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  • 1.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermanson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Estrogen receptor-like immunoreactivity in the medullary and spinal dorsal horn of the female rat1995In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 196, no 1-2, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an immunohistochemical technique, we demonstrate that large numbers of neurons in the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus and spinal gray matter of the female rat express estrogen receptors (ER). Densely packed ER-immunoreactive neurons were present in lamina II, but labeled neurons were also present in lamina I, the neck of the dorsal horn, and in lamina X. Labeling was present throughout the length of the spinal cord, with the exception of segments caudal to S1, which were unlabeled. The distribution of ER-containing neurons to areas that are involved in processing of primary afferent nociceptive information suggests that the pain modulatory effects of estrogen may be exerted at the spinal level.

  • 2.
    Anderson, Emma S.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bjartmar, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hildebrand, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Developing chicken oligodendrocytes express the type IV oligodendrocyte marker T4-O in situ, but not in vitro2000In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 284, no 1-2, p. 21-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating data suggest that the oligodendrocyte population includes morphological and biochemical subtypes. We recently reported that a polyclonal antiserum against an unknown antigen, the T4-O molecule, labels a subpopulation of chicken oligodendrocytes, obviously representing the type IV variety of Del Rio Hortega. The present study examines the developmental expression of the T4-O molecule in situ and in vitro. The results show that T4-O immunoreactive cells first appear at E15 in the ventral funiculus. But, oligodendrocytes cultured in vitro with or without neurones do not develop a T4-O immunoreactivity. We conclude that oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord of chicken embryos first express the T4-O molecule some time after onset of myelination, and that the T4-O immunoreactive phenotype does not develop in vitro.

  • 3.
    Belin, Andrea Carmine
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ran, Caroline
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anvret, Anna
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paddock, Silvia
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Marie
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Anna
    Department of Pharmacology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Nissbrandt, Hans
    Department of Pharmacology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Dizdar (Dizdar Segrell), Nil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Anvret, Maria
    Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willows, Thomas
    Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sydow, Olof
    Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Galter, Dagmar
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association of a protective paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphism in Parkinson's disease2012In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 522, no 1, p. 30-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pesticide exposure has been suggested to increase the risk to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). The arylesterase paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is mainly expressed in the liver and hydrolyzes organophosphates such as pesticides. The polymorphism Leu54Met (rs854560) in PON1, impairing enzyme activity and leading to decreased PON1 expression levels, has been reported to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). PON1 is part of a cluster on chromosome 7q21.3 together with PON2 and PON3. We investigated the occurrence of four additional polymorphisms in PON1 and two in PON2 in a Swedish PD case-control material. We found a significant association (p=0.007) with a PON1 promoter polymorphism, rs854571. The minor allele was more common among controls than PD cases which suggest a protective effect. This is strengthened by the fact that rs854571 is in strong linkage disequilibrium with another PON1 promoter polymorphism, rs854572, reported to increase PON1 gene expression. Our findings support the hypothesis that PON1 is involved in the etiology of PD and that higher PON1 levels are reducing the risk for PD.

  • 4. Bracci-Laudiero, Luisa
    et al.
    Aloe, Luigi
    Lundeberg, Thomas
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Stenfors, Carina
    Altered levels of neuropeptides characterize the brain of lupus prone mice.1999In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Case, Laura K.
    et al.
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Laubacher, Claire M.
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Richards, Emily A.
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Spagnolo, P. A.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bushnell, M. Catherine
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Inhibitory rTMS of secondary somatosensory cortex reduces intensity but not pleasantness of gentle touch2017In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 653, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the discriminative and affective aspects of touch are processed differently in the brain. Primary somatosensory cortex is strongly implicated in touch discrimination, whereas insular and prefronal regions have been associated with pleasantness aspects of touch. However, the role of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) is less clear. In the current study we used inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to temporarily deactivate S2 and probe its role in touch perception. Nineteen healthy adults received two sessions of 1-Hz rTMS on separate days, one targeting right S2 and the other targeting the vertex (control). Before and after rTMS, subjects rated the intensity and pleasantness of slow and fast gentle brushing of the hand and performed a 2-point tactile discrimination task, followed by fMRI during additional brushing. rTMS to S2 (but not vertex) decreased intensity ratings of fast brushing, without altering touch pleasantness or spatial discrimination. MRI showed a reduced response to brushing in S2 (but not in S1 or insula) after S2 rTMS. Together, our results show that reducing touch evoked activity in S2 decreases perceived touch intensity, suggesting a causal role of S2 in touch intensity perception. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 6. Cruts, M.
    et al.
    Backhovens, H.
    Van Gassen, G.
    Theuns, J.
    Wang, Sheng-Ye
    Wehnert, A.
    van Duijn, C.M.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Hofman, A.
    Adolfsson, R.
    Martin, J-J.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Mutation analysis of the chromosome 14q24.3 dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) gene in patients with early-onset Alzheimers disease1995In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 199, p. 73-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Edoff, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granseth, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neuropeptide content and physiological properties of rat cartilage-projecting sensory neurones co-cultured with perichondrial cells2001In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 315, no 3, p. 141-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In young rats the cartilaginous epiphyses forming the knee joint are supplied with blood vessels and peptidergic sensory nerve fibres through the perichondrium and cartilage canals. In the present study we show that cartilage-related dorsal root ganglion neurones co-cultured with perichondrial cells develop extensive neurite trees and express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in in vivo-like proportions using retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, whole cell patch clamp recordings from these cells showed that the majority is depolarised by application of H+-ions. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that a local imbalance of blood flow and metabolism during normal skeletal maturation may cause tissue acidosis eliciting release of CGRP/SP from sensory nerve endings.

  • 8.
    Engblom, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ek, Monica
    Department of Medicine, Unit of Rheumatology, The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ericsson-Dahlstrand, Anders
    Department of Medicine, Unit of Rheumatology, The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Distribution of prostaglandin EP3 and EP4 receptor mRNA in the rat parabrachial nucleus2000In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 281, no 2-3, p. 163-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using in situ hybridization, the distribution of mRNA for the PGE2 receptors EP3 and EP4 was examined in the rat parabrachial nucleus (PB), a major brain stem relay for autonomic and nociceptive processing. EP3 receptor mRNA was present in most subnuclei, with the densest labeling in the external lateral, dorsal lateral, superior lateral, central lateral and Kölliker–Fuse nuclei. EP4 receptor mRNA expressing cells had a more restricted distribution, largely being confined to the superior lateral and adjacent parts of the dorsal and central lateral nuclei in a pattern complementary to that for EP3 receptor mRNA. These findings suggest that EP3 and EP4 receptors in PB have distinct functional roles that include nociceptive processing, blood pressure regulation and feeding behavior.

  • 9.
    Engström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Örtegren (Kugelberg), Unn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mackerlova, Ludmila
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Paues, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Preproenkephalin mRNA expression in rat parabrachial neurons: relation to cells activated by systemic immune challenge2001In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 316, no 3, p. 165-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using a dual-labeling immunohistochemical/in situ hybridization technique we examined if enkephalin-expressing neurons in the pontine parabrachial nucleus, a major brain stem relay for ascending visceral and homeostatic information, were activated by systemic immune challenge. While rats subjected to intravenous injection of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide expressed dense labeling for the immediate-early gene product FOS in parts of the parabrachial nucleus that also demonstrated dense preproenkephalin expression, only a small proportion of the enkephalin-positive neurons were FOS-positive. These data indicate that enkephalins, although implicated in a variety of autonomic responses, are not primarily involved in the transmission of immune-related information from the parabrachial nucleus to its different forebrain and brain stem targets.

  • 10. Erhardt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Skogh, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif
    Engberg, Göran
    Kynurenic acid levels ae elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia2001In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 313, no 1-2, p. 96-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor. Mounting evidence indicate that the compound is significantly involved in basal neurophysiological processes in the brain. In the present investigation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of kynurenic acid was analyzed in 28 male schizophrenic patients and 17 male healthy controls by means of high pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Schizophrenic patients showed elevated CSF levels of kynurenic acid (1.67 ▒ 0.27 nM) compared to the control group (0.97 ▒ 0.07 nM). Furthermore, CSF levels of kynurenic acid in schizophrenic patients were also found to correlate with age. The present finding is indicative of a contribution of kynurenic acid in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Fornander, Lotta
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Norrköping. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyman, Torbjörn
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Norrköping.
    Hansson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brismar, Tom
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Inter-hemispheric plasticity in patients with median nerve injury2016In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 628, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injuries result in reorganization within the contralateral hemisphere. Furthermore, recent animal and human studies have suggested that the plastic changes in response to peripheral nerve injury also include several areas of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The objective of this study was to map the inter-hemispheric plasticity in response to median nerve injury, to investigate normal differences in contra- and ipsilateral activation, and to study the impact of event-related or blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design on ipsilateral activation. Four patients with median nerve injury at the wrist (injured and epineurally sutured amp;gt;2 years earlier) and ten healthy volunteers were included. 3T fMRI was used to map the hemodynamic response to brain activity during tactile stimulation of the fingers, and a laterality index (LI) was calculated. Stimulation of Digits II-III of the injured hand resulted in a reduction in contralateral activation in the somatosensory area SI. Patients had a lower LI (0.21 +/- 0.15) compared to healthy controls (0.60 +/- 0.26) indicating greater ipsilateral activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. The spatial dispersion of the coordinates for areas SI and SII was larger in the ipsilateral than in the contralateral hemisphere in the healthy controls, and was increased in the contralateral hemisphere of the patients compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in LI between the event-related and blocked paradigms. In conclusion, patients with median nerve injury have increased ipsilateral SI area activation, and spatially more dispersed contralateral SI activation during tactile stimulation of their injured hand. In normal subjects ipsilateral activation has larger spatial distribution than the contralateral. Previous findings in patients performed with the blocked fMRI paradigm were confirmed. The increase in ipsilateral SI activation may be due to an interhemispheric disinhibition associated with changes in the afferent signal inflow to the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex.

  • 12.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dynorphin mRNA-expressing neurons in the rat paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus project to the spinal cord2000In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 285, no 3, p. 161-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The opioid peptide dynorphin is important for the regulation of neuronal activity in the spinal cord. Because dynorphin is produced by neurons throughout the neuraxis, there are many putative sources for spinal dynorphin fibers, in addition to those originating from spinal cord neurons. Using a sensitive double-labeling technique combining in situ hybridization and tract tracing, the present study demonstrates that the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) of adult naı̈ve male Sprague–Dawley rats contains large numbers of dynorphin mRNA-producing cells with projections to the spinal cord. Thus, more than 40% of the spinally projecting neurons in PVH were found to express dynorphin mRNA. This novel finding suggests that the PVH is a major source of spinal dynorphin that may be of importance for the processing of pain and visceral information.

  • 13.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermanson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Preprovasopressin mRNA is not present in dorsal root ganglia of the rat1996In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 209, no 10, p. 125-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunohistochemical studies on colchic ine-treated rats have suggested that more than half of the neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contain vasopressin. Thus, vasopressin would be the most commonly found peptide in DRG neurons. In the present study we have reexamined the presence of vasopressin in DRG neurons, using a sensitive in situ hybridization method employing long riboprobes that will detect very small amounts of mRNA. The C3, C6, T2, T12, L2 and L5 DRG were studied. None of these ganglia contained any preprovasopressin mRNA. Yet, dense labeling for preprovasopressin mRNA was seen on simultaneously processed hypothalamic sections and a heavy preprotachykinin mRNA expression was seen in adjacent DRG sections. These findings demonstrate that vasopressin is not produced in DRG in normal rats.

  • 14.
    Hamlin, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mackerlova, Ludmila
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ericson, Ann-Charlott
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    AMPA-selective glutamate receptor subunits and their relation to glutamate-and GABA-like immunoreactive terminals in the nucleus submedius of the rat1996In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 217, no 2-3, p. 149-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamate plays an important role in supraspinal nociceptive systems. Thus, glutamate is present in the nucleus submedius of the medial thalamus, a major relay for nociceptive information. In this study, immunoreactivity for the four subunits (GluR1-4) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxasoleproprionate (AMPA) receptors was examined by a preembedding immunohistochemical method in order to evaluate the presence of this glutamate receptor subtype in the nucleus submedius. Combining the preembedding method with a postembedding immunogold technique, we found that AMPA receptor-like immunoreactivity was present postsynaptically to glutamatergic terminals but not to terminals containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These findings suggest a role for AMPA receptors in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus submedius of the rat thalamus.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden and Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm Sweden.
    Brismar, Tom
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm Sweden.
    Tactile stimulation of the hand causes bilateral cortical activation: A functional magnetic resonance study in humans1999In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 271, no 1, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the somatotopy of the cortical sensory representation of the fingers using a natural tactile stimulation of the glabrous skin. Multislice echoplanar imaging techniques were utilized to investigate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes as a measure of cortical activation. Repetitive sensory stimulation of the glabrous skin of digit II–III and digit IV–V resulted in a multifocal signal increase in a restricted area near the central sulcus in the contralateral hemisphere with a considerable overlap between the activated areas of digit II–III and digit IV–V. In addition, in all subjects tactile stimulation resulted in ipsilateral signal increase near the central sulcus, which was 15–22% of the contralateral effect. Stimulation of digit II–III caused significantly (P<0.05) more activated voxels than digit IV–V in the contralateral hemisphere for both hands and for the left hand in the ipsilateral hemisphere. These findings suggest an ipsilateral activation of the primary somatosensory cortex during a natural tactile stimulation of the digits in humans.

  • 16.
    Kastrup, Ylva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Hirata, S
    Hermansson, O
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Progesterone receptor expression in the brainstem of the female rat.1999In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 275, p. 85-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Larsson, Max
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pax2 is persistently expressed by GABAergic neurons throughout the adult rat dorsal horn.2017In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 638, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transcription factor Pax2 is required for the differentiation of GABAergic neurons in the mouse dorsal horn. Pax2 continues to be expressed in the adult murine spinal cord and has been used as a presumed marker of GABAergic neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the adult mouse, although a strict association between adult Pax2 expression and presence of GABA throughout the dorsal horn has not been firmly established. Moreover, whether Pax2 is selectively expressed in GABAergic dorsal horn neurons also in the rat is unknown. Here, immunofluorescent labeling of Pax2 and GABA in the lumbar spinal cord of adult rats was used to investigate this issue. Indeed, essentially all GABA immunoreactive neurons in laminae I-V were immunolabeled for Pax2. Conversely, essentially all Pax2 immunopositive neurons in these laminae exhibited somatic GABA immunolabeling. These results indicate persistent Pax2 expression in GABAergic neurons in the adult rat dorsal horn, supporting the hypothesis that Pax2 may be required for the maintenance of a GABAergic phenotype in mature inhibitory dorsal horn neurons in the rat. Furthermore, Pax2 may be used as a selective and specific general somatic marker of such neurons.

  • 18.
    Lillesaar, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, C.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fried, KJ
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rat tooth pulp cells elicit neurite growth from trigeminal neurones and express mRNAs for neurotrophic factors in vitro2001In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 308, no 3, p. 161-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular factors control the developmental ingrowth of axons to the tooth pulp. Here we examine the ability of pulpal cells to induce neurite outgrowth from neonatal rat trigeminal neurones (TGNs) in vitro. We found that TGNs emitted neurites and formed networks of branches in relation to pulpal cells. Neurones co-cultured with a mixture of pulpal cells and 3T3 fibroblasts formed networks exclusively in relation to the pulpal cells. Cultivated pulpal cells and pulpal tissue produced mRNAs for all neurotrophins and members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. Hence, rat pulpal cells have neuritogenic effects on single TGNs in vitro, that may be associated with secretion of neurotrophic factors.

  • 19.
    Lillesaar, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hildebrand, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Denervation does not affect the growth of rat vibrissae1999In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 261, no 1-2, p. 69-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the hypothesis that neural factors influence the growth of rat vibrissae. We divided the vibrissae in rows α-δ, 1 and 2 and examined their regrowth during the first complete growth period in normal and nerve-lesioned rats. The lesions used were denervation through neonatal capsaicin treatment, surgical sympathecomy in adult rats, neurectomy of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve in adult rats or division of the infraorbital nerve in adult rats. Normal vibrissae developed a length of 51.1 mm and a diameter of 178 μm (row α-δ), 44.1 mm and 181 μm (row 1) and 33.2 mm and 165 μm (row 2). In all experimental groups the examined vibrissae developed a normal final length and proximal diameter. This indicates that local nerves do not influence vibrissal growth to any major extent.

  • 20. Magnusson, Anna K
    et al.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery.
    Reversible and controlled peripheral vestibular loss by continuous infusion of ropivacaine (Narop®) into the round window niche of rats2006In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 400, no 1-2, p. 16-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for achieving a peripheral vestibular blockade in rats by instillation of local anaesthetics over the round window membrane through a permanently implanted cannula. Being rapidly reversible, the effect of the anaesthetic drug is easily controlled by a single continuous infusion, which can be repeated at any time. The method offers a unique opportunity to study the consequence of single or repeated transient vestibular loss without any use of general anaesthetics, which may be a severe confounding factor. Such studies might shed light on balance disorders related to permanent vestibular loss or episodic vestibular dysfunction. To evaluate the method, spontaneous horizontal eye movements were recorded during the first 4 h of continuous infusion. Unilateral infusion of ropivacaine gave rise to a high-frequency spontaneous nystagmus, reaching levels that have not been documented after a surgical labyrinthectomy under general anaesthesia. This vestibulo-oculomotor behaviour is consistent with a previous report using a single intratympanic instillation of lidocaine to achieve a short-lasting vestibular blockade. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the initial high-frequency nystagmus decreased during the first 100 min of infusion before stabilizing at the same level as recorded when the effect of general anaesthesia has worn off after a surgical ablation. When the transient vestibular blockade was repeated by a second infusion during the following day, the nystagmus frequency saturated on a significantly lower level than during the first blockade. Also, serial single infusions, with recovery between each functional vestibular loss, gave rise to a less severe nystagmus. It is suggested that this phenomenon is an expression of the behavioural concept of 'vestibular habituation', the neural substrate of which is rather unknown. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21. Mårtensson, LGE
    et al.
    Wärmländer, S
    Hildebrand, Claes
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Noradrenaline-induced pigment aggregating response of melanophores in normal, denervated and recinnervated cichlid skin.1999In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 275, p. 113-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Rimondini, Roberto
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.
    Thorsell, Annika
    National Institutes of Health, NIAAA, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    National Institutes of Health, NIAAA, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Suppression of ethanol self-administration by the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246: evidence for sensitization in rats with a history of dependence2005In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 375, no 2, p. 129-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence from genetically modified mice suggests a role for NPY in regulation of ethanol intake, but results of pharmacological studies have been more variable. We have previously shown that potentiation of NPY signaling through antagonism at NPY-Y2 receptors decreases operant responding for ethanol in Wistar rats without a history of dependence. Here, we examined the effects of Y2-antagonism in animals with a history of dependence induced by long-term intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor. The Y2-receptor antagonist BIIE0246 suppressed operant responding for ethanol (approximately 50%, p=0.01), at a dose (0.5 nmol i.c.v.) which was ineffective in subjects without a history of dependence. Responding for the ethanol-free control solution was unaffected. These data confirm that antagonism at central NPY-Y2 receptors selectively suppresses motivation to self-administer ethanol, and indicate that the NPY system is sensitized in animals with a history of dependence. This may render the NPY system, and Y2 receptors in particular, an attractive target for treatment of alcohol dependence.

  • 23.
    Sundberg, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Granseth, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cre-expressing neurons in the cortical white matter of Ntsr1-Cre GN220 mice2018In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 675, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically modified mouse strains that express Cre-recombinase in specific neuronal sub-populations have become widely used tools for investigating neuronal function. The Ntsr1-Cre GN220 mouse expresses this enzyme in corticothalamic neurons in layer 6 of cerebral cortex. We observed that about 7% of Cre-expressing cells in the primary visual cortex are found within the white matter bordering layer 6. By using the immunohistochemical marker for layer 6 neurons, Forkhead box protein 2 (FoxP2), and fluorescently conjugated latex beads injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, we show that about half of these cells are similar to and could belong to the layer 6 corticothalamic neuron population. The other half seems to be a distinct white matter (WM) neuron sub-population that we estimate to constitute 2-4% of the total cortical Cre expressing population. Staining for the neuronal marker Neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that about 15-40% of WM neurons are Cre-expressing. Thus, the potential contribution from WM neurons needs to be considered when interpreting the results from experiments using the Ntsr1-Cre GN220 mouse for investigating corticothalamic neuronal function.

  • 24.
    Vasilache, Ana-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Andersson, Josefin
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Expression of PGE2 EP3 receptor subtypes in the mouse preoptic region2007In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 423, no 3, p. 179-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammatory-induced fever is dependent on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) binding to its EP3 receptor in the thermoregulatory region of the hypothalamus, but it is not known which EP3 receptor isoform(s) that is/are involved. We identified the EP3 receptor expression in the mouse preoptic region by in situ hybridization and isolated the corresponding area by laser capture microdissection. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of microdissected tissue revealed a predominant expression of the EP3α isoform, but there was also considerable expression of EP3γ, corresponding to approximately 15% of total EP3 receptor expression, whereas EP3β was sparsely expressed. This distribution was not changed by immune challenge induced by peripheral administration of LPS, indicating that EP3 receptor splicing and distribution is not activity dependent. Considering that EP3α and EP3γ are associated with inhibitory and stimulatory G-proteins, respectively, the present data demonstrate that the PGE2 response of the target neurons is intricately regulated. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Vumma, R.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Biomedicine, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Wiesel, F.-A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, SE-750 17 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Flyckt, L.
    Department of Psychiatry, R and D Section, Danderyd's Hospital, SE-182 87 Danderyd, Sweden.
    Bjerkenstedt, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry .
    Venizelos, N.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Biomedicine, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Functional characterization of tyrosine transport in fibroblast cells from healthy controls2008In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 434, no 1, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human fibroblast cells are an advantageous model to study the transport of amino acids across cell membranes, since one can control the environmental factors. A major problem in all earlier studies is the lack of precise and detailed knowledge regarding the expression and functionality of tyrosine transporters in human fibroblasts. This motivated us to perform a systematic functional characterization of the tyrosine transport in fibroblast cells with respect to the isoforms of system-L (LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, LAT4), which is the major transporter of tyrosine. Ten (n = 10) fibroblast cell lines from healthy volunteers were included in the study. Uptake of L-[U-14C] tyrosine in fibroblasts was measured using the cluster tray method in the presence and absence of excess concentrations of various combinations of inhibitors. This study demonstrated that LAT1 is involved in 90% of total uptake of tyrosine and also around 51% of alanine. Not more than 10% can be accounted for by LAT2, LAT3 and LAT4 isoforms. LAT2 seems to be functionally weak in uptake of tyrosine while LAT3 and LAT4 contributed around 7%. 10% could be contributed by system-A (ATA2 isoform). Alanine consequently inhibited the tyrosine transport by up to 60%. Tyrosine transport through the LAT1 isoform has a higher affinity compared to system-L. In conclusion, the LAT1 isoform is the major transporter of tyrosine in human fibroblast cells. Competition between tyrosine and alanine for transport is shown to exist, probably between LAT1 and LAT2 isoforms. This study established fibroblast cells as a suitable experimental model for studying amino acid transport defects in humans. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Zheng, Lin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Jerhammar, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Terman, Alexei
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Autophagy of amyloid beta-protein in differentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to oxidative stress2006In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 394, no 3, p. 184-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress is considered important for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is characterized by the formation of senile plaques rich in amyloid beta-protein (Aβ). Aβ cytotoxicity has been found dependent on lysosomes, which are abundant in AD neurons and are shown to partially co-localize with Aβ. To determine whether oxidative stress has any influence on the relationship between lysosomes and Aβ1-42 (the most toxic form of Aβ), we studied the effect of hyperoxia (40% versus 8% ambient oxygen) on the intracellular localization of Aβ1-42 (assessed by immunocytochemistry) in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells maintained in serum-free OptiMEM medium. In control cells, Aβ1-42 was mainly localized to small non-lysosomal cytoplasmic granules. Only occasionally Aβ1-42 was found in large (over 1 μm) lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 positive vacuoles, devoid of the early endosomal marker rab5. These large Aβ1-42-containing lysosomes were not detectable in the presence of serum (known to suppress autophagy), while their number increased dramatically (up to 24-fold) after exposure of cells to hyperoxia during 5 days. Activation of autophagy by hyperoxia was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, an inhibitor of autophagic sequestration 3-methyladenine prevented the accumulation of Aβ1-42-positive lysosomes due to hyperoxia. In parallel experiments, intralysosomal accumulation of Aβ1-40 following oxidative stress has been found as well. The results suggest that Aβ can be autophagocytosed and its accumulation within neuronal lysosomes is enhanced by oxidative stress. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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