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  • 1. Andersson, R
    et al.
    Ask, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Force to restore the shape of an asymmetric extracorporeal tube as the basis for non-invasive pressure measurements.2002In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A zero-balance principle is described where intraluminal pressure is estimated from the counter force needed to restore the tube shape of an elastic extra corporeal tube. The aim was to optimise cross-sectional tube geometry for tube expansion due to pressure and to reduce the sensitivity to variation in mechanical tube characteristics using an experimental statistical and factorial design. The main application is pressure monitoring in blood and dialysate tubes during hemodialysis. Improving the monitoring of the dialysis process will reduce complications, such as sudden decreases in systemic blood pressure or occlusion at the artero-venous fistula. The factorial design indicated strong influence from the geometrical characteristics of the tube as well from the geometrical design parameters of the pressure transducer. We found a consistent relationship between the intraluminal pressure and the applied force needed to restore the tube shape. The modified cross-sectional tube geometry enhances measurement sensitivity and facilitates the desired behavior of tubes during pressure applications.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Roger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ask, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Force to restore the shape of an asymmetric extracorporeal tube as the basis for non-invasive pressure measurements2002In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A zero-balance principle is described where intraluminal pressure is estimated from the counter force needed to restore the tube shape of an elastic extra corporeal tube. The aim was to optimise cross-sectional tube geometry for tube expansion due to pressure and to reduce the sensitivity to variation in mechanical tube characteristics using an experimental statistical and factorial design. The main application is pressure monitoring in blood and dialysate tubes during hemodialysis. Improving the monitoring of the dialysis process will reduce complications, such as sudden decreases in systemic blood pressure or occlusion at the artero-venous fistula. The factorial design indicated strong influence from the geometrical characteristics of the tube as well from the geometrical design parameters of the pressure transducer. We found a consistent relationship between the intraluminal pressure and the applied force needed to restore the tube shape. The modified cross-sectional tube geometry enhances measurement sensitivity and facilitates the desired behavior of tubes during pressure applications.

  • 3.
    Dare, E.V.
    et al.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Vascotto, S.G.
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Carlsson, D.J.
    National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Hincke, M.T.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Griffith, M.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Differentiation of a fibrin gel encapsulated chondrogenic cell line2007In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 619-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaline cartilage has very limited regenerative capacity following damage. Therefore engineered tissue substitutes have been the focus of much research. Our objective was to develop a fibrin-based scaffold as a cell delivery vehicle and template for hyaline cartilage regeneration, and compare its cellular properties against monolayer and pellet culture for chondrogenic cells. The chondrogenic precursor cell line, RCJ 3.1C5.18 (C5.18), was chosen as a test system for evaluating the effect of various culture conditions, including cell encapsulation, on articular chondrogenic cell differentiation. The C5.18 cells in monolayer showed elevated expression of collagen II, an articular chondrogenic marker, but also markers for fibrocartilage differentiation (collagen I and versican) when cultured with chondrogenic medium as compared to basic maintenance medium. Pellets of C5.18 cells cultured in chondrogenic medium were histologically more organized in structure than pellets cultured in control maintenance medium. The chondrogenic medium cultured pellets also secreted an extracellular matrix that was comprised of type II with very little type I collagen, indicating a trend towards a more hyaline-like cartilage. Moreover, when cultured in chondrogenic medium, fibrin-encapsulated C5.18 cells elaborated an extracellular matrix containing type II collagen, as well as aggrecan, which are both components of hyaline cartilage. This indicated a more articular-like chondrogenic differentiation for fibrin encapsulated C5.18 cells. The results of these experiments provide evidence that the C5.18 cell line can be used as a tool to evaluate potential scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  • 4.
    Doillon, CJ
    et al.
    CHUL Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
    Watsky, MA
    Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
    Hakim, M
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Wang, J
    Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
    Munger, R
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Laycock, N
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Osborne, R
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Griffith, M
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    A collagen-based scaffold for a tissue engineered human cornea: Physical and physiological properties2003In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 764-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds for tissue engineered human corneas were characterized. Hydrated matrices were constructed by blending type I collagen with chondroitin sulphates (CS), with glutaraldehyde crosslinking. A corneal keratocyte cell line was added to the scaffolds with or without corneal epithelial and endothelial cells. Constructs were grown with or without ascorbic acid. Wound-healing was evaluated in chemical-treated constructs. Native, noncrosslinked gels were soft with limited longevity. Crosslinking strengthened the matrix yet permitted cell growth. CS addition increased transparency. Keratocytes grown within the matrix had higher frequencies of K+ channel expression than keratocytes grown on plastic. Ascorbic acid increased uncrosslinked matrix degradation in the presence of keratocytes, while it enhanced keratocyte growth and endogenous collagen synthesis in crosslinked matrices. Wounded constructs showed recovery from exposure to chemical irritants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that our engineered, stabilized matrix is well-suited to function as an in vitro corneal stroma.

  • 5.
    Fridolin, Ivo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nephrology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Lars-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On-line monitoring of solutes in dialysate using adsorption of ultraviolet radiation: technical description2002In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 748-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The aim of this work was to describe a new optical method for monitoring solutes in a spent dialysate using absorption of UV radiation.

    METHOD:

    The method utilises UV-absorbance determined in the spent dialysate using a spectrophotometrical set-up. Measurements were performed both on collected dialysate samples and on-line. During on-line monitoring, a spectrophotometer was connected to the fluid outlet of the dialysis machine, with all spent dialysate passing through a specially-designed cuvette for optical single-wavelength measurements. The concentrations of several substances of various molecular sizes, electrical charge, transport mechanism, etc. were determined in the dialysate and in the blood using standard laboratory techniques. The correlation coefficient between UV-absorbance of the spent dialysate and concentration of the substances in the spent dialysate and in the blood was calculated from data based on the collected samples.

    RESULTS:

    The obtained on-line UV-absorbance curve demonstrates the possibility to follow a single hemodialysis session continuously and to monitor deviations in the dialysator performance using UV-absorbance. The experimental results indicate a very good correlation between UV-absorbance and several small waste solutes removed such as urea, creatinine and uric acid in the spent dialysate and in the blood for every individual treatment at a fixed wavelength of 285 nm. Moreover, a good correlation between the UV-absorbance and substances like potassium, phosphate and beta2-microglobulin was obtained. The lowest correlation was achieved for sodium, calcium, glucose, vitamin B12 and albumin.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    A technique for on-line monitoring of solutes in the spent dialysate utilising the UV-absorbance was developed. On-line monitoring during a single hemodialysis session exploiting UV-absorbance represents a possibility to follow a single hemodialysis session continuously and monitor deviations in dialysis efficiency (e.g. changes in blood flow and clearance). The UV-absorbance correlates well to the concentration of several solutes known to accumulate in dialysis patients indicating that the technique can be used to estimate the removal of retained substances.

  • 6.
    Hadimeri, Ursula
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Skaraborg Hosp, Sweden.
    Warme, Anna
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Skaraborg Hosp, Sweden.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Skaraborg Hosp, Sweden.
    Fransson, Sven Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Wigelius, Ann
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Angiography and phlebography in a hemodialysis population: A retrospective analysis of interventional results2019In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, article id UNSP 0391398819863429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To clarify the reasons and beneficial effects and duration of arteriovenous fistula patency after radiological interventions in arteriovenous fistula. The patients investigated were referred due to arteriovenous fistula access flow problems. Material and methods: In 174 patients, 522 radiological investigations and endovascular treatments such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were analyzed, retrospectively. All investigations were performed due to clinical suspicion of impaired arteriovenous fistula function. Results: Arterial stenosis was significantly more frequent among patients with diabetic nephropathy (p amp;lt; 0.001) and interstitial nephritis (p amp;lt; 0.001). According to the venous stenosis, the diagnosis did not affect the frequency (p = 0.22) or the degree (p = 0.39) of stenosis. The degree of stenosis prior to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty correlated significantly with the degree of remaining stenosis after intervention (p amp;lt; 0.001). Of the 174 patients, 123 (71%) performed a total of 318 investigations including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Repeated percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed significantly more often in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The median times to the first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and to the subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasties were 9.5 and 5 months, respectively. Arteriovenous fistula in patients with diabetic nephropathy performed similar to most other diagnoses, although performing more percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/patient than most other diagnoses. Conclusion: Many patients could maintain long-term patency of arteriovenous fistula, including those with diabetic nephropathy, with repeated interventions; this motivates a closer follow-up for these patients. Clinically significant stenosis should be dilated as meticulously and as soon as possible. Occlusions of the arteriovenous fistula in most instances can be successfully thrombolyzed or dilated upon early diagnosis.

  • 7.
    Newman, K.D.
    et al.
    University Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa Hospital, General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    McLaughlin, C.R.
    University Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa Hospital, General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Carlsson, D.
    National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Li, F.
    University Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa Hospital, General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Liu, Y.
    National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Griffith, M.
    University Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa Hospital, General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Bioactive hydrogel-filament scaffolds for nerve repair and regeneration2006In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1082-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of novel biomaterials is crucial for the advancement of tissue engineering in nerve regeneration. In this study we developed and evaluated novel biosynthetic scaffolds comprising collagen crosslinked with a terpolymer of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) as conduits for nerve growth. These collagen-terpolymer (collagen-TERP) scaffolds grafted with the laminin pentapeptide YIGSR were previously used as corneal substitutes in pigs and demonstrated enhanced nerve regeneration compared to allografts. The purpose of this project was to enhance neuronal growth on the collagen-TERP scaffolds through the incorporation of supporting fibers. Neuronal growth on these matrices was assessed in vitro using isolated dorsal root ganglia as a nerve source. Statistical significance was assessed using a one-way ANOVA. The incorporation of fibers into the collagen-TERP scaffolds produced a significant increase in neurite extension (p less than 0.05). The growth habit of the nerves varied with the type of fiber and included directional growth of the neurites along the surface of certain fiber types. Furthermore, the presence of fibers in the collagen-TERP scaffolds appeared to influence neurite morphology and function; neurites grown on fibers-incorporated collagen-TERP scaffolds expressed higher levels of Na channels compared to the scaffolds without fiber. Overall, our results suggest that incorporation of supporting fibers enhanced neurite outgrowth and that surface properties of the scaffold play an important role in promoting and guiding nerve regeneration. More importantly, this study demonstrates the potential value of tissue engineered collagen-TERP hybrid scaffolds as conduits in peripheral nerve repair.

  • 8.
    Stegmayr, B. G.
    et al.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Umeå.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nephrology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Transfusion Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fehrman, I.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Huddinge.
    Kurkus, J.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Lund.
    Norda, R.
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, County Hospital of Örebro.
    Olander, R.
    Department of Nephrology, County Hospital of Örebro.
    Sterner, G.
    Department of Vascular and Renal Diseases, University Hospital of Malmö.
    Thysell, H.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Lund.
    Wikström, B.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Uppsala.
    Wirén, J. E.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, County Hospital of Jönköping.
    Plasma exchange or immunoadsorption in patients with rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis: A Swedish multi-center study1999In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A therapeutic removal of antibodies may be achieved by immunoadsorption (IA) or by plasma exchange (PE). The aim of this prospective randomised study was to compare the efficacy of these different techniques with regard to treatment of patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPG) having at least 50% crescents. Forty-four patients with a RPG were included for treatment either by IA or PE (with albumin as substitution for removed plasma). All patients were additionally treated with immunosuppression. A median of 6 sessions of PEs were performed in 23 patients compared with 6 IAs in 21 patients. Goodpasture's syndrome (GP) was present in 6 patients (PE 3, IA 3). All of them started and ended in dialysis, two died. Among the remaining 38 patients (26 men, 12 women) 87% had antibodies to ANCA. Creatinine clearance for PE versus IA were at a median at start 17.1 and 19.8 ml/min, and at 6 months 49 and 49 ml/min, respectively. At 6 months 7 of 10 patients did not need dialysis (remaining: IA 0/5 and PE 2/5, n.s.). The extent of improvement did not differ between the groups. Three patients died during the observation period of 6 months (IA 2; PE 1, on HD). Although no difference was found between the IA or the PE group this study shows that the protocol used was associated with an improved renal function in most patients (except for Goodpasture's syndrome) whereas 70% of them could leave the dialysis program.

  • 9.
    Sundbom, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Höglandssjukhuset, Sweden.
    Roth, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahn, Henrik Casimir
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hübbert, Laila
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Sound analysis of a left ventricular assist device: A technical evaluation of iOS devices2018In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 254-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The use of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has grown rapidly. Adverse events do continue to occur. In recent years, analysis of LVAD sound recordings emerged as a means to monitor pump function and detect pump thrombosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the sounds from HeartMate II and to evaluate the use of handheld iOS devices for sound recordings. Method: Signal analysis of LVAD sound recordings, with dedicated recording equipment and iOS devices, was performed. Two LVADs running in mock loop circuits were compared to an implanted LVAD. Spectral analysis and parametric signal models were explored to quantify the sound and potentially detect changes in it. Results: The sound recordings of two LVADs in individual mock loop circuits and a third one implanted in a patient appeared to be similar. Qualitatively, sound characteristics were preserved following changes in pump speed. Recordings using dedicated equipment showed that HeartMate II sound comprises low-frequency components corresponding to pump impeller rotation, as well as high-frequency components due to a pulse width modulation of the electric power to the pump. These different signal components interact and result in a complicated frequency spectrum. The iPhone and iPod recordings could not reproduce the sounds as well as the dedicated equipment. In particular, lower frequencies were affected by outside disturbances. Discussion: This article outlines a systematic approach to LVAD sound analysis using signal processing methods to quantify and potentially detect changes, and describes some of the challenges, for example, with the use of inexpensive recording devices.

  • 10.
    Suuronen, E.J.
    et al.
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
    Muzakare, L.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Doillon, C.J.
    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center CHUL and Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.
    Kapila, V.
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
    Li, F.
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Ruel, M.
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
    Griffith, M.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Promotion of angiogenesis in tissue engineering: Developing multicellular matrices with multiple capacities2006In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 1148-1157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the aims of tissue engineering is to be able to develop multi-tissue organs in the future. This requires the optimization of conditions for the differentiation of multiple cell types and maintenance of the differentiated phenotype within complex engineered tissues. The goal of this study was to develop prototype tissue engineered matrices to support the simultaneous growth of different cell types with a particular focus on the angiogenic process. We examined two different matrix compositions for the promotion of blood vessel and tube formation. A fibrin-based matrix with the addition of a combination of growth factors supported vascular growth and the invasion of inflammatory cells. Using this fibrin matrix, in combination with a collagen-based hydrogel, a simple in vitro model of the cornea with adjacent sclera was developed that was complete with innervation and vascular structures. In addition, we showed that collagen-based matrices were effective in delivering mononuclear endothelial progenitor cells to ischemic tissue in vivo, and allowing these cells to incorporate into vascular structures. It is anticipated that with further development, these matrices have potential for use as delivery matrices for cell transplantation and for in vitro study purposes of multiple cell types.

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