed for confirming contact allergy, however, most studies show an overlap in lymphocyte proliferation between Ni-allergic and nonallergic subjects using the LTT. The aim of this study was to see if the secretion of cytokines, especially interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-17, or the use of T-cell receptor (TCR) V▀ families in Ni-stimulated primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures might be more useful for discriminating between allergic and nonallergic subjects. Methods: Ni2+-stimulated primary PBMC cultures derived from female subjects diagnosed as Ni-allergic (n = 5) or nonallergic (n = 5) on the basis of a positive or negative patch test were assessed for cell proliferation by tritiated thymidine incorporation and for production of interferon-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 in the culture supernatant by ELISA. The immunophenotype and TCR-V▀ family affiliation of the Ni2+-induced lymphoblasts were determined by flow cytometry. Results: Lymphocytes from Ni-allergic individuals challenged with a high and a low concentration of Ni showed significantly higher cell proliferation than lymphocytes from nonallergic individuals, but all subjects showed a positive LTT result (stimulation index>2). We found a significantly higher release of IL-10 in Ni2+-treated cultures from Ni-allergic compared with nonallergic subjects that provided better separation between individuals in the two groups than did lymphocyte proliferation. The proliferating lymphoblasts were predominantly CD4+, and in 2 of the 5 Ni-allergic subjects, but in none of the 5 nonallergic subjects, the CD4+ lymphoblasts showed a dominance of TCR-V▀17. Conclusions: Determination of IL-10 production in primary PBMC cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for discrimination of Ni allergy in females, as compared with cell proliferation. Copyright ⌐ 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 5.
    Cederbrant, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Marcusson, Jan A.
    Department of Dermatology, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    In vitro Lymphocyte Proliferation as Compared to Patch Test Using Gold, Palladium and Nickel1997Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 112, nr 3, s. 212-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A conventional lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was compared to the commercially available MELISA® (memory lymphocyte immuno-stimulation assay), a lymphoproliferative assay that has been suggested to be a valuable instrument for the diagnosis of metal allergy. Sensitivity and specificity of the two assays were calculated using a patch test as a reference method.

    Methods: 34 patients were patch-tested for gold sodium thiosulfate, palladium chloride and nickel sulfate, and the lymphocyte proliferation to these metals was tested in vitro using mononuclear cells from peripheral blood.

    Results: No significant differences regarding sensitivity and specificity were found between MELISA and conventional LTT. The sensitivity varied between 55 and 95% and the specificity between 17 and 79%.

    Conclusions: The low specificity of the two in vitro assays suggests that they are not useful for diagnosis of contact allergy to the metals gold, palladium and nickel, since a large number of false-positive results will be obtained.

  • 6.
    Duchén, Karel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Yuo, G
    Björkstén, B
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk in relation to atopy in the mother and her child.1999Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 118, s. 321-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Evaldsson, Chamilly
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rydén, Ingvar
    Division of Clinical Chemistry, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Uppugunduri, Srinivas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Isomaltitol exacerbates neutrophilia but reduces eosinophilia: New insights into the Sephadex model of lung inflammation2011Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 154, nr 4, s. 286-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously examined isomaltitol in an in vitro static adhesion assay between isolated granulocytes and cultured human umbilical cord vein cells and were interested in investigating whether the potentially anti-inflammatory effects observed there could be reproduced in vivo. The Sephadex-induced lung inflammation model was considered a suitable model due to the significant changes in global inflammatory endpoints, like oedema and leukocyte migration, usually seen upon provocation with Sephadex.

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with Sephadex (5 mg/ml), vehicle (0.9% NaCl), isomaltitol (50 mg/ml) or a combination of isomaltitol and Sephadex. After 24 h, the lungs were weighed to measure oedema and preserved for histology. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used for analysis of tumour necrosis factor, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and differential and total leukocyte counts. In addition, blood differential counts and thymus weights were analysed.

    Contrary to what we expected from in vitro experiments, differential counts showed that isomaltitol increased the neutrophil component while decreasing the eosinophilia. Isomaltitol thus asserted a modulatory role on the usually eosinophil-dominated Sephadex-induced cell profile. Isomaltitol alone also increased several inflammatory parameters, including oedema and cysteinyl leukotrienes, and generally aggravated total inflammation in combination with Sephadex. Although the mechanisms were not investigated in this study, the effects could relate to a combination of isomaltitol's osmotic and structure-specific properties.

    Our results indicate that isomaltitol can modulate the inflammatory response induced by Sephadex instillation in addition to have pro-inflammatory effects on it its own, and may therefore provide new insights into the mechanisms of this widely used animal model. Sugar alcohols similar to isomaltitol have already been used to aid mucus clearance in cystic fibrosis patients, and it is possible that isomaltitol could also be used for this purpose.

  • 8.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Garofalo, Roberto P.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology/Allergy/Rheumatology, Galveston, Tex., USA.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cytokines in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers1999Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 118, nr 2-4, s. 319-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorry, there is no abstract. Read the first few lines of the text instead!

    The allergy–preventing effect of breast–feeding is controversial [1, 2]. This may be due to individual variations of the composition of human milk. Allergy is associated with a bias to production of cytokines involved in IgE synthesis, e.g. IL–4 and IL–13 [3] and the eosinophil chemotactic [4] and survival [5] factor IL–5. In contrast, IFN–=γ, which inhibits IgE synthesis [6], is downregulated [7]. Cytokines involved in IgA production, IL–6, IL–10 and TGF–β [8, 9] have also been proposed to be involved in IgE synthesis [10, 11, 12].

  • 9.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Immune responses to birch during the first seven pollen seasons of life2001Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 124, nr 1-3, s. 321-323Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to allergens early in life may have an impact on the incidence of allergy many years later, but the kinetics of the immune responses have still not been studied prospectively. Therefore, we wanted to study the development of immune responses of the Th1 and Th2 type to birch over the first pollen seasons. Material and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 21 prospectively followed children during the second to the seventh pollen season of life. IgG subclass antibodies to rBet v 1 were analyzed by ELISA, IgE antibodies to birch with Magic Lite™ and birch-induced mononuclear cell proliferation by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Results: Proliferative responses and IgG1 antibodies were commonly seen both in children with and without allergic symptoms and sensitization to birch. Most nonsensitized children had a transient IgG4 antibody response, which was downregulated after the third pollen season, while the titers of this Th2-associated subclass increased with age in sensitized children with clinical symptoms to birch. Conclusions: Immune responses to birch can be demonstrated in children regardless of atopic status. A transient early Th2-like response is downregulated after the third pollen season in nonatopic but not atopic children. Copyright © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 10. Jenmalm, MC
    T-cell function in atopic children. 1999Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 118, s. 395-398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11. Johansson, AG
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    IgG immune complex binding to and activation of liver cells.1999Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 121, s. 329-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Johansson, AG
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    IgG immune complex binding to and activation of liver cells. An in vitro study with IgG immune complexes, Kupffer cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes2000Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 121, nr 4, s. 329-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: The aim was to study IgG immune complex (IC) binding to isolated hepatocytes, Kupffer cells (KCs) and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). Further, we wished to analyze the capacity of IgG ICs to induce release of reactive oxygen metabolites by the IC-binding liver cells. Methods: ICs were formed between 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-labelled dinitrophenyl-conjugated human serum albumin (125I-TC-DNP10HSA) and polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies. Binding of ICs to different rat liver cells in suspension was studied at 4░C. Production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence at 37░C. Results: IgG mediated binding of 125I-TC-DNP10HSA to both KCs and SECs, but not to hepatocytes. The binding showed saturation kinetics and was blocked by an excess of unlabelled IgG-ICs. IgG-ICs activated KCs, but not SECs, to a chemiluminescence response. Conclusions: Both KCs and SECs bind IgG-ICs in vitro, probably via Fc receptor interaction. IgG-ICs activate KCs to produce reactive oxygen metabolites. The binding of IgG-ICs to isolated hepatocytes is small.

  • 13.
    Månsson, Anne
    et al.
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Allergy Research, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Fransson, Mattias
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Allergy Research, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Adner, Mikael
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Allergy Research, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Benson, Mikael
    Department of Pediatrics, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Uddman, Rolf
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Allergy Research, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Sven
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Cardell, Lars-Olaf
    Division of ENT Diseases Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    TLR3 in human eosinophils: functional effects and decreased expression during allergic rhinitis2010Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 151, nr 2, s. 118-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Viral respiratory infections are increasingly implicated in allergic exacerbations. Virus-induced activation of eosinophils through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) could be involved. The present study was designed to examine TLR3 expression in eosinophils from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) during symptomatic allergic rhinitis, and to evaluate the functional responsiveness of TLR3 in purified eosinophils.

    METHODS: BM and PB samples were obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis outside and during the pollen season. Eosinophils were analyzed for TLR3 expression by flow cytometry. Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], an agonist for TLR3, was used to assess its functional role in purified eosinophils and the intracellular signaling pathways involved.

    RESULTS: TLR3 expression was demonstrated in BM and PB eosinophils. It was higher in BM-derived than in circulating cells and it was downregulated in both compartments during symptomatic allergic rhinitis. TLR3 expression was also downregulated in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL- 5. Stimulation with poly(I:C) increased the percentage of CD11b+ cells and enhanced the secretion of IL-8, effects mediated via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways. Moreover, pretreatment with IL-5 augmented the poly(I:C)-induced IL-8 release.

    CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophils activated via TLR3 might be more able to home and recruit leukocytes to sites of inflammation. The decreased TLR3 expression during symptomatic allergic rhinitis and in the presence of Th2 cytokines indicates a role in allergic airway inflammation. Thus, eosinophils might function as a link between viral infections and exacerbations of allergic disease.

  • 14.
    Senti, Gabriela
    et al.
    Clinical Trials Center, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Freiburghaus, Andreas U.
    Clinical Trials Center, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée
    Hospital Médica Sur, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark; Department of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
    Patterson, Amber M.
    ENT & Allergy Specialists of Northwest Ohio, USA.
    Klimek, Ludger
    Center for Rhinology and Allergology, Germany.
    Di Bona, Danilo
    Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Chair and School of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, University of Bari – Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Pfaar, Oliver
    Center for Rhinology and Allergology, Germany; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Ahlbeck, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Allergicentrum US.
    Akdis, Mübeccel
    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research SIAF, Switzerland.
    Weinfeld, Dan
    Asthma and Allergy Clinic (Adults), Department of Internal Medicine, South Alvsborgs (Central) Hospital, Sweden.
    Contreras-Verduzco, Francisco A.
    Allergy Department, National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico.
    Pedroza-Melendez, Alvaro
    Allergy Department, National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico.
    Skaarup, Søren H.
    Department of Clinical Medicine – Department of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Lee, Sang Min
    Division of Allergy and Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Cardell, Lars-Olaf
    Division of ENT Diseases, Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schmid, Johannes M.
    Department of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
    Westin, Ulla
    Division of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Sweden; Region Skane, Skane University Hospital, Sweden.
    Dollner, Ralph
    Department Otorhinolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Clinic for Head-Neck and Reconstructive Surgery, Oslo University Hospital (OUS) HF – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
    Kündig, Thomas M.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.
    Intralymphatic Immunotherapy: Update and Unmet Needs.2019Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 178, nr 2, s. 141-149Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only allergy treatment that confers long-term symptom amelioration for patients suffering from allergy. The most frequently used allergen application route is subcutaneous injection (SCIT), commonly taken as the gold standard, followed by sublingual (SLIT) or oral (OIT) application of allergen preparations. This is an up-to-date review of the clinical evidence for a novel route of allergen application, i.e., directly into lymph nodes - intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT). The major advantages of ILIT over the current AIT approaches are its short duration and the low allergen doses administered. The whole treatment consists of merely 3 ultrasound-guided injections into inguinal lymph nodes 1 month apart. While the number of patients included in randomised controlled trials is still limited, the clinical results for ILIT are encouraging, but more clinical trials are needed, as well as more preclinical work for optimising formulations.

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