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  • 1.
    Ikoma, Tomoko
    et al.
    Hokkaido Univ, Japan; Hokkaido Univ, Japan.
    Bendixen, Karina Haugaard
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark; SCON, Denmark.
    Arima, Taro
    Hokkaido Univ, Japan; Hokkaido Univ, Japan.
    Dawson, Andreas
    Region Östergötland. Malmo Univ, Sweden.
    Yamaguchi, Taihiko
    Hokkaido Univ, Japan.
    List, Thomas
    SCON, Denmark; Malmo Univ, Sweden.
    Svensson, Peter
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark; SCON, Denmark; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Effects of Low-Intensity Contractions of Different Craniofacial Muscles in Healthy Participants - An Experimental Cross-Over Study2018In: Headache, ISSN 0017-8748, E-ISSN 1526-4610, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 559-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective.-Repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterized by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible, ie, bruxism, is traditionally linked to pain and unpleasantness in the active muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of standardized craniofacial muscle contractions on self-reported symptoms. Methods.-Sixteen healthy volunteers performed six 5-minute bouts of 20% maximal voluntary contraction task of the jaw-closing (Jaw), the orbicularis-oris (O-oris), and the orbicularis-oculi (O-oculi) muscles. Participants rated their perceived pain, unpleasantness, fatigue, and mental stress levels before, during, and after the contraction tasks on 0-10 Numeric Rating Scales (NRS). Each muscle contraction task (= 1 session) was separated by at least 1 week and the order of the sessions was randomized in each subject. Results.-All muscle contraction tasks evoked significant increases in NRS scores of pain (mean +/- SD: Jaw; 3.8 +/- 2.7, O-oris; 1.9 +/- 2.2, O-oculi; 1.4 +/- 1.3, P amp;lt; .014), unpleasantness (Jaw; 4.1 +/- 2.5, O-oris; 2.1 +/- 1.9, O-oculi; 2.9 +/- 1.8, Pamp;lt;.001), fatigue (Jaw; 5.8 +/- 2.0, O-oris; 3.2 +/- 2.3, O-oculi; 3.6 +/- 1.9, Pamp;lt;.001), and mental stress (Jaw; 4.1 +/- 2.1, O-oris; 2.2 +/- 2.7, O-oculi; 2.9 +/- 2.2, Pamp;lt;.001). The Jaw contractions were associated with higher NRS scores compared with the O-oris and the O-oculi contractions (Pamp;lt;.005) without differences between the O-oris and the O-oculi (Pamp;gt;.063). All symptoms disappeared within 1 day (Pamp;gt;.469). Conclusions.-The results showed that submaximal static contractions of different craniofacial muscle groups could evoke transient, mild to moderate levels of muscle pain and fatigue and increased stress scores. The fatigue resistance may differ between different muscle groups. Further studies are warranted to better understand the contribution of specific craniofacial muscle groups for the characteristic presentation of musculoskeletal pain conditions in the head.

  • 2.
    Levi, Richard
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Edman, G V
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ekbom, K
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Waldenlind, E
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Episodic cluster headache. I: Personality and some neuropsychological characteristics in male patients.1992In: Headache, ISSN 0017-8748, E-ISSN 1526-4610, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The etiology and pathogenesis of cluster headache remain largely unknown. Some previous studies have focused on personality characteristics in cluster headache. However, no consistent personality profile has been found. The present study applied two personality inventories, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the Heart and Lifestyle Type A Measure (HALTAM), that have not previously been used in the context of cluster headache. A correlation has been suggested between left-handedness and early learning difficulties, and cluster headache. Thus, these variables were included and measured by inventory techniques. Forty-nine out of 51 consecutive male patients with episodic cluster headache participated in the present study. As compared to controls, the cluster headache patients were significantly more anxiety-prone (higher scores in the KSP Somatic anxiety and Muscular tension subscales), less successfully socialized (low scores in the KSP Socialization scale), and had a more hostile attitude towards others (higher scores in the HALTAM Hostility scale). No relationships between left-handedness or early learning difficulties, and cluster headache disease were found. The implications of the personality differences for the etiology of cluster headache disease are discussed.

  • 3.
    Levi, Richard
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Edman, G V
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ekbom, K
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Waldenlind, E
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Episodic cluster headache. II: High tobacco and alcohol consumption in males.1992In: Headache, ISSN 0017-8748, E-ISSN 1526-4610, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 184-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-nine out of 51 consecutive male patients with episodic cluster headache were studied with regard to their smoking and drinking habits in general and in relation to cluster headache periods. Questionnaires were constructed for data regarding tobacco intake. Situation-related smoking behavior was registered according to Frith (1971). Screening for alcohol over-consumption was made using the Malmö modification of the brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mm-MAST). Eighty-three percent of the patients used tobacco on a regular basis at the time of the study, with an average consumption of 20 cigarettes per day. Only 3% had never used tobacco regularly. The smoking-related desire to smoke in different situations was consistent with what is found in a general population of smokers. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had scores on the Mm-MAST indicative of alcohol over-consumption (i.e. heavy social drinking or alcoholism). During active headache periods 79% decreased their alcohol intake, whereas no consistent change in tobacco consumption was reported for the group as a whole. These findings were further corroborated by the fact that alcohol, but not tobacco intake, was reported by the majority of patients to elicit headache attacks during periods. Thus, our study showed high alcohol and tobacco consumption to be prominent features in male patients with episodic cluster headache. Since neither alcohol nor tobacco appear to have properties of ameliorating headache periods or attacks, the addictive behavior in our patients more likely reflects certain personality characteristics.

  • 4.
    Levi, Richard
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, Söder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edman, Gunnar V
    Department of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekbom, Karl
    Department of Neurology, Söder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waldenlind, Elisabet
    Department of Neurology, Söder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Episodic cluster headache: I. Personality and some neuropsychological characteristics in male patients.1992In: Headache, ISSN 0017-8748, E-ISSN 1526-4610, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The etiology and pathogenesis of cluster headache remain largely unknown. Some previous studies have focused on personality characteristics in cluster headache. However, no consistent personality profile has been found. The present study applied two personality inventories, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the Heart and Lifestyle Type A Measure (HALTAM), that have not previously been used in the context of cluster headache. A correlation has been suggested between left-handedness and early learning difficulties, and cluster headache.12 Thus, these variables were included and measured by inventory techniques.

    Forty-nine out of 51 consecutive male patients with episodic cluster headache participated in the present study. As compared to controls, the cluster headache patients were significantly more anxiety-prone (higher scores in the KSP Somatic anxiety and Muscular tension subscales), less successfully socialized (low scores in the KSP Socialization scale), and had a more hostile attitude towards others (higher scores in the HALTAM Hostility scale). No relationships between left-handedness or early learning difficulties, and cluster headache disease were found. The implications of the personality differences for the etiology of cluster headache disease are discussed.

  • 5.
    Levi, Richard
    et al.
    Söder Hosp, Dept of Neurology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edman, Gunnar V
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekbom, Karl
    Söder Hosp, Dept of Neurology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waldenlind, Elisabet
    Söder Hosp, Dept of Neurology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Episodic cluster headache: II. High tobacco and alcohol consumption in males.1992In: Headache, ISSN 0017-8748, E-ISSN 1526-4610, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 184-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-nine out of 51 consecutive male patients with episodic cluster headache were studied with regard to their smoking and drinking habits in general and in relation to cluster headache periods. Questionnaires were constructed for data regarding tobacco intake. Situation-related smoking behavior was registered according toFrith (1971). Screening for alcohol over-consumption was made using the Malmö modification of the brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mm-MAST).

    Eighty-three percent of the patients used tobacco on a regular basis at the time of the study, with an average consumption of 20 cigarettes per day. Only 3% had never used tobacco regularly. The smoking-related desire to smoke in different situations was consistent with what is found in a general population of smokers.

    Sixty-seven percent of the patients had scores on the Mm-MAST indicative of alcohol over-consumption (i.e.heavy social drinking or alcoholism). During active headache periods 79% decreased their alcohol intake, whereas no consistent change in tobacco consumption was reported for the group as a whole. These findings were furthercorroborated by the fact that alcohol, but not tobacco intake, was reported by the majority of patients to elicit headache attacks during periods.

    Thus, our study showed high alcohol and tobacco consumption to be prominent feature in male patients with episodic cluster headache. Since neither alcohol nor tobacco appear to have properties of ameliorating headache periods or attacks, the addictive behavior in our patients more likely reflects certain personality characteristics.

  • 6.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Welfare and Care (IVV). Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Raak, Anders
    Health Department, SAAB Aerospace, Linköping.
    Work attendance despite headache and its economic impact: a comparison between two workplaces2003In: Headache, ISSN 0017-8748, E-ISSN 1526-4610, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1097-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective.—To study work attendance despite headache in 2 different workplaces and its economic impact.

    Background.—Literature on the economic impact of headache traditionally has focused on direct costs. Little is known concerning headache experienced at work and its costs due to loss of effectiveness and productivity.

    Method.—We sent a questionnaire to 800 employees in Sweden—400 at a technology company (private employee population) and 400 at a university hospital (public employee population). We attempted to assess the prevalence of headache, work attendance despite the presence of acute headache, and the impact of acute headache upon work effectiveness. Subjects self-scored decreased work effectiveness resulting from headache during the previous 3 months and recorded the number of days at work despite headache. From these data, we estimated the economic loss resulting from headache.

    Results.—The survey response rate was 71.5%. The prevalence of headache was 64% in the private employee population and 78% in the public employee population. Thirty-nine percent of the private employees and 57% of the public employees reported experiencing headache as a result of stress. Fifty percent reported that they went to work despite headache, and the mean number of days at work despite headache, during the previous 3 months, was 6.6 days in the private employee group and 6.1 days in the public employee group. A 25% decrease in work effectiveness was estimated, and, extrapolating from our data, we calculated the cost of lost effectiveness due to headache among employers in Sweden to be approximately 1.4 billion euros a year.

    Conclusion.—The economic burden of headache experienced at work is substantial, suggesting that workplace-based treatment and prevention programs emphasizing stress management may be financially, as well as clinically, advantageous.

1 - 6 of 6
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