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  • 1.
    Davidovic, Monika
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karjalainen, Louise
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Starck, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Wentz, Elisabet
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björnsdotter Åberg, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abnormal brain processing of gentle touch in anorexia nervosa2018In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 281, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body image disturbance is a core symptom in anorexia nervosa (AN). Recent research suggests that abnormalities in touch perception may contribute to the disease mechanisms in AN. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study possible abnormalities in cortical processing of affective touch in AN. Gentle skin strokes were applied to the right forearm during fMRI scanning in women diagnosed with AN (n = 25) and in matched healthy controls (HC; n = 25). Blocks of skin stroking were alternated with blocks of static skin indentation. Participants provided ratings of the pleasantness of skin stroking stimulation. AN participants perceived skin stroking as significantly less pleasant than HC. We observed no group differences for the contrast between skin stroking and skin indentation in primary tactile regions. We did find, however, significantly less activity in the AN group in areas including left caudate nucleus. Also, we found less activity in the AN group in bilateral lateral occipital cortex for the main effect of skin stroking. Our results suggest that abnormal functioning of the dorsal striatum could affect evaluation of pleasant tactile stimuli, and that abnormal functioning of the lateral occipital cortex might be related to disturbed body image perception.

  • 2.
    Hamilton, Paul J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN).
    Glover, Gary H.
    Stanford University, CA, USA.
    Bagarinao, Epifanio
    Stanford University, CA, USA.
    Chang, Catie
    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Mackey, Sean
    Stanford University, CA, USA.
    Sacchet, Matthew D.
    Stanford University, CA, USA.
    Gotlib, Ian H.
    Stanford University, CA, USA.
    Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder2016In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 249, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brains salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. Ten other participants engaged in an equivalent procedure with the exception that they saw SN-node neurofeedback indices from participants in the real neurofeedback group. Before and after scanning, all participants completed tasks assessing emotional responses to negative scenes and to negative and positive self-descriptive adjectives. Compared to participants in the sham-neurofeedback group, from pre- to post-training, participants in the realneurofeedback group showed a greater decrease in SN-node response to negative stimuli, a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative scenes, and a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative self-descriptive adjectives. Our findings provide support for a neural formulation in which the SN plays a primary role in contributing to negative cognitive biases in MDD. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Witt, Suzanne Tyson
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stevens, Michael C.
    Hartford Hospital, CT 06106 USA; Yale University, CT 06511 USA.
    Relationship between white matter microstructure abnormalities and ADHD symptomatology in adolescents2015In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 168-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study sought to evaluate whether white matter microstructure abnormalities observed in a cohort of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have specific relationships with either or both Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattentive ADHD symptom domains that would support a dimensional view of ADHD as adopted in the DSM-V. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on 22 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine whether scalar DTI measures in 13 tracts-of-interest demonstrated meaningful associations with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity or Inattentive symptom severity. Fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity measures of white matter integrity exhibited significant linear relationships with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattentive symptom severity. However, only radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus was specifically linked to Inattentive symptom severity and not Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptom severity. Our results provide preliminary evidence that symptom domains in ADHD are linked to neuroanatomical substrates and confirm the value in examining ADHD from a dimensional perspective.

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