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  • 1.
    Cardell, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Widell, A
    Department of Medical Microbiology Lund University.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Månsson, A-S
    Department of Medical Microbiology Lund University.
    FranzÉn, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Lymer, U-B
    Department of Natural Sciences and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences Jönköping University.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Nosocomial hepatitis C in a thoracic surgery unit, retrospective findings generating a prospective study2008In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 322-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to two patients from a thoracic surgeon who was unaware of his hepatitis C infection. By partial sequencing of the non-structural 5B gene and phylogenetic analysis, the viruses from both patients were found to be closely related to genotype 1a strain from the surgeon. Two further hepatitis C cases were found in relation to the thoracic clinic. Their HCV sequences were related to each other but were of genotype 2b and the source of infection was never revealed. To elucidate the magnitude of the problem, we conducted a prospective study for a period of 17 months in which patients who were about to undergo thoracic surgery were asked to participate. Blood samples were drawn prior to surgery and at least four months later. The postoperative samples were then screened for anti-HCV and, if positive, the initial sample was also analysed. The only two patients (0.4%) identified were confirmed anti-HCV positive before surgery, and none out of 456 evaluable cases seroconverted to anti-HCV during the observation period. Despite the retrospectively identified cases, nosocomial hepatitis C is rare in our thoracic unit. The study points out the risk of transmission of hepatitis C from infected personnel and reiterates the need for universal precautions. © 2008 The Hospital Infection Society.

  • 2.
    Dannetun, E.
    et al.
    Department of Communicable Disease Control, Landstinget i Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tegnell, A.
    Communicable Disease Unit, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torner, A.
    Department of Epidemiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Giesecke, J.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coverage of hepatitis B vaccination in Swedish healthcare workers2006In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 201-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess how well the guidelines on vaccination against hepatitis B had been implemented among healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk for blood exposure. A point-prevalence survey was conducted in six departments of a university hospital in Sweden: the emergency room, intensive care unit, postoperative unit, surgical theatre, department of anaesthesiology and the laboratory for blood chemistry. All HCWs who worked in these departments during the 24 h of the survey were asked to complete a questionnaire. In total, 369 questionnaires were analysed. Seventy-nine percent (293/369) of HCWs had received at least one dose of vaccine, but only 40% (147/369) reported that they were fully vaccinated and 21% (76/369) had not been vaccinated at all. The majority of unvaccinated HCWs (72/76, 95%) stated that they would accept vaccination if offered. The main barrier to better compliance with the guidelines is not lack of acceptance among the employees but the failure of the employer to ensure that policies are implemented. © 2006 The Hospital Infection Society.

  • 3.
    Darelid, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, 0Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Malmvall, Bo-Eric
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Control of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease by keeping the circulating hot water temperature above 55°C: experience from a 10-year surveillance programme in a district general hospital2002In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a nosocomial outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in a 450-bed district general hospital in 1991, the circulating hot water temperature was kept above 55°C as the sole control measure. From 1991 to 2000, all cases of nosocomial pneumonia were clinically monitored and tested for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 by serology or urinary antigen detection. Water samples from peripheral tap sites were cultured for Legionella spp. twice a year. An infection with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was diagnosed in four out of 366 (1.1%) patients treated for nosocomial pneumonia, representing one case per 26 000 admissions. All patients were cured without complications. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated in 30 of 251 (12%) cultured hospital water samples during the monitoring period. We conclude that control of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease in a primary referral hospital is possible by keeping the circulating hospital hot water temperature above 55°C, together with careful clinical surveillance. Complete eradication of Legionella spp. from the hot water system does not seem necessary.

  • 4.
    Hammarskjold, F
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Mernelius, S
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Andersson, R. E.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Lofgren, S
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Malmvall, Bo-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Petzold, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Matussek, A
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Possible transmission of Candida albicans on an intensive care unit: genotype and temporal cluster analyses2013In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 60-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nosocomial transmission of Candida spp. has not been fully explored and previous studies have shown conflicting results. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAim: To evaluate the possible nosocomial transmission of Candida spp. on an intensive care unit (ICU). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: A prospective study was conducted for a period of 19 months, including all patients on our ICU with growth of Candida spp. from surveillance and directed cultures. Molecular typing with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction was used to define genotype relationships between the Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates obtained from blood cultures taken from patients in our county outside the ICU were used as a reference. Temporal cluster analysis was performed to evaluate genotype distribution over time. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFindings: Seventy-seven patients with 78 ICU stays, representing 12% of all ICU stays, were found to harbour 180 isolates of Candida spp. Molecular typing revealed 27 C. albicans genotypes and 10 of C. glabrata. Possible clustering, indicated by overlapping stays of patients with indistinguishable candida genotypes, was observed on seven occasions with C. albicans and on two occasions with C. glabrata. Two C. albicans genotypes were found significantly more often in the ICU group compared with the reference group. Moreover, C. albicans genotypes isolated from more than one patient were significantly more often found in the ICU group. Temporal cluster analysis revealed a significantly increased number of pairs with indistinguishable genotypes at a 21-day interval, indicating clustering. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: This study indicates possible transmission of C. albicans between ICU patients based on genotyping and temporal cluster analysis.

  • 5.
    Hammarskjöld, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Malmvall, Bo-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Low incidence of arterial catheter infections in a Swedish intensive care unit: risk factors for colonisation and infection2010In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 130-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern that arterial catheters (ACs) cause catheter-related infections (CRIs). Limited data are available concerning risk factors for AC-CRI and there are no studies concerning incidence and micro-organisms from northern Europe. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of, and micro-organisms responsible for, AC colonisation and AC-CRI in a Swedish intensive care unit (ICU), and to determine risk factors contributing to AC colonisation and AC-CRI. We prospectively studied all patients (N=539) receiving ACs (N=691) in a mixed ICU of a county hospital. Six hundred (87%) of all ACs were assessed completely. The total catheterisation time for 482 patients was 2567 days. The incidence of positive tip culture was 7.8 per 1000 catheter-days, with the predominant micro-organism being coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). The incidence of AC-CRI was 2.0 per 1000 catheter-days (with no cases of bacteraemia). All AC-CRIs were caused by CoNS. Multivariate analysis revealed that immunosuppression, central venous catheter (CVC) colonisation and CVC infection were significant risk factors for AC-CRI. We conclude that AC colonisation and infection with systemic symptoms occur at a low rate in our ICU which supports our practice of basic hygiene routines for the prevention of AC-CRI. Colonisation and infection of a simultaneous CVC seem to be risk factors. The role of contemporaneous colonisation and infection of multiple bloodstream catheters has received little attention previously. Further studies are needed to verify the significance of this finding.

  • 6.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Diekema, D
    Fluit, A
    Jones, R
    Struelens, M
    Spencer, R
    Wolff, M
    Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in European ICUs2001In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance among bacteria causing hospital-acquired infections poses a threat, particularly to patients in intensive care units (ICUs). In order to control the spread of resistant bacteria, local, regional and national resistance surveillance data must be used to develop efficient intervention strategies. In an attempt to identify national differences and the dynamics of antibiotic resistance in European ICUs, data have been merged from several networks of resistance surveillance performed during the 1990s. It should be stressed, however, that comparisons of results from different studies using different methods and different population samples must be made with caution. Antibiotic resistance across all species and drugs was, with some exceptions, highest in southern European countries and Russia, and lowest in Scandinavia. More effective strategies are needed to control the selection and spread of resistant organisms. Antibiotic intervention policies, efficient infection control measures and an overall awareness of the serious implications at public health level will contribute to the management of antibiotic resistance.

  • 7. Labeau, S.
    et al.
    Vandijck, D.
    Rello, J.
    Adam, S.
    Rosa, A.
    Wenisch, C.
    Bäckman, Carl
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Agbaht, K.
    Csomos, A.
    Seha, M.
    Dimopoulos, G.
    Vandewoude, K.H.
    Blot, S.
    Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: results of a knowledge test among European intensive care nurses2008In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 180-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a needs analysis preceding the development of an e-learning platform on infection prevention, European intensive care unit (ICU) nurses were subjected to a knowledge test on evidence-based guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A validated multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to 22 European countries between October 2006 and March 2007. Demographics included nationality, gender, ICU experience, number of ICU beds and acquisition of a specialised degree in intensive care. We collected 3329 questionnaires (response rate 69.1%). The average score was 45.1%. Fifty-five percent of respondents knew that the oral route is recommended for intubation; 35% knew that ventilator circuits should be changed for each new patient; 38% knew that heat and moisture exchangers were the recommended humidifier type, but only 21% knew that these should be changed once weekly; closed suctioning systems were recommended by 46%, and 18% knew that these must be changed for each new patient only; 51% and 57%, respectively, recognised that subglottic drainage and kinetic beds reduce VAP incidence. Most (85%) knew that semi-recumbent positioning prevents VAP. Professional seniority and number of ICU beds were shown to be independently associated with better test scores. Further research may determine whether low scores are related to a lack of knowledge, deficiencies in training, differences in what is regarded as good practice, and/or a lack of consistent policy. 

  • 8.
    Lymer, Ulla-Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Antonsson Schütz, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A descriptive study of blood exposure incidents among healthcare workers in a university hospital in Sweden1997In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to document blood exposure incidents and compliance with recommended serological investigations, universal precautions and incident reporting routines, data was collected from occupational injury reports during a two-year period. In addition, a sample of healthcare workers (HCWs) answered a questionnaire about blood tests and work routines. In a third part of the study some HCWs were asked about the type and actual frequency of incidents, together with the number of reported incidents during the two-year study period. Of a total of 473 reported occupational blood exposures, the majority came from nurses and the minority from physicians. Most reported incidents occurred on hospital wards. The most common incidents were needlestick injuries, and 35% occurred when the needle was recapped. Medical laboratory technicians (MLT) reported significantly more mucocutaneous incidents than other professionals (P < 0·01). In 10% of the incidents, the patient had a known blood-borne infection. Serological investigations post-exposure varied among professional groups, and 35% were not tested. No seroconversion was shown in the HCWs tested. In the third part of the study, respondents recalled 1180 incidents, although only 9% of these had been reported. The majority occurred in operating theatres, and in connection with anaesthesia. There was a significant difference (P < 0·001) between the different professional groups with regard to the frequency of incident reporting. Physicians reported only 3% and MLTs 36% of the incidents. Eighty-one percent believed that the accident could have been avoided. Despite knowledge of universal precautions, professionals continue to behave in a risky manner, which can result in blood exposure incidents.

  • 9.
    Olofsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Odeshog Hlth Care Ctr, Sweden.
    Matussek, A.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Lab, Sweden.
    Ehricht, R.
    Abbott Alere Technol GmbH, Germany; InfectoGnost Res Campus, Germany; Leibniz Inst Photon Technol, Germany.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Reg Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala". Odeshog Hlth Care Ctr, Sweden.
    Differences in molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nursing home residents and people in unassisted living situations2019In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The usefulness of colonization pressure as a working model and proxy for infection transmission is limited due to the inability to grade or quantify the specific risk within environments that are subject to change. Aim: To elaborate on the colonization pressure model by comparing the molecular epidemiology of two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, among residents in a nursing home and people in unassisted living situations. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 73 elderly residents from a village in south-central Sweden was conducted. Of these, 35 were residents of a nursing home, and 34 lived in an own place of residence in the same geographical area. Samples of two representative bacterial species were collected from multiple body sites and analysed for molecular diversity. Findings: Combining all body sites, 47% of the participants were colonized with S. aureus and 93% with E. coli. The nursing home group, the group in unassisted living situations, and both units combined, held 16, 17, and 29 different S. aureus spa types, respectively. The corresponding numbers of different E. coli serogenotypes were 34, 28, and 48. Diabetes mellitus was associated with more frequent colonization with S. aureus. Conclusion: The molecular diversity of bacteria found within different forms of accommodation was within the same range. Hospital quality hygiene might have contributed to the absence of homogenization of the molecular diversity within the nursing home group. Diabetes mellitus might have played a role in a patient selection characterized by advanced age. (C) 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Samuelsson, A
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Jonasson, Jon
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine.
    Monstein, H-J
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Clustering of enterococcal infections in a general intensive care unit2003In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 188-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a retrospective study comparing patients' characteristics, antibiotic consumption and environmental contamination before the impact of a new regimen of intensified infection control measures in a general intensive care unit (ICU) at a university-affiliated tertiary-care teaching hospital. The new regimen consisted of (1) reorganization of patient rooms (2) improved hygienic measures including strict hygiene barrier nursing (3) more isolated patient care and (4) more restrictive use of antibiotics. The regimen was introduced after a cluster of enterococcal infections. All patients admitted to the ICU from 1 March 1995 to 28 february 1997 were included. A study period of 12 months after reorganization of the ward was compared with the 12 months immediately before it. The antibiotic consumption, the individual patient's severity of disease (APACHE score), and the extent of therapeutic interventions (TISS score) were recorded. Enterococci were typed biochemically, antibiograms were established and the relation between the isolates was investigated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The bacteriological results and the patient data suggested a hospital-acquired spread as the cause of the ICU enterococcal outbreak. After implementation of the new regimen, we observed a reduction in the rate of enterococcal bloodstream infections from 3.1 to 1.8%. The consumption of antibiotics fell from 6.11 to 4.24 defined daily doses per patient.The introduction of strict hygiene and barrier nursing, more restrictive use of antibiotics, isolation of infected patients, thorough cleaning and disinfection of the unit was followed by an absence of enterococcal infection clustering and reduction in incidence of enterococcal bacteraemia. We were not able to determine whether the reduction in antibiotic consumption was due to the intervention programme. ⌐ 2003 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Samuelsson, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Department of Infection Control.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Department of Infection Control.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Late onset neonatal sepsis, risk factors and interventions: an analysis of recurrent outbreaks of Serratia marcescens 2006-20112014In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: during the period 2006 to 2011 we observed 11 patients with Serratia marcescens sepsis, a total of 47 patients were colonised due to spread of different clones. These recurrent clusters brought about interventions to reduce spread between patients.

    Aim: to evaluate the effect of stepwise introduced interventions to prevent S marcescens colonisation/sepsis and to analyse risk factors for late onset sepsis (LOS).

    Methods: to evaluate the interventions an open retrospective observational study was performed. A retrospective case-control study was performed to analyse risk factors for LOS.

    Findings: main findings of this study were the decrease in S marcescens sepsis and colonisation after the stepwise adoption of hygiene interventions, as well as identifying low gestational age, low birth weight, indwelling central venous or umbilical catheter and ventilator treatment as risk factors for LOS. Compliance to basic hygiene guidelines was the only intervention continuously monitored from late 2007. Compliance increased gradually to a steady high level early 2009. There was a decrease in LOS with S marcescens (LOS-Ser) clustering after the second quarter of 2008. After the first quarter of 2009 we saw a decrease in S marcescens colonisation.

    Conclusion: We were not able to isolate specific effects of each intervention, but an update of our antibiotic policy probably had effect on the occurrence of LOS-ser. The delayed effect of interventions on S marcescens colonisation was probably due to the time it takes for new routines to have impact, illustrated by the gradual increase in compliance to basic hygiene guidelines.

  • 12.
    Tegnell, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhman, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Changes in the appearance and treatment of deep sternal infections2002In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 298-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Department of Thoracic Surgery at the University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden, has actively followed up infectious complications of cardiac surgery since 1989. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes occurred during the 1990s in the appearance and the management of deep infections. This was done by studying patients undergoing surgical revision of infected wounds. We studied 42 patients during 1990–94 and 49 during 1997–98 (total number of operations in these periods, 3075 and 1646, respectively). Pre-operative and intra-operative variables were recorded for the two patient populations. The proportion of cardiac surgery procedures followed by a surgical revision for an infection in the sternal wound increased between the two periods (1.4% vs. 3.0%). Variables associated with the surgical procedures preceding the infection remained unchanged. In the later period, treatment was started earlier (64 vs. 24 days), and the length of antibiotic treatment was decreased (115 vs. 72 days). The incidence of osteomyelitis of the sternal bone was lower (61% vs. 27%). It appears that as the proportion of patients undergoing surgical revision increased, management of the infections became more effective, with aggressive surgical and antibiotic treatment policies and shorter treatment periods. This indicates that in order to evaluate the overall impact of measures designed to reduce infections after cardiac surgery, not only the incidence of infection needs to be followed up but other factors also need to be taken into account.

  • 13.
    Tegnell, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saeedi, Baharak
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhman, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A clone of coagulase-negative staphylococci among patients with post-cardiac surgery infections2002In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are important causes of hospital-acquired infections such as infections after cardiac surgery. Efforts to reduce these infections are hampered by the lack of knowledge concerning the epidemiology of CoNS in this setting. Forty strains of CoNS collected during the surgical revision of 27 patients operated on between 1997 and 2000 were analysed. Strains were also collected from the ambient air in the operating suite. Their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characteristics and antibiotic resistance were analysed. Using PFGE 19 of 40 strains from 15 of 27 patients were shown to belong to one clone, and strains from this clone were also isolated from the ambient air. This clone had caused infections throughout the period. Antibiotic resistance did not correlate with PFGE patterns. Using PFGE one clone could be identified that caused 56% of the CoNS infections during this period. A strain from this clone was also found in the air of the operating suite suggesting the origin of the CoNS causing infections was the hospital environment.

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