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  • 1.
    Biurrun Manresa, Jose A.
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Sörensen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Ole K.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Dynamic Changes in Nociception and Pain Perception After Spinal Cord Stimulation in Chronic Neuropathic Pain Patients2015In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 1046-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Patients with an implanted spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system for pain management present an opportunity to study dynamic changes in the pain system in a situation where patients are not stimulated (ie, experiencing severe pain) compared with a situation in which patients have just been stimulated (ie, pain free or greatly reduced pain). The aims of this study were (1) to determine if there are differences in nociceptive withdrawal reflex thresholds (NWR-T) and electrical pain thresholds (EP-T) before and after SCS; and (2) to establish if these differences are related to psychological factors associated with chronic pain. Methods: Seventeen volunteers with chronic neuropathic pain participated in the experiment. Electrical stimuli were applied to assess the NWR-T and the EP-T. In addition, psychological factors (ie, pain characteristics, depression, anxiety, and disability indexes) were also recorded. The NWR-T and EP-T were assessed with the SCS system off (at least 8 h before the experiment), and then reassessed 1 hour after the SCS system was turned on. Results: Ongoing pain intensity ratings decreased (P=0.018), whereas the NWR-T increased (P=0.028) after the SCS was turned on, whereas no significant difference was found for EP-T (P=0.324). Psychological factors were significant predictors for EP-T but not for NWR-T. Discussion: The results of this study suggest that pain relief after SCS is partially mediated by a decrease in the excitability of dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord.

  • 2.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Syk, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Burvall, Olle
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Individualized Guided Internet-delivered Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Chronic Pain Patients With Comorbid Depression and Anxiety A Randomized Controlled Trial2015In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 504-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Depression and anxiety are commonly seen in patients with chronic pain which affects the patients daily life functioning. Although considerable attention has been devoted to explain why depression and anxiety are frequent comorbid with chronic pain, little empirical work has been conducted on interventions that target depression and anxiety and chronic pain. The present study was designed to test an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment delivered through the internet for persons with chronic pain and emotional distress. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 patients with chronic pain and depression were included and randomized to either treatment for 8 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant decreases regarding depressive symptoms and pain disability in the treatment group. Results on the primary outcomes of depression and anxiety were in favor of the treatment group. Reductions were also found on pain catastrophizing. Discussion: One-year follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an individualized guided internet-delivered treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy can be effective for persons with chronic pain comorbid emotional distress.

  • 3.
    Dawson, Andreas
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    List, Thomas
    Malmö University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Svensson, Peter
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Ernberg, Malin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
    Effects of Experimental Tooth Clenching on Pain and Intramuscular Release of 5-HT and Glutamate in Patients With Myofascial TMD2015In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 740-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: It has been suggested that tooth clenching may be associated with local metabolic changes, and is a risk factor for myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). This study investigated the effects of experimental tooth clenching on the levels of 5-HT, glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate, as well as on blood flow and pain intensity, in the masseter muscles of M-TMD patients. Methods: Fifteen patients with M-TMD and 15 pain-free controls participated. Intramuscular microdialysis was performed to collect 5-HT, glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate and to assess blood flow. Two hours after the insertion of a microdialysis catheter, participants performed a 20-minute repetitive tooth clenching task (50% of maximal voluntary contraction). Pain intensity was measured throughout. Results: A significant effect of group (P less than 0.01), but not of time, was observed on 5-HT levels and blood flow. No significant effects of time or group occurred on glutamate, pyruvate, or lactate levels. Time and group had significant main effects on pain intensity (P less than 0.05 and less than 0.001). No significant correlations were identified between: (1) 5-HT, glutamate, and pain intensity; or between (2) pyruvate, lactate, and blood flow. Discussion: This experimental tooth clenching model increased jaw muscle pain levels in M-TMD patients and evoked low levels of jaw muscle pain in controls. M-TMD patients had significantly higher levels of 5-HT than controls and significantly lower blood flow. These 2 factors may facilitate the release of other algesic substances that may cause pain.

  • 4.
    Gerdle, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Forsberg, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Ghafouri, Nazdar
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Karlsson, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Stensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Chronic Widespread Pain: Increased Glutamate and Lactate Concentrations in the Trapezius Muscle and Plasma2014In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 409-420Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Chronic widespread pain (CWP), including fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), is associated with prominent negative consequences. CWP has been associated with alterations in the central processing of nociception. Whereas some researchers consider CWP/FM as a central hyperexcitability pain condition, others suggest that the central alterations are maintained by peripheral nociceptive input. Microdialysis can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in chronic myalgia. AIM:: The aim of the study was to investigate the plasma and interstitial concentrations of metabolites and algesics in the trapezius muscle of women with CWP and in pain-free women (CON).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Seventeen women with CWP and 24 CON went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire; the pressure pain thresholds in the upper and lower extremities were registered. Microdialysis was conducted in the trapezius muscle, and a blood sample was drawn. Muscle blood flow, interstitial muscle concentrations, and plasma concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol (not in the plasma) were determined.

    RESULTS:: CWP patients had significantly increased interstitial muscle (P=0.02 to 0.001) and plasma (P=0.026 to 0.017) concentrations of lactate and glutamate. No significant differences existed in blood flow between CWP and CON. The interstitial concentrations-but not the plasma levels-of glutamate and lactate correlated significantly with aspects of pain such as pressure pain thresholds of the trapezius (R=0.22) and tibialis anterior (R=0.18) and the mean pain intensity (R=0.10) in CWP but not in CON.

    CONCLUSIONS:: The present study supports the suggestion that aspects of pain and central alterations in CWP/FM are influenced by peripheral tissue alterations.

  • 5.
    Hurtig, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aspegren-Kendall, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Quantitative sensory testing in fibromyalgia patients and in healthy subjects: identification of subgroups2001In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 316-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine perception and pain thresholds in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and in healthy controls, and to investigate whether patients with fibromyalgia syndrome can be grouped with respect to thermal hyperalgesia and whether these subgroups differ from healthy controls and in clinical appearance. Design: The authors conducted a quasi-experimental clinical study. Subjects: Twenty-nine women patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and 21 healthy pain-free age-matched women participated in the study. Methods: Quantitative sensory testing using a Thermotest instrument was performed on the dorsum of the left hand. Sleep and pain intensity were rated using visual analog scales. Results: Cold and heat pain but not perception thresholds differed significantly between patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and healthy subjects. Based on thermal pain thresholds, two subgroups could be identified in fibromyalgia syndrome using cluster analysis. Conclusion: Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were subgrouped by quantitative sensory testing (i.e., thermal pain thresholds). Subgroups show clinical differences in pain intensities, number of tender points, and sleep quality. Cold pain threshold was especially linked to these clinical aspects.

  • 6.
    Kemani, Mike K.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Olsson, Gunnar L.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Efficacy and Cost-effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Applied Relaxation for Longstanding Pain A Randomized Controlled Trial2015In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 1004-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives:To date, few studies have compared Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for longstanding pain with established treatments. Only 1 study has evaluated the cost-effectiveness of ACT. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ACT and applied relaxation (AR) for adults with unspecific, longstanding pain.Materials and Methods:On the basis of the inclusion criteria 60 consecutive patients received 12 weekly group sessions of ACT or AR. Data were collected pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment, as well as at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Growth curve modeling was used to analyze treatment effects on pain disability, pain intensity, health-related quality of life (physical domain), anxiety, depression, and acceptance.Results:Significant improvements were seen across conditions (pretreatment to follow-up assessment) on all outcome measures. Pain disability decreased significantly in ACT relative to AR from preassessment to postassessment. A corresponding decrease in pain disability was seen in AR between postassessment and 6-month follow-up. Pain acceptance increased only in ACT, and this effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. Approximately 20% of the participants achieved clinically significant change after treatment. Health economic analyses showed that ACT was more cost-effective than AR at post and 3-month follow-up assessment, but not at 6-month follow-up.Discussion:More studies investigating moderators and mediators of change are needed. The present study is one of few that have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of ACT and AR and compared ACT with an established behavioral intervention, and the results provide additional support for behavioral interventions for longstanding pain.

  • 7.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation in Motala.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    OLeary, Shaun
    University of Queensland, Australia; Queensland Heatlh, Australia.
    Dedering, Asa
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Effect of Neck-specific Exercise With, or Without a Behavioral Approach, on Pain, Disability, and Self-Efficacy in Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial2015In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 294-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). Materials and Methods: A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results: The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (P less than 0.01) in the 2 NSE groups (29% to 48%) compared with the PPA group (5%) at 3 months. At 6 months 39% to 44% of the patients in the 2 neck-specific groups and 28% in the PPA group reported substantial pain reduction. Reduction of disability was also larger in the 2 neck-specific exercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (P less than 0.02). Self-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P = 0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. Discussion: NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive.

  • 8. Larsson, Britt
    et al.
    Björk, Jonas
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Lindman, Rolf
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Blood supply and oxidative metabolism in muscle biopsies of female cleaners with and without myalgia2004In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 440-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Pathomechanisms of work-related myalgia are poorly understood. Myalgia is thought to be caused by excitation of nociceptors present in the muscular tissue but not in the muscle fiber itself. Muscle contraction in combination with hypoxia is known to excite nociceptors. Morphologic analysis can contribute to the knowledge of the excitation of nociceptors. This study thoroughly examines the morphology of the trapezius muscle's capillary supply and signs of disturbed oxidative metabolism to understand their role in work-related myalgia. Methods: Surgical trapezius muscle biopsies were obtained from 25 female cleaners with long-standing work-related myalgia, 25 female cleaners without trapezius myalgia, and 21 healthy teachers. Enzyme and immunohistochemical stainings were performed to highlight fibers with aberrant intermyofibrillar patterns, indicating a disturbed oxidative metabolism (also known as moth-eaten fibers) and a disturbed capillary supply of different fibers. Results: A significantly lower number of capillaries per fiber area in cleaners suffering from myalgia compared with cleaners without trapezius myalgia was found. Moth-eaten fibers were found in the 3 groups, but these fibers were significantly more prevalent in the groups of cleaners than in the healthy teacher group. Conclusion: This work indicates that the capillary supply of trapezius is affected in work-related trapezius myalgia. More studies are needed to understand possible mechanisms that would explain the occurrence of moth-eaten fibers.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Björk, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Grimby-Ekman, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pain Sensitivity and its Relation to Spreading on the Body, Intensity, Frequency, and Duration of Pain A Cross-Sectional Population-based Study (SwePain)2017In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 579-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:Individuals with chronic pain often report increased pain sensitivity compared with pain-free individuals; hence, it is crucial to determine whether and how different pain characteristics influence or interact with pain sensitivity. An alternative to experimental pain sensitivity testing is the self-reported pain sensitivity questionnaire (PSQ), which captures pain sensitivity in various body areas.This study compares PSQ in individuals with and without pain and clarifies how pain sensitivity relates to spreading of pain on the body, and to intensity, frequency, duration of pain and to age and sex.Materials and Methods:A total of 5905 individuals with pain and 572 individuals without pain from the general population in southeastern Sweden completed and returned a postal questionnaire.Results:The mean PSQ score was 3.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.88-3.98) in individuals with pain and 3.5 (95% CI, 3.38-3.64) in pain-free individuals. Hence, PSQ was the highest among individuals with pain, with a difference of 0.4 (95% CI, 0.30-0.56). There was a considerable variation in the PSQ values (mean=3.5; SD=1.54) among pain-free individuals. Pain sensitivity was positively related to spreading, intensity, and frequency of pain, with a correlation coefficient of 0.3. PSQ was higher in widespread pain, 4.5 (95% CI, 4.27-4.69) in women and 4.3 (95% CI, 3.94-4.71) in men, than in local pain, 3.7 (95% CI, 3.61-3.91) in women and 3.8 (95% CI, 3.66-3.95) in men. The score for women with regional pain was between local and widespread pain at 4.0 (95% CI, 3.95-4.11) and that for men with regional pain was 3.8 (95% CI, 3.69-3.87), which is equal to that of local pain.Discussion:The positive association between pain sensitivity and spreading of pain on the body provides some evidence that the extent of spreading may be related to the degree of pain sensitivity. Before clinical use of PSQ, psychometric development and further research are needed.

  • 10.
    Lemming, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sörensen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Graven-Nielsen, Thomas
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Laboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Laboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The responses to pharmacological challenges and experimental pain in patients with chronic whiplash-associated pain2005In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 412-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study evaluates the analgesic responses to intravenous administration of morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine and their relations to duration of chronic pain after whiplash trauma. In addition, experimental muscle pain sensitivity and its correlation to pain duration and pharmacological responses were assessed.

    Methods: Thirty-three patients with diagnosed whiplash-associated disorder grade II in the chronic stage, according to the Quebec classification, were included. The pharmacological evaluation was performed in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design and consisted of a 30-minute period of intravenous administration of morphine (0.3 mg/kg), lidocaine (5 mg/kg), ketamine (0.3 mg/kg), or placebo (isotonic saline). Intensity ratings of habitual pain on a visual analogue scale were taken before, during, and after the infusion. The patients were classified as nonresponders, placebo-responders, or responders (minimum 50% decrease of pain intensity) of the drugs. Pressure pain thresholds and intramuscular and cutaneous electrical stimulation pain thresholds were measured. The pain intensity during experimental muscle pain by intramuscular hypertonic saline was also recorded. Experimental pain assessments were performed on the lower legs outside the habitual painful area.

    Results: Thirty patients completed the study; 2 were placebo responders and 10 were nonresponders. Of 18 responders, there were 15 morphine responders, 11 lidocaine responders, and 14 ketamine responders. In the patients with whiplash-associated disorder duration less than 2 years, 7 responded to morphine, 5 to lidocaine, and 8 to ketamine. In the patients with pain duration longer than 2 years, 8 responded to morphine, 6 to lidocaine, and 6 to ketamine. Thus, no pattern with respect to pain duration was found. Seventeen patients participated in the experimental pain assessment, and no significant differences in the variables of the intramuscular and cutaneous stimulation and intramuscular-induced pain with respect to response to the pharmacological challenges or whiplash-associated disorder duration existed.

    Discussion: The pharmacological challenges identified subgroups of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder that might be considered before instituting therapeutic interventions or research. However, the pattern of responses to the pharmacological challenges did not show any clear relationships with pain duration or the experimental pain tests.

  • 11.
    Liew, Bernard X. W.
    et al.
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Scutari, Marco
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation in Motala. Cty Council Ostergotland, Sweden; Cty Council Ostergotland, Sweden.
    Falla, Deborah
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Investigating the Causal Mechanisms of Symptom Recovery in Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders Using Bayesian Networks2019In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present studys objective was to understand the causal mechanisms underpinning the recovery of individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). We applied Bayesian Networks (BN) to answer 2 study aims: (1) to identify the causal mechanism(s) of recovery underpinning neck-specific exercise (NSE), and (2) quantify if the cyclical pathway of the fear-avoidance model (FAM) is supported by the present data. Materials and Methods: We analyzed a prospective cohort data set of 216 individuals with chronic WAD. Fifteen variables were used to build a BN model: treatment group (NSE with or without a behavioral approach, or general physical activity), muscle endurance, range of motion, hand strength, neck proprioception, pain catastrophizing, fear, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, perceived work ability, disability, pain intensity, sex, and follow-up time. Results: The BN model showed that neck pain reduction rate was greater after NSE compared with physical activity prescription (beta=0.59 points per month [Pamp;lt;0.001]) only in the presence of 2 mediators: global neck muscle endurance and perceived work ability. We also found the following pathway of variables that constituted the FAM: anxiety, followed by depressive symptoms, fear, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and consequently pain. Conclusions: We uncovered 2 mediators that explained the mechanisms of effect behind NSE, and proposed an alternative FAM pathway. The present study is the first to apply BN modelling to understand the causal mechanisms of recovery in WAD. In doing so, it is anticipated that such analytical methods could increase the precision of treatment of individuals with chronic WAD.

  • 12.
    Peters, Madelon L.
    et al.
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Smeets, Elke
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Feijge, Marion
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    van Breukelen, Gerard
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Buhrman, Monica
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Happy Despite Pain A Randomized Controlled Trial of an 8-Week Internet-delivered Positive Psychology Intervention for Enhancing Well-being in Patients With Chronic Pain2017In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 962-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: There is preliminary evidence for the efficacy of positive psychology interventions for pain management. The current study examined the effects of an internet-based positive psychology self-help program for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and compared it with an internet-based cognitive-behavioral program. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was carried out with 3 conditions: an internet-delivered positive psychology program, an internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral program and waitlist control. A total of 276 patients were randomized to 1 of the 3 conditions and posttreatment data were obtained from 206 patients. Primary outcomes were happiness, depression, and physical impairments at posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses were carried out using mixed regression analyses. Results: Both treatments led to significant increases in happiness and decreases in depression. Physical impairments did not significantly decrease compared with waitlist. Improvements in happiness and depression were maintained until 6-month follow-up. There were no overall differences in the efficacy of the 2 active interventions but effects seemed to be moderated by education. Patients with a higher level of education profited slightly more from the positive psychology intervention than from the cognitive-behavioral program. Discussion: The results suggest that an internet-based positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral self-help interventions for the management of chronic pain are clinically useful. Because the self-help exercises as used in the current program do not require therapist involvement, dissemination potential is large. Further studies should examine whether it can best be used as stand-alone or add-on treatment combined with established pain treatment programs.

  • 13.
    Tseli, Elena
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Boersma, Katja
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Stalnacke, Britt-Marie
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Danderyd Hospital, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Ang, Bjorn O.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus J. A.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Prognostic Factors for Physical Functioning After Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation in Patients With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2019In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 148-173Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate prognostic factors for long-term (amp;gt;= 6 mo) physical functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain following multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR). Materials and Methods: Electronic searches conducted in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL revealed 25 original research reports, published 1983-2016, (n=9436). Potential prognostic factors relating to initial pain and physical and psychological functioning were synthesized qualitatively and quantitatively in random effects meta-analyses. The level of evidence (LoE) was evaluated with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results: Pain-related factors (intensity and chronicity) were not associated with function/disability at long-term follow-up, odds ratio (OR)=0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-1.07 and OR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00, respectively (moderate LoE). A better function at follow-up was predicted by Physical factors; higher levels of initial self-reported functioning, OR= 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13 (low LoE), and Psychological factors; low initial levels of emotional distress, OR= 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92, low levels of cognitive and behavioral risk factors, OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.93 and high levels of protective cognitive and behavioral factors, OR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.90 (moderate LoE). Discussion: While pain intensity and long-term chronicity did not predict physical functioning in chronic pain patients after MDR, poor pretreatment physical and psychological functioning influenced the prognosis negatively. Thus, treatment should further target and optimize these modifiable factors and an increased focus on positive, psychological protective factors may perhaps provide an opening for yet untapped clinical gains.

  • 14.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Boivie, Jörgen
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Holmgren, Helen
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, EMK-endokrin.
    Painful polyneuropathy in patients with and without diabetes: Clinical, neurophysiologic, and quantitative sensory characteristics2002In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 122-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study pain characteristics and peripheral nerve involvement in patients with painful diabetic and nondiabetic polyneuropathy in comparison with patients with nonpainful polyneuropathy. Patients and Methods: Fifty-five patients with polyneuropathy (37 with painful polyneuropathy, of whom 19 had diabetes and 18 had no diabetes, and 18 with painless polyneuropathy of different etiologies) were examined clinically using quantitative sensory tests and neurophysiology. Pain intensity and characteristics were analyzed by daily ratings on a 10-step verbal scale and by a questionnaire. Results: Most patients experienced pain of more than one character. There was no clear difference in character or duration of pain between patients with and without diabetes. The mean value of the daily rating of pain intensity showed that pain was more severe in the evenings than in the mornings and that diabetic patients reported worse pain than nondiabetic patients. Thirty-two of the 37 patients with pain had paresthesias and/or dysesthesias, whereas only 7 of 18 patients without pain had paresthesias. Pain was always located in the feet, and, in most patients, also in the lower part of the legs. Some patients also experienced pain in the hands. Tactile sensibility, measured by quantitative tests, was more affected in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients with painful polyneuropathy compared with patients without pain (p = 0.02). Temperature, pain, and vibratory sensibility were equally affected in all patient groups. Nerve conduction velocity, amplitudes, and distal latency were equally affected in the pain group as compared with the control group, indicating that both thin and thick nerve afferents are affected in patients with painful as well as nonpainful polyneuropathy and that etiology has no clear impact on nerve involvement. Conclusions: Neuropathy pain was always located in the feet and more severe in diabetic patients compared with patients with neuropathy pain of other etiologies. The authors also found evidence for a greater tactile sensibility involvement in patients with neuropathy pain, irrespective of etiology, whereas other quantitative sensibility and neurography parameters were equally affected in all patient groups.

  • 15.
    Wallin, Mia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liedberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine.
    Thermal Detection and Pain Thresholds but Not Pressure Pain Thresholds Are Correlated With Psychological Factors in Women With Chronic Whiplash-associated Pain2012In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 211-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with sensory disturbances such as hypersensitivity or hypoesthesia. Different psychological factors seem to be important for prognosis and symptom presentation in WAD. Multivariate correlations between pain thresholds for pressure (PPT), cold and heat (CPT, HPT), detection thresholds for cold and warmth, pain intensity variables, and psychological aspects in women with chronic WAD (n = 28) and in healthy pain-free controls (n = 29) were investigated. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) for thermal thresholds and algometry for PPT at various sites in the body were used. Psychological aspects, including catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression were registered using a questionnaire. WAD showed generalized decreased PPT and CPT, altered HPT and cold detection thresholds in the upper part of the body, and a worse psychological situation. Multivariate correlations were found between QST and PPT variables, habitual pain, and psychological factors in WAD. Different psychological variables were generally stronger predictors of CPT and HPT than pain intensity in WAD. Pain intensity aspects were generally the strongest predictors of PPT in WAD. In contrast, no correlations existed between QST and PPT variables and psychological variables in controls. These results indicate the need to consider that a blend of factors influences the pain thresholds in chronic WAD and emphasize the need for a biopsychosocial model when interpreting QST and PPT variables.

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