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  • 1.
    Aamand Grabau, Dorthe
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden .
    Bendahl, Par-Ola
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Ryden, Lisa
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Ferno, Marten
    Lund University, Sweden .
    The prevalence of immunohistochemically determined oestrogen receptor positivity in primary breast cancer is dependent on the choice of antibody and method of heat-induced epitope retrieval - prognostic implications?2013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 1657-1666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Oestrogen receptor (ER) status is important for the choice of systemic treatment of breast cancer patients. However, most data from randomised trials on the effect of adjuvant endocrine therapy according to ER status are based on the cytosol methods. Comparisons with immunohistochemical methods have given similar results. The aim of the present study was to examine whether different ER antibodies and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) methods influence the prevalence of ER-positivity in primary breast cancer. Material and methods. This study is based on patients included in a clinical trial designed to compare the effect of two years of adjuvant tamoxifen versus no adjuvant systemic treatment in premenopausal women. From 1986 to 1991, 564 patients from two study centres in Sweden were enrolled and randomised. Patients were randomised independently of ER status. In the present study, ER status was assessed on tissue microarrays with the three different ER antibody/HIER combinations: 1D5 in citrate pH 6 (n = 390), SP1 in Tris pH 9 (n = 390) and PharmDx in citrate pH 6 (n = 361). Results. At cut-offs of 1% and 10%, respectively, the prevalence of ER-positivity was higher with SP1 (75% and 72%) compared with 1D5 (68% and 66%) and PharmDx (66% and 62%). At these cut-offs, patients in the discordant groups (SP1-positive and 1D5-negative) seem to have a prognosis intermediate between those of the double-positive and double-negative groups. Comparison with the ER status determined by the cytosol-based methods in the discordant group also showed an intermediate pattern. The repeatability was good for all antibodies and cut-offs, with overall agreement andgt;= 93%. Conclusion. The present study shows that the choice of antibody and HIER method influences the prevalence of ER-positivity. We suggest that this be taken into consideration when choosing a cut-off for clinical decision making.

  • 2.
    Alevronta, Eleftheria
    et al.
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lind, Helena
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Al-Abany, Massoud
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte
    Department of Oncology, Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Caroline
    Department of Radiation Physics, the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Oncology, Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dunberger, Gail
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mavroidis, Panayotis
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden / Department of Medical Physics, Larissa University Hospital, Larissa, Greece.
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karl-Axel
    Department of Radiation Physics, the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Oncology, Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lind, Bengt K
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Dose-response relationships for an atomized symptom of fecal incontinence after gynecological radiotherapy.2013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 719-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate what bowel organ and delivered dose levels are most relevant for the development of 'emptying of all stools into clothing without forewarning' so that the related dose-responses could be derived as an aid in avoiding this distressing symptom in the future.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of the 77 gynecological cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer, 13 developed the symptom. The survivors were treated between 1991 and 2003. The anal-sphincter region, the rectum, the sigmoid and the small intestines were all delineated and the dose-volume histograms were exported for each patient. The dose-volume parameters were estimated fitting the data to the Relative Seriality (RS), the Lyman and the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD) model.

    RESULTS: The dose-response parameters for all three models and four organs at risk (OARs) were estimated. The data from the sigmoid fits the studied models best: D50 was 58.8 and 59.5 Gy (RS, Lyman), γ50 was 1.60 and 1.57 (RS, Lyman), s was 0.32, n was 0.13 and a was 7.7 (RS, Lyman, gEUD). The estimated volume parameters indicate that the investigated OARs behave serially for this endpoint. Our results for the three models studied indicate that they have the same predictive power (similar LL values) for the symptom as a function of the dose for all investigated OARs.

    CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the anal-sphincter region and sigmoid fit our data best, but all OARs were found to have steep dose-responses for 'emptying of all stools into clothing without forewarning' and thus, the outcome can be predicted with an NTCP model. In addition, the dose to the four studied OARs may be considered when minimizing the risk of the symptom.

  • 3.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Norrköping.
    Påhlman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden / Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The rise and fall of a longed for clinical trial in patients with generalized colorectal cancer2013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 1779-1782Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Stockholm University.
    Josefsson, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Are IMRT treatments in the head and neck region increasing the risk of secondary cancers?2014In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 1041-1047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been increasingly employed for treating head and neck (H&N) tumours due to its ability to produce isodoses suitable for the complex anatomy of the region. The aim of this study was to assess possible differences between IMRT and conformal radiation therapy (CRT) with regard to risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancies for H&N tumours.

    Material and Methods: IMRT and CRT plans were made for 10 H&N adult patients and the resulting treatment planning data were used to calculate the risk of radiation-induced malignancies in four different tissues. Three risk models with biologically relevant parameters were used for calculations. The influence of scatter radiation and repeated imaging sessions has also been investigated.

    Results: The results showed that the total lifetime risks of developing radiation-induced secondary malignancies from the two treatment techniques, CRT and IMRT, were comparable and in the interval 0.9-2.5%. The risk contributions from the primary beam and scatter radiation were comparable, whereas the contribution from repeated diagnostic imaging was considerably smaller.

    Conclusion: The results indicated that the redistribution of the dose characteristic to IMRT leads to a redistribution of the risks in individual tissues. However, the total levels of risk were similar between the two irradiation techniques considered.

  • 5.
    Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, GE: endokir.
    Ahlgren, J
    Omitting axillary surgery for low-risk breast cancer patients. A Swedish prospective cohort study.2000In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 39, p. 291-294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Asklund, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Malmström, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Linköping.
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Björ, Ove
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Henriksson, Roger
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, Umeå University, Sweden: Regional Cancer Centre Stockholm, Gotland, Sweden .
    Brain tumors in Sweden: Data from a population-based registry 1999-2012.2014In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The Swedish brain tumor registry has, since it was launched in 1999, provided significant amounts of data on histopathological diagnoses and on important aspects of surgical and medical management of these patients. The purpose is mainly quality control, but also as a resource for research. Methods. Three Swedish healthcare regions, constituting 40% of the Swedish population, have had an almost complete registration. The following parameters are registered: diagnosis according to SNOMED/WHO classification, symptoms, performance status, pre- and postoperative radiology, tumor size and localization, extent of surgery and occurrence of postoperative complications, postoperative treatment, such as radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, other treatments, complications and toxicity, occurrence of reoperation/s, participation in clinical trials, multidisciplinary conferences and availability of a contact nurse. Results. Surgical radicality has been essentially constant, whereas the use of early (within 72 hours) postoperative CT and MRI has increased, especially for high-grade glioma, which is a reflection of quality of surgery. Survival of patients with high-grade glioma has increased, especially in the age group 60-69. Patients aged 18-39 years had a five-year survival of 40%. Waiting times for the pathological report has been slightly prolonged. Geographical differences do exist for some of the variables. Conclusion. Population-based registration is valuable for assessment of clinical management, which could have impact on patient care. As a result of short survival and/or the propensity to affect cognitive functions this patient group has considerable difficulties to make their voices heard in society. We therefore believe that a report like the present one can contribute to the spread of knowledge and increase the awareness for this patient group among caregivers and policy makers.

  • 7.
    Asklund, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, University Hospital, Umeå.
    Malmström, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Linköping.
    Björ, Ove
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, University Hospital, Umeå.
    Blomquist, Erik
    Department of Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Henriksson, Roger
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, University Hospital, Umeå.
    Considerable improvement in survival for patients aged 60-84 years with high grade malignant gliomas - Data from the Swedish Brain Tumour Population-based Registry2013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1043-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Avall-Lundqvist, E H
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peterson, C O
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels may reflect disease activity in ovarian cancer patients.1996In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1007-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data in the literature demonstrates increased receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in many types of malignant cells compared with normal cells. In acute leukemia, an inverse correlation has been demonstrated between disease activity and plasma cholesterol. To explore whether this is true also for ovarian cancer a case-control study was performed. We serially collected blood samples and assayed serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (the receptor recognizing moiety of LDL) in 10 patients with ovarian cancer. At diagnosis, the patients had lower mean cholesterol levels compared with 6 healthy women. An increase was found after primary surgery and after successful initial chemotherapy. The 5 patients who are in complete remission after a mean follow-up time of 79 months had higher cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels at their last visit than at diagnosis. In contrast, a reduction of the two analytes was found in the patients who died from their ovarian cancer 15 to 28 months after diagnosis. The results may open a possibility for targetted chemotherapy in ovarian cancer with LDL as a drug carrier.

  • 9.
    Bastami, Salumeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Norling, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Trinks, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmlund, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Walz, Thomas M
    Department of Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Uppugunduri, Srinivas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Inhibitory effect of opiates on LPS mediated release of TNF and IL-82013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1022-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most patients with advanced cancer experience severe pain and are often treated with opiates. Cancer patients are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections due to treatment with immunosuppressive and cytostatic drugs. Since opiates have been demonstrated to have immunomodulatory effects, it is of clinical importance to evaluate potential differences between commonly used opiates with regard to their effect on the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of morphine, tramadol, fentanyl and ketobemidone on the functioning of the immune system with special reference to TNF and IL-8 release. Method. U-937 cells were preincubated with different concentrations of opioids followed by stimulation with LPS 100 μg/ml for three hours. The effect of opioids on the levels of cytokine mRNA was studied using RT-PCR. Erk and Akt phosphorylation was also measured by Western blot. Results. All opioids with the exception of fentanyl were capable of inhibiting TNF release from U-937 cells. Morphine had no effect on IL-8 release but the effect of other opiates was almost the same as the effect on TNF. All opioids with the exception of fentanyl were capable of inhibiting production of mRNA for TNF and IL-8. The observed effects of opiates were not always reversible by naloxone, suggesting that the effects might be mediated by other receptors or through a non-receptor mediated direct effect. Although preliminary evidence suggests the involvement of Erk and Akt pathways, further studies are needed to unravel the intracellular pathways involved in mediating the effects of opiates. Our data suggests that the order of potency with regard to inhibition of cytokine release is as follows: tramadol > ketobemidone > morphine > fentanyl. Conclusion. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implications of the observed immunosuppressive effects of tramadol and ketobemidone and to improve opioid treatment strategies in patients with cancer.

  • 10.
    Bergenfeldt, Magnus
    et al.
    Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.
    Albertsson, Maria
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Current state of adjuvant therapy in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma2006In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 124-135Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic carcinoma cannot generally be cured by surgery alone. This review summarizes the development of adjuvant therapy over the past two decades. Four randomized controlled trials compare long-term survival of different treatments. The small GITSG-study supports combined chemoradiation, but the EORTC-study found no significant effect. A Norwegian study of adjuvant chemotherapy found an increased median survival, but no effect beyond two years. The large ESPAC-1 study shows a benefit for 5-FU based chemotherapy, while chemoradiation had a negative effect. Thus, evidence favours adjuvant therapy, but 5-FU may not be the ultimate drug. Support for gemcitabine is given by preliminary data from a German randomized trial, and further American and European studies are upcoming. However, postoperative therapy is problematic, as 20-30% of resected patients never undergo treatment because of slow recovery or other reasons. Preoperative therapy has some theoretical advantages, and moreover, patients with rapidly progressive disease may be spared surgery. Randomized controlled trials are lacking, but published results compare well with postoperative, adjuvant therapy. The value of locally targeted therapy is difficult to assess. Reasonable results have been obtained with regional chemotherapy, whereas intraoperative radiotherapy does not seem to increase survival despite reducing reducing local recurrences.

  • 11.
    Bergmann, Troels K
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia .
    Vach, Werner
    University of Medical Centre, Germany .
    Feddersen, Soren
    Odense University Hospital, Denmark .
    Eckhoff, Lise
    Odense University Hospital, Denmark .
    Green, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Herrstedt, Jorn
    Odense University Hospital, Denmark .
    Brosen, Kim
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark .
    Letter: GWAS-based association between RWDD3 and TECTA variants and paclitaxel induced neuropathy could not be confirmed in Scandinavian ovarian cancer patients2013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 871-U231Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 12.
    Berterö, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science.
    Vanhanen, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Appelin, Gunilla
    Högskolan Jönköping.
    Receiving a diagnosis of inoperable lung cancer: Patients' perspectives of how it affects their life situation and quality of life2008In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 862-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lung cancer is a disease with many biomedical and psychological symptoms. The diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer induces adverse effects. Having an inoperable lung cancer there are few possibilities of being cured. Management of patients with inoperable disease is directed at relieving local or systemic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to describe how it affects the patients' life situation and quality of life. Data was collected by qualitative interviews where the patient's lived experiences were articulated. Twenty-three Swedish patients diagnosed and starting palliative treatment for inoperable lung cancer were interviewed. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were interpreted trough interpretive phenomenology. Six themes were identified that were important for the informants' experience of their life situation and quality of life. The themes were: Experience of uncertainty, including time of waiting and thoughts, experience of hope, about a prolonged life, network as support, being treated as the person they are thoughts of death, is there time to conclude their lives?, feelings of shame and guilt, they have caused the disease by themselves and next of kin reactions, sadness, guilt, worries and anger. These six themes gave a structure presenting the essence: Living as usual. Maintaining independency and integrity were important, as well as maintaining status, being treated as the person they always had been and that they experience that they had a meaning to fulfill in life. They were living as usual. The findings of this study point out the importance of improving the care of people afflicted with lung cancer, as well as promoting support for the next of kin, since they are significantly important for these patients' experiences of quality of life. This knowledge and understanding will be useful for development of interventions and guidelines for treatment. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  • 13.
    Brannstrom, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bjerregaard, Jon K.
    Odense University Hospital, Denmark.
    Winbladh, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment.
    Nilbert, Mef
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Revhaug, Arthur
    University of Tromsoe, Norway.
    Wagenius, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Morner, Malin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Multidisciplinary team conferences promote treatment according to guidelines in rectal cancer2015In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 447-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Multidisciplinary team (MDT) conferences have been introduced into standard cancer care, though evidence that it benefits the patient is weak. We used the national Swedish Rectal Cancer Register to evaluate predictors for case discussion at a MDT conference and its impact on treatment. Material and methods. Of the 6760 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer in Sweden between 2007 and 2010, 78% were evaluated at a MDT. Factors that influenced whether a patient was discussed at a preoperative MDT conference were evaluated in 4883 patients, and the impact of MDT evaluation on the implementation of preoperative radiotherapy was evaluated in 1043 patients with pT3c-pT4 M0 tumours, and in 1991 patients with pN + M0 tumours. Results. Hospital volume, i.e. the number of rectal cancer surgical procedures performed per year, was the major predictor for MDT evaluation. Patients treated at hospitals with less than 29 procedures per year had an odds ratio (OR) for MDT evaluation of 0.15. Age and tumour stage also influenced the chance of MDT evaluation. MDT evaluation significantly predicted the likelihood of being treated with preoperative radiotherapy in patients with pT3c-pT4 M0 tumours (OR 5.06, 95% CI 3.08 - 8.34), and pN + M0 (OR 3.55, 95% CI 2.60 -4.85), even when corrected for co-morbidity and age. Conclusion. Patients with rectal cancer treated at high-volume hospitals are more likely to be discussed at a MDT conference, and that is an independent predictor of the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. These results indirectly support the introduction into clinical practice of discussing all rectal cancer patients at MDT conferences, not least those being treated at low-volume hospitals.

  • 14.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Langius-Eklöf, Ann
    Örebro Universitet.
    Tishelman, Carol
    Karolinska Institutet.
    State of Science Conference in Cancer Care - identification of front line research topics2010In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 134-135Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Arman, Maria
    Department of Caring Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland and Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Backman, Marie
    The Swedish Red Cross University College of Nursing, Stockholm, SwedenRed Cross Univ. Coll. Nursing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flatters, Ursula
    The Vidar Clinic, Järna, Sweden.
    Hatschek, Thomas
    The Department of Oncology (Radiumhemmet), Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamrin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evaluation of Quality of Life/Life Satisfaction in Women with Breast Cancer in Complementary and Conventional Care2004In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study the perceived quality of life/life satisfaction in a sample of women with breast cancer who were treated in a hospital with alternative/complementary care and the same variables in individually matched patients who received only conventional medical treatment. A non-randomized controlled trial design with repeated measurements was used. Sixty women with breast cancer treated with anthroposophic medicine (ABCW) and 60 with conventional medicine (CBCW) were included and 36 matched pairs took part on all occasions. The quality of life was measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ). The comparisons were calculated as effect sizes (ES). The women in the ABCW group reported small or moderate effects, expressed as ES, on their quality of life/life satisfaction compared to their matched "twins" in the CBCW group at the 1-year follow-up in 15 out of 21 scales/factors. It was concluded that the women who had chosen anthroposophic care increased their perceived quality of life/life satisfaction according to the methodology of the study.

  • 16.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    Norrlands University Hospital, Umeå.
    Treatment planning optimisation based on imaging tumour proliferation and cell density2008In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1221-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional imaging could provide valuable information on the distribution of biological factors that influence the outcome of radiation therapy. Tumour proliferation and cell density in particular could be imaged with dedicated metabolic tracers and could thus be used for the biological optimisation of the treatment plans. The feasibility of individualising treatment planning using proliferation and density information has been investigated through simulations of heterogeneous tumours taking into account the cell density and proliferation rates. The predicted outcome was used to estimate the success of the individualisation of dose distributions. The results have shown that tumour control could be increased through the escalation of doses to proliferating foci with a relative reduction of doses to slowly proliferating regions of the tumour. This suggests that individualisation of treatment planning taking into account proliferation information creates the premises for further reduction of the doses to the surrounding regions which would consequently lead to an increased sparing of the normal tissues. Cell density has been shown to be another important factor that could be used for optimisation, albeit of a lower weight than proliferation. However, associated with proliferation it could lead to treatment failure if the trouble foci are underdosed. In conclusion, treatment optimisation based on imaged proliferation could improve both tumour control and normal tissue sparing.

  • 17.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences.
    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana
    Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet.
    Prostate alpha/beta revisited – an analysis of clinical results from 14168 patients2012In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 963-974Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine the dose response parameters and the fractionation sensitivity of prostate tumours from clinical results of patients treated with external beam radiotherapy.

    Material and methods: The study was based on 5-year biochemical results from 14168 patients treated with external beam radiotherapy. Treatment data from 11330 patients treated with conventional fractionation have been corrected for overall treatment time and fitted with a logit equation. The results have been used to determine the optimum α/β values that minimise differences in predictions from 2838 patients treated with hypofractionated schedules.

    Results: Conventional fractionation data yielded logit dose response parameters for all risk groups and for all definitions of biochemical failures. The analysis of hypofractionation data led to very low α/β values (1-1.7 Gy) in all mentioned cases. Neglecting the correction for overall treatment time has little impact on the derivation of α/β values for prostate cancers.

    Conclusions: These results indicate that the high fractionation sensitivity is an intrinsic property of prostate carcinomas and they support the use of hypofractionation to increase the therapeutic gain for these tumours.

  • 18.
    Daşu, Alexandru
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Toma-Daşu, Iuliana
    Umeå University.
    Dose-effect models for risk - relationship to cell survival parameters2005In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 829-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased interest in estimating the induction of cancers following radiotherapy as the patients have nowadays a much longer life expectancy following the treatment. Clinical investigations have shown that the dose response relationship for cancer induction following radiotherapy has either of two main characteristics: an increase of the risk with dose to a maximum effect followed by a decrease or an increase followed by a levelling-off of the risk. While these behaviours have been described qualitatively, there is no mathematical model that can explain both of them on mechanistic terms. This paper investigates the relationship between the shape of the dose-effect curve and the cell survival parameters of a single risk model. Dose response relationships were described with a competition model which takes into account the probability to induce DNA mutations and the probability of cell survival after irradiation. The shape of the curves was analysed in relation to the parameters that have been used to obtain them. It was found that the two main appearances of clinical data for the induction of secondary cancer following radiotherapy could be the manifestations of the particular sets of parameters that describe the induction of mutations and cell kill for fractionated irradiations. Thus, the levelling off appearance of the dose response curve could be either a sign of moderate to high inducible repair effect in cell survival (but weak for DNA mutations) or the effect of heterogeneity, or both. The bell-shaped appearance encompasses all the other cases. The results also stress the importance of taking into account the details of the clinical delivery of dose in radiotherapy, mainly the fractionated character, as the findings of our study did not appear for single dose models. The results thus indicate that the shapes of clinically observed dose response curves for the induction of secondary cancers can be described by using one single competition model. It was also found that data for cancer induction may be linked to in vivo cell survival parameters that may be used for other modelling applications.

  • 19.
    Daşu, Alexandru
    et al.
    Norrland University Hospital.
    Toma-Daşu, Iuliana
    Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet.
    Treatment modelling: the influence of micro-environmental conditions2008In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 896-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in theoretical modelling of radiation response has grown steadily from a fast method to estimate the gain of new treatment strategies to an individualisation tool that may be used as part of the treatment planning algorithms. While the advantages of biological optimisation of plans are obvious, accurate theoretical models and realistic information about the micro-environmental conditions in tissues are needed. This paper aimed to investigate the clinical implications of taking into consideration the details of the tumour microenvironmental conditions. The focus was on the availability of oxygen and other nutrients to tumour cells and the relationship between cellular energy reserves and DNA repair ability as this is thought to influence the response of the various hypoxic cells. The choice of the theoretical models for predicting the response (the linear quadratic model or the inducible repair model) was also addressed. The modelling performed in this project has shown that the postulated radiobiological differences between acute and chronic hypoxia have some important clinical implications which may help to understand the mechanism behind the current success rates of radiotherapy. The results also suggested that it is important to distinguish between the two types of hypoxia in predictive assays and other treatment simulations.

  • 20.
    Daşu, Alexandru
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Toma-Daşu, Iuliana
    Umeå University.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    The effects of hypoxia on the theoretical modelling of tumour control probability2005In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 563-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical modelling of tumour response is increasingly used for the prediction of treatment result and has even been proposed as ranking criteria in some algorithms for treatment planning. Tumour response to radiation is greatly influenced by the details of tumour microenvironment, especially hypoxia, that unfortunately are not always taken into consideration for these simulations. This paper intends to investigate the effects of various assumptions regarding hypoxia distribution in tumours on the predictions of treatment outcome. A previously developed model for simulating theoretically the oxygenation in biologically relevant tissues, including results from oxygen diffusion, consumption and perfusion limitations in tumours, was used to investigate the effects of the different aspects of hypoxia on the predictions of treatment outcome. Thus, both the continuous distribution of values and the temporal variation of hypoxia patterns were taken into consideration and were compared with a 'black-and-white' simplification with a fully hypoxic compartment and a fully oxic one. It was found that the full distribution of oxygenation in the tissue is needed for accurate results. The 'black-and-white' simplification, while showing the same general trends for the predictions of radiation response, could lead to serious over-estimations of the tumour control probability. It was also found that the presence of some hypoxia for every treatment fraction leads to a decrease in the predicted local control, regardless of the change of the hypoxic pattern throughout the duration of the whole treatment. The results thus suggest that the assumptions regarding tumour hypoxia influence very much the predictions of treatment outcome and therefore they have to be very carefully incorporated into the theoretical modelling.

  • 21.
    Daşu, Alexandru
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Toma-Daşu, Iuliana
    Umeå University.
    Olofsson, Jörgen
    Umeå University.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    The use of risk estimation models for the induction of secondary cancers following radiotherapy2005In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 339-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical predictions of cancer risk from radiotherapy may be used as a complementary criterion for the selection of successful treatment plans together with the classical approach of estimating the possible deterministic effects. However, any such attempts must take into consideration the specific features of radiation treatment. This paper explores several possible methods for estimating the risk of cancer following radiotherapy in order to investigate the influences of the fractionation and the non-uniformity of the dose to the irradiated organ. The results indicate that dose inhomogeneity plays an important role in predicting the risk for secondary cancer and therefore for predictive purposes it must be taken into account through the use of the dose volume histograms. They also suggest that the competition between cell killing and the induction of carcinogenic mutations has to be taken into consideration for more realistic risk estimations. Furthermore, more realistic parameters could be obtained if this competition is also included in analyses of epidemiological data from radiotherapy applications.

  • 22.
    Denekamp, Juliana
    et al.
    University Hospital, Umeå.
    Daşu, Alexandru
    Umeå University.
    Inducible repair and the two forms of tumour hypoxia--time for a paradigm shift1999In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 903-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical experience shows that there is a therapeutic window between 60 and 70 Gy where many tumours are eradicated, but the function of the adjacent normal tissues is preserved. This implies much more cell kill in the tumour than is acceptable in the normal tissue. An SF2 of 0.5 or lower is needed to account for the eradication of all tumour cells, while an SF2 of 0.8 or higher is needed to explain why these doses are tolerated by normal tissues. No such systematic difference is known between the intrinsic sensitivity of well-oxygenated normal and tumour cells. The presence of radioresistant hypoxic cells in tumours makes it even more difficult to understand the clinical success. However, there is experimental evidence that starved cells lose their repair competence as a result of the depletion of cellular energy charge. MRS studies have shown that low ATP levels are a characteristic feature of solid tumours in rodents and man. In this paper we incorporate the concept of repair incompetence in starving, chronically hypoxic cells. The increased sensitivity of such cells has been derived from an analysis of mammalian cell lines showing inducible repair. It is proportional to the SF2 and highest in resistant cells. The distinction between acutely hypoxic radioresistant cells and chronically hypoxic radiosensitive cells provides the key to the realistic modelling of successful radiotherapy. It also opens new conceptual approaches to radiotherapy. We conclude that it is essential to distinguish between these two kinds of hypoxic cells in predictive assays and models.

  • 23.
    Droog Tesselaar, Erik
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Flejmer, Anna M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Farnebo, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. The Skandion Clinic, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Changes in skin microcirculation during radiation therapy for breast cancer2017In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 1072-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Background: The majority of breast cancer patients who receive radiation treatment are affected by acute radiation-induced skin changes. The assessment of these changes is usually done by subjective methods, which complicates the comparison between different treatments or patient groups. This study investigates the feasibility of new robust methods for monitoring skin microcirculation to objectively assess and quantify acute skin reactions during radiation treatment.

    Material and methods: Laser Doppler flowmetry, laser speckle contrast imaging, and polarized light spectroscopy imaging were used to measure radiation-induced changes in microvascular perfusion and red blood cell concentration (RBC) in the skin of 15 patients undergoing adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer. Measurements were made before treatment, once a week during treatment, and directly after the last fraction.

    Results: In the treated breast, perfusion and RBC concentration were increased after 1–5 fractions (2.66–13.3 Gy) compared to baseline. The largest effects were seen in the areola and the medial area. No changes in perfusion and RBC concentration were seen in the untreated breast. In contrast, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scores were increased only after 2 weeks of treatment, which demonstrates the potential of the proposed methods for early assessment of skin changes. Also, there was a moderate to good correlation between the perfusion (r = 0.52) and RBC concentration (r = 0.59) and the RTOG score given a week later.

    Conclusion: We conclude that radiation-induced microvascular changes in the skin can be objectively measured using novel camera-based techniques before visual changes in the skin are apparent. Objective measurement of microvascular changes in the skin may be valuable in the comparison of skin reactions between different radiation treatments and possibly in predicting acute skin effects at an earlier stage.

  • 24.
    Dunberger, Gail
    et al.
    Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lind, Helena
    Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Swede.
    Onelöv, Erik
    Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Loose stools lead to fecal incontinence among gynecological cancer survivors.2011In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Many patients treated with radiotherapy to the pelvic region report a change in bowel habits. Loose stools, urgency and fecal incontinence may have a significant impact on daily life and social functioning.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We attempted to follow up 789 women, treated with pelvic radiotherapy for a gynecological cancer during 1991 to 2003 at two departments of gynecological oncology in Sweden. A control group of 478 women from the Swedish Population Registry was also included. As a preparatory study, we made in-depth interviews with 26 women previously treated for gynecological cancer. Based on their narratives, we constructed a study-specific questionnaire including 351 questions and validated it face-to-face. The questionnaire covered questions of physical symptoms originating in the pelvis, demographics, psychological and quality of life factors. In relation to bowel symptoms, 60 questions were asked.

    RESULTS: Six-hundred and sixteen (78%) gynecological cancer survivors and 344 (72%) control women participated. Two-hundred and twenty-six (37%) cancer survivors reported loose stools at least once a week. Eighty-three percent of the survivors with loose stools every day reported defecation urgency with fecal leakage, compared to 20% of cancer survivors without loose stools. Cancer survivors with loose stools at least once a week were 7.7 times more likely to suffer from defecation urgency with fecal leakage (95% CI 4.4-13.3) compared to those who had loose stools once a month or less. In order to avoid loose stools affected survivors with loose stools often skipped meals (13%), made an active choice of food (47%) and preferentially used prescribed medication (36%).

    DISCUSSION: There is a relation between loose stools and defecation urgency with fecal leakage among long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy. Targeting loose stools can possibly help survivors to decrease frequency of fecal leakage.

  • 25.
    Ehinger, Anna
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Blekinge County Hospital, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, Per
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bendahl, Pär-Ola
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Elston, Christopher W.
    Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust, England.
    Falck, Anna-Karin
    Helsingborg Hospital, Sweden.
    Forsare, Carina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Grabau, Dorthe
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ryden, Lisa
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Ferno, Marten
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Histological grade provides significant prognostic information in addition to breast cancer subtypes defined according to St Gallen 20132017In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The St Gallen surrogate definition of the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer consist of five subgroups based on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and Ki-67. PgR and Ki-67 are used for discriminating between the Luminal A-like and Luminal B-like (HER2-negative) subtypes. Histological grade (G) has prognostic value in breast cancer; however, its relationship to the St Gallen subtypes is not clear. Based on a previous pilot study, we hypothesized that G could be a primary discriminator for ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancers that were G1 or G3, whereas Ki-67 and PgR could provide additional prognostic information specifically for patients with G2 tumors. To test this hypothesis, a larger patient cohort was examined. Patients and methods: Six hundred seventy-one patients (amp;gt;= 35 years of age, pT1-2, pN0-1) with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer and complete data for PgR, Ki-67, G, lymph node status, tumor size, age, and distant disease-free survival (DDFS; median follow-up 9.2 years) were included. Results: Luminal A-like tumors were mostly G1 or G2 (90%) whereas Luminal B-like tumors were mostly G2 or G3 (87%) and corresponded with good and poor DDFS, respectively. In Luminal B-like tumors that were G1 (n = 23), no metastasis occurred, whereas 14 of 40 Luminal A-like tumors that were G3 metastasized. In the G2 subgroup, low PgR and high Ki-67 were associated with an increased risk of distant metastases, hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 (0.95-3.4) and 1.5 (0.80-2.8), respectively. Conclusions: Patients with ER-positive/HER2-negative/G1 breast cancer have a good prognosis, similar to that of Luminal A-like, while those with ER-positive/HER2-negative/G3 breast cancer have a worse prognosis, similar to that of Luminal B-like, when assessed independently of PgR and Ki-67. Therapy decisions based on Ki-67 and PgR might thus be restricted to the subgroup G2.

  • 26.
    EINBEIGI, Zacharia
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Enerbäck, Charlotta
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    WALLGREN, Arne
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    NORDLING, Margareta
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    KARLSSON, Per
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    BRCA1 gene mutations may explain more than 80% of excess numberof ovarian cancer cases after breast cancer – a population based studyfrom the Western Sweden Health Care region2010In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 49, p. 361-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: In a previous cohort study, we showed that there was a significant variation in the frequency of ovarian cancer after having breast cancer in Sweden, with the highest risk occuring in the Western region. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the high prevalence of the founder mutation BRCA1 3171ins5 may explain the excess number of ovarian cancer.

     

     

    METHOD: Among more than 26 000 women with breast cancer in the Western Swedish Health Care Region, 159 cases were subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer, whereas the expected number was 96. Archived tissue material was analysed for six common Scandinavian BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations.

    RESULTS: The excess number of cases was 63 (95% CI 47-77), based on person-years at risk and national incidence rates of ovarian cancer. A BRCA1 gene mutation was detected in 33 cases corresponding to 52% of the excess number. The founder mutation, BRCA1 3171ins5, was detected in 44% of the excess number. The identified mutations decreased from 45% in women less than 50 years of age at follow-up to 14% at 60+ years at follow-up. There was no obvious decrease in mutation frequency by excess numbers with age. Age at follow-up and first-degree relatives with breast and/or ovarian cancer were the best predictors of a mutation in this material.

    CONCLUSION: The founder mutation, BRCA1 3171ins5, explains the excess of ovarian cancer after breast cancer in the region. From the relative frequency of the studied mutations found at the cancer genetic counselling clinic, it is estimated that BRCA1 gene mutations are associated with about 80-85% of the excess cases. This means that a negative screening for these mutations in similar cases may have a predictive value and could strongly reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in relatives.

  • 27.
    Ekholm, Maria
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Grabau, Dorthe
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bendahl, Par-Ola
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergh, Jonas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University Hospital, Sweden.
    Elmberger, Goran
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Russo, Leila
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Viale, Giuseppe
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Ferno, Marten
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Highly reproducible results of breast cancer biomarkers when analysed in accordance with national guidelines - a Swedish survey with central re-assessment2015In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1040-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Biomarkers are crucial for decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in primary breast cancer, and their correct assessment is therefore of the utmost importance. Aims. To investigate the concordance between Swedish pathology departments and a reference laboratory, for routine analysis of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), alone, and in combination (St Gallen subtypes). Methods. This survey included 27 of the 28 pathology laboratories in Sweden, covering 98% of cases of primary breast cancer surgery in Sweden. Paraffin-embedded tumour blocks (n = 270) were collected and sent to the central reference laboratory, together with the originally stained slides, for re-analysis. The primary evaluations were previously performed according to national Swedish guidelines, without any knowledge of the subsequent central assessment. Results. The agreement for ER, PR, and Ki67 was 99% [kappa value (kappa) = 0.95], 95% (kappa = 0.85), and 85% (kappa = 0.70), respectively. The agreement for HER2 (0/1 + vs. 2+/3+) was 85% (kappa = 0.64), but when equivocal tumours were further analysed with in situ hybridisation, only one discrepancy was observed. Discrepancies between results for ER and PR seem to be explained by analytical differences, whereas the interpretation of staining seems to be more critical for Ki67 and HER2 immunohistochemistry. The agreement between the results from the Swedish laboratories and the reference laboratory, based on the St Gallen subtypes, was 88% (kappa = 0.81). Conclusions. When applying national guidelines, highly reproducible results were obtained in routine assessment of breast cancer biomarkers, and the results of this study confirm the clinical utility of these markers for decisions regarding the treatment of primary breast cancer.

  • 28. Emdin, SO
    et al.
    Granstrand, B
    Ringberg, A
    Sandelin, K
    Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Nordgren, H
    Andersson, H
    Garmo, H
    Holmberg, L
    Wallgren, A
    SweDCIS: Radiotherapy after sector resection for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Results of a randomised trial in a population offered mammography screening2006In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 536-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after breast sector resection for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The study protocol stipulated radical surgery but microscopically clear margins were not mandatory. We randomised 1 046 operated women to postoperative RT or control between 1987 and 1999. The primary endpoint was ipsilateral local recurrence. Secondary endpoints were contralateral breast cancer, distant metastasis and death. After a median follow-up of 5.2 years (range 0.1-13.8) there were 44 recurrences in the RT group corresponding to a cumulative incidence of 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.10). In the control group there were 117 recurrences giving a cumulative incidence of 0.22 (95% CI 0.18-0.26) giving an overall hazard ratio of 0.33 (95% CI 0.24-0.47, p <0.0001). Twenty two percent of the patients had microscopically unknown or involved margins. We found no evidence for different effects of RTon the relative risk of invasive or in situ recurrence. Secondary endpoints did not differ. Women undergoing sector resection for DCIS under conditions of population based screening mammography benefit from postoperative RT to the breast. Seven patients needed RT-treatment to prevent one recurrence. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 29.
    Falk, Jens
    et al.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carstens, Hanna
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundell, Lars
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Albertsson, Maria
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incidence of carcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Changes over time and geographical differences2007In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1070-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising in many western countries including Sweden.

    METHODS: We have studied the latest data concerning this as well as trends in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of gastric cardia. Data was extracted from the Swedish cancer registry and analyzed regarding gender, age, region, histology and location of tumour.

    RESULTS: The results show an increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma in both oesophagus and gastric cardia. Squamous cell carcinomas show a more stable development with a slight decrease of incidence. Adenocarcinoma is now the most common histological type of cancer in the oesophageal/cardia region in Sweden. Results also suggest a possible drift in location of adenocarcinoma from gastric cardia towards oesophagus. Overall a higher incidence was found in the male population and no trends in patient age at onset could be found. Squamous cell carcinoma is still slightly more common in urban regions.

  • 30.
    Flejmer, Anna M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Anneli
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dohlmar, Frida
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Josefsson, Dan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Witt Nyström, Petra
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Respiratory gating for proton beam scanning versus photon 3D-CRT for breast cancer radiotherapy2016In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 577-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Respiratory gating and proton therapy have both been proposed to reduce the cardiopulmonary burden in breast cancer radiotherapy. This study aims to investigate the additional benefit of proton radiotherapy for breast cancer with and without respiratory gating.

    Material and methods Twenty left-sided patients were planned on computed tomography (CT)-datasets acquired during enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) and free-breathing (FB), using photon three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and scanned proton beams. Ten patients received treatment to the whole breast only (WBO) and 10 were treated to the breast and the regional lymph nodes (BRN). Dosimetric parameters characterizing the coverage of target volumes and the cardiopulmonary burden were compared using a paired, two-tailed Student’s t-test.

    Results Protons ensured comparable or better target coverage than photons in all patients during both EIG and FB. The heterogeneity index decreased from 12% with photons to about 5% with protons. The mean dose to the ipsilateral lung was reduced in BRN patients from 12 Gy to 7 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 14 Gy to 6-7 Gy (RBE) in FB, while for WBO patients all values were about 5-6 Gy (RBE). The mean dose to heart decreased by a factor of four in WBO patients [from 1.1 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 2.1 Gy to 0.5 Gy (RBE) in FB] and 10 in BRN patients [from 2.1 Gy to 0.2 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 3.4 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in FB]. Similarly, the mean and the near maximum dose to left anterior descending artery (LAD) were significantly lower (p<0.05) with protons in comparison with photons.

    Conclusion Proton spot scanning has a high potential to reduce the irradiation of organs at risk and other normal tissues for most patients, beyond what could be achieved with EIG and photon therapy. The largest dose sparing has been seen for BRN patients, both in terms of cardiopulmonary burden and integral dose.

  • 31.
    Gao, Jingfang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology .
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    He, L..
    Zhang, Zhiyong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology .
    Zhao, Z.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    MANBA polymorphism was related to increased risk of colorectal cancer in Swedish but not in Chinese populations2008In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 372-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    β-mannosidase, encoded by MANBA, has been suggested to be implicated in cancers, while genetic variations in the MANBA in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the relationship of a polymorphic CA repeat in MANBA gene with CRC risk in 152 Swedish CRC patients and 441 Swedish controls, and 196 Chinese CRC patients and 577 Chinese controls, as well as the clinicopathologic significance of this polymorphism on CRC patients, by using capillary electrophoresis. The MANBA genotypes were related to CRC risk in the Swedish population (p=0.03), but not in the Chinese population. In the Swedish population, individuals with < 22 CAs/> 22 CAs had significantly increased risk for CRC compared with those with ≥22 CAs/≥ 22 CAs (gender-age-adjusted analysis: OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.06-3.51). There was no relationship between the polymorphism and clinicopathologic variables. These findings suggest the different susceptibilities of this polymorphism to CRC development in the two populations. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  • 32. Glimelius, Bengt
    et al.
    Bergh, Jonas
    Brandt, Lars
    Brorsson, Bengt
    Gunnars, Barbro
    Hafström, Larsolof
    Haglund, Ulf
    Högberg, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Janunger, Karl-Gunnar
    Jönsson, Per-Ebbe
    Karlsson, Göran
    Kimby, Eva
    Lamnevik, Gunilla
    Nilsson, Sten
    Permert, Johan
    Ragnhammar, Peter
    Sörenson, Sverre
    Nygren, Peter
    The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in some major tumour types - summary and conclusions.2001In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 40, p. 135-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Glimelius, Bengt
    et al.
    Dahl, Olav
    Cedermark, Björn
    Jakobsen, Anders
    Bentzen, Sören M
    Starkhammar, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Grönberg, Henrik
    Hultborn, Ragnar
    Albertsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Påhlman, Lars
    Tveit, Kjell-Magne
    Adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer: A joint analysis of randomised trials by the Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy Group2005In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to uncertainties regarding clinically meaningful gains from adjuvant chemotherapy after colorectal cancer surgery, several Nordic Groups in the early 1990s initiated randomised trials to prove or reject such gains. This report gives the joint analyses after a minimum 5-year follow-up. Between October 1991 and December 1997, 2 224 patients under 76 years of age with colorectal cancer stages II and III were randomised to surgery alone (n = 1 121) or adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 1 103) which varied between trials (5FU/levamisole for 12 months, n = 444, 5FU/leucovorin for 4-5 months according to either a modified Mayo Clinic schedule (n = 262) or the Nordic schedule (n = 397). Some centres also randomised patients treated with 5FU/leucovorin to ±levamisole). A total of 812 patients had colon cancer stage II, 708 colon cancer stage III, 323 rectal cancer stage II and 368 rectal cancer stage III. All analyses were according to intention-to-treat. No statistically significant difference in overall survival, stratified for country or region, could be found in any group of patients according to stage or site. In colon cancer stage III, an absolute difference of 7% (p = 0.15), favouring chemotherapy, was seen. The present analyses corroborate a small but clinically meaningful survival gain from adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer stage III, but not in the other presentations. © 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  • 34. Glimelius, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Kjellén, Elisabeth
    Zackrisson, Björn
    Interactions between chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and radiation2002In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 41, no 7-8, p. 635-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an investigation by the Swedish Cancer Society, an expert group described the present status, critical issues and future aspects and potentials for each of nine major areas of radiation therapy research. This report deals with interactions between chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, other anti-tumour drugs and radiation.

  • 35.
    Gulyas, Miklos
    et al.
    Genetics and Pathology , Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Mattsson, Johanna Sofia Margareta
    Genetics and Pathology , Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Lindgren, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Ek, Lars
    Skane University Hospital , Lund , Sweden.
    Lamberg Lundström, Kristina
    Akademiska Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Behndig, Annelie
    Norrland University Hospital , Umeå , Sweden.
    Holmberg, Erik
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Micke, Patrick
    Genetics and Pathology , Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Bergman, Bengt
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg , Sweden..
    COX-2 expression and effects of celecoxib in addition to standard chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer2018In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 244-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is proposed as a treatment option in several cancer types. However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), phase III trials have failed to demonstrate a benefit of adding COX-2 inhibitors to standard chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells as predictive biomarker for COX-2 inhibition.

    METHODS: In a multicenter phase III trial, 316 patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive celecoxib (400 mg b.i.d.) or placebo up to one year in addition to a two-drug platinum-based chemotherapy combination. In a subset of 122 patients, archived tumor tissue was available for immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells. For each compartment, COX-2 expression was graded as high or low, based on a product score of extension and intensity of positively stained cells.

    RESULTS: An updated analysis of all 316 patients included in the original trial, and of the 122 patients with available tumor tissue, showed no survival differences between the celecoxib and placebo arms (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.81-1.27 and HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.78-1.61, respectively). High COX-2 scores in tumor (n = 71) or stromal cells (n = 55) was not associated with a superior survival outcome with celecoxib vs. placebo (HR =0.96, 95% CI 0.60-1.54; and HR =1.51; 95% CI 0.86-2.66), and no significant interaction effect between COX-2 score in tumor or stromal cells and celecoxib effect on survival was detected (p = .48 and .25, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC treated within the context of a randomized trial, we could not detect any interaction effect of COX-2 expression in tumor or stromal cells and the outcome of celecoxib treatment in addition to standard chemotherapy.

  • 36.
    Hedayati, Elham
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Schedin, Anna
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Nyman, Hakan
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Albertsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The effects of breast cancer diagnosis and surgery on cognitive functions2011In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1027-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Women with breast cancer (BC) report cognitive impairment. Receiving a BC diagnosis may have a negative psychological impact. We sought to determine whether a diagnosis of BC and subsequent surgical treatment reduced cognitive function. Material and methods. We recruited women, who had a positive radiographic finding, consecutively from the mammography screening program at Stockholm South General Hospital. All subjects completed the Headminder Web-based neuropsychological battery Cognitive Stability Index (CSI) for response speed, processing speed, memory, and attention at enrolment (T1, Baseline). CSI was administered again, after BC was ruled out, or after sector resection or mastectomy, if BC was confirmed by cytology or biopsy (T2, Retest). Results and conclusion. Of the 148 women approached, 146 were enrolled; 69 were healthy and 77 had BC. Comparison between groups at baseline, according to independent t-test, showed significant differences in response speed and processing speed. Cognitive abilities did not decline in either group on any of the measured domains. Our results suggest that a diagnosis of BC and subsequent surgery is not associated with substantial cognitive decline at retest. However, the lack of improvement in attention at retest among BC patients may be suggestive of a decline.

  • 37.
    Hjerpe, Elisabet
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Staf, Christian
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Dahm-Kahler, Pernilla
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Stalberg, Karin
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bjurberg, Maria
    Skåne Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Erik
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden; Sahlgrens Acad, Sweden.
    Borgfeldt, Christer
    Skåne Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Tholander, Bengt
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Hellman, Kristina
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Högberg, Thomas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Åvall Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lymph node metastases as only qualifier for stage IV serous ovarian cancer confers longer survival than other sites of distant disease - a Swedish Gynecologic Cancer Group (SweGCG) study2018In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 331-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) ovarian cancer staging system includes no sub-stage for lymph nodes (LN) as only distant disease manifestation. We explore the prognostic implication of LN as only stage IV classifier in serous ovarian cancer.Method: This is a nation-wide, population-based study on 551 women with serous stage IV cancers diagnosed between 2009-2014. We compare overall survival (OS) in women with LN as only distant metastatic site to those with pleural metastases only and to patients with other/multiple stage IV manifestations. Cox regression models were used for uni- and multivariable estimations.Results: Of 551stage IV cases, distant metastatic site was registered in 433. Median OS for women with LN (n=51) was 41.4 months, compared to 25.2 and 26.8 months for patients with pleural (n=195) or other/multiple (n=187) distant metastases (p=.0007). The corresponding five-year survival rates were 32, 11 and 22%, respectively. Multivariable analyzes confirmed shorter survival for women with pleural (HR 2.99, p=.001) or other/multiple distant sites (HR 2.67, p=.007), as compared to LN cases. LN only patients lived 9.1 months longer after primary than after interval surgery, but this difference was not significant (p=.245).Conclusion: Women with stage IV serous ovarian cancer having lymph nodes as only distant metastatic site live longer than other stage IV patients.

  • 38.
    Holgersson, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden .
    Hoye, Even
    Gävle Hospital, Sweden .
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden .
    Ekman, Simon
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden .
    Nyman, Jan
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Helsing, Martin
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden .
    Friesland, Signe
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Holgersson, Margareta
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden .
    Ekberg, Lars
    Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden .
    Blystad, Thomas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Respiratory Medicine UHL.
    Ewers, Sven-Börje
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden .
    Mörth, Charlotte
    Mälar Hospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Löden, Britta
    Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå University Hospital, Sweden .
    Bergström, Stefan
    Gävle Hospital, Sweden .
    Swedish Lung Cancer Radiation Study Group: Predictive value of age at diagnosis for radiotherapy response in patients with non-small cell lung cancer2012In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 759-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of age at diagnosis on prognosis in patients treated with curatively intended radiotherapy for NSCLC. Material and methods. This is a joint effort among all the Swedish Oncology Departments that includes all identified patients with a diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer that have been subjected to curatively intended irradiation (andgt;= 50 Gy) treated during 1990 to 2000. Included patients had a histopathological/cytological diagnosis date as well as a death date or a last follow-up date. The following variables were studied in relation to overall and disease-specific survival: age, gender, histopathology, time period, smoking status, stage and treatment. Results. The median overall survival of all 1146 included patients was 14.7 months, while the five-year overall survival rate was 9.5%. Younger patients (andlt;55 years), presented with a more advanced clinical stage but had yet a significantly better overall survival compared with patients in the age groups 55-64 years (p = 0.035) and 65-74 years (p = 0.0097) in a multivariate Cox regression analysis. The overall survival of patients aged andgt;= 75 years was comparable to those aged andlt;55 years. Conclusion. In this large retrospective study we describe that patients younger than 55 years treated with curatively intended radiotherapy for NSCLC have a better overall survival than patients aged 55-64 and 65-74 years and that younger patients seem to benefit more from the addition of surgery and/or chemotherapy to radiotherapy. Due to the exploratory nature of the study, these results should be confirmed in future prospective trials.

  • 39.
    Högberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Nygren, Peter
    A systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in ovarian cancer2001In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 40, no 2-3, p. 340-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic review of chemotherapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for the evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately (Acta Oncol 2001, 40: 155-65). This overview on chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer is based on a total of 176 scientific reports. Five meta-analyses including 17 291 patients, 33 prospective randomised studies including 12 340 patients, 36 prospective studies including 3593 patients and one retrospective study including 421 patients. The studies include approximately 33 642 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized into the following points: ò Radically operated patients with low-risk early ovarian cancer (stage IA or IB non-clear-cell well-differentiated carcinomas or borderline tumours) have a very good prognosis and there is no indication for adjuvant therapy. ò Radically operated patients with high-risk early ovarian cancer (clear cell carcinomas or FIGO stage IA or IB moderately or poorly differentiated carcinomas or stage IC) have a substantial risk for micrometastatic disease. However, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear and such therapy should, thus, only be used within clinical trials. ò The median overall survival for patients with advanced (FIGO stages II-IV) ovarian cancer randomised to paclitaxel/platinum-containing chemotherapy in three large studies ranged between 36-39 months. Compared with historical data, this represents a six to seven times longer median survival time than after surgery only. The probability for long-term survival for patients treated with a paclitaxel/platinum combination is too early to define. ò In two prospective randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, paclitaxel in combination with cisplatin has provided a survival benefit over cyclophosphamide/cisplatin. Based on these trials, paclitaxel/cisplatin is considered to be the standard treatment. ò This choice of standard therapy might, however, be questioned based on the results of the hitherto largest randomised study in advanced ovarian cancer, ICON3, which is, as yet only available in abstract form. It compared paclitaxel/carboplatin with carboplatin only or a platinum combination (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/cisplatin). There were no statistically significant differences in progression-free or overall survival. The drug regimen in the control arms of the previous studies showing superiority of the paclitaxel-cisplatin combination may not have been the optimal non-paclitaxel platinum-containing regimen. ò Three randomised studies have compared carboplatin/paclitaxel with cisplatin/paclitaxel. All three are hitherto only published as abstracts with short follow-up precluding survival analyses. None of them shows any difference in response rates. All three show less toxicity and one also better quality of life with carboplatin. Thus, there are preliminary data supporting the substitution of cisplatin with carboplatin. ò Intraperitoneal therapy with cisplatin caused improved survival compared with intravenous therapy in one ramdomised study. Further studies have shown trends to better survival and longer progression-free interval with intraperitoneal therapy. The accrual to studies on intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been poor reflecting that it is a cumbersome and not easily accepted treatment. ò In advanced ovarian cancer, no convincing advantage has been shown from more dose-intensive chemotherapy, without cytokines or bone marrow stem cell support, compared with standard doses. ò High response rates are achieved with high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support in the salvage situation but response duration is short. Phase III studies evaluating high-dose chemotherapy in the first-line situation are ongoing. Until supportive controlled clinical trials are presented, high-dose chemotherapy should be confined to clinical trials. ò Tumour response is frequently observed on re-treatment with the same drugs as given first-line in patients sensitive to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with a long progression-free interval. Thus, in these patients treatment with a platinum/ paclitaxel combination might be recommended, albeit based on limited data. In patients resistant to first-line therapy, a number of single agents induce tumour responses in the range of 10-30%. The literature does not permit general treatment recommendations in these patients, which are recommended to be included in controlled clinical trials.

  • 40.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitetssjukhus.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Nordin, Karin
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Langius-Eklöf, Ann
    Örebro Universitet.
    Editorial comment on "Disregarding clinical trial-based patient-reported outcomes is unwarranted: Five advances to substantiate the scientific stringency of quality-of-life measurement".: in Acta Oncologica(ISSN 0284-186X) vol 49, issue 2, pp 163-1652010In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 163-165Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Not available

  • 41.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hammarskjold, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Lundberg, Dag
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden .
    Heibert Arnlind, Marianne
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment SBU, Sweden .
    Advantages and disadvantages of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) compared to other central venous lines: A systematic review of the literature2013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 886-892Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The use of central venous lines carries a significant risk for serious complications and high economic costs. Lately, the peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) has gained in popularity due to presumed advantages over other central venous lines. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify scientific evidence justifying the use of PICC. Material and methods. The literature review was performed according to the principles of Cochrane Collaboration. The electronic literature search included common databases up to March 2011. Only those studies rated as high or moderate quality were used for grading of evidence and conclusions. Results. The search resulted in 827 abstracts, 48 articles were read in full text, and 11 met the inclusion criteria. None of the articles was classified as high quality and two had moderate quality. The results of these two studies indicate that PICC increases the risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), but decreases the risk for catheter occlusion. The quality of scientific evidence behind these conclusions, however, was limited. Due to the lack of studies with sufficiently high quality, questions such as early complications, patient satisfaction and costs could not be answered. Discussion. We conclude that although PICCs are frequently used in oncology, scientific evidence supporting any advantage or disadvantage of PICC when comparing PICC with traditional central venous lines is limited, apart from a tendency towards increased risk for DVT and a decreased risk for catheter occlusion with PICC.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hammarskjold, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Lundberg, Dag
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden .
    Heibert Arnlind, Marianne
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment SBU, Sweden .
    Letter: A survey of the current use of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) in Swedish oncology departments2013In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1241-1242Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 43.
    Karlsson, Jan Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jynge, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Is it possible to draw firm conclusions from the PLIANT trial?2018In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 862-864Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 44.
    Koinberg, Ingalill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Satisfaction with routine follow-up visits to the physician?: the needs of patients with breast cancer2001In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 454-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up visits after surgery for breast cancer constitute a large proportion of the outpatient consultations at surgical and oncological clinics. The reasons for the follow-ups include early detection of relapse, patients' well-being, and data collection for quality assurance and scientific studies. The aim of this study was to describe the needs of the patient with breast cancer and satisfaction with routine follow-up visits to the physician. A strategic sample of 20 women with breast cancer, routinely followed-up at an oncology outpatient clinic, was interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design inspired by the phenomenographic method was used. The results identified the need for routines, accessibility, security, continuity, confidence and information. The women's views demonstrated that there are strong reasons for reviewing and changing the design of the traditional follow-up system to obtain the most effective and well-functioning system possible to better meet these women's needs.

  • 45. Kristensen, Bent
    et al.
    Ejlertsen, Bent
    Mouridsen, Henning T.
    Jensen, Maj-Britt
    Andersen, Jørn
    Bjerregaard, Brita
    Cold, Søren
    Edlund, Per
    Ewertz, Marianne
    Kamby, Claus
    Lindman, Henrik
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Bergh, Jonas
    Bisphosphonate treatment in primary breast cancer: Results from a randomised comparison of oral pamidronate versus no pamidronate in patients with primary breast cancer2008In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 740-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose and patients. During the period from January 1990 to January 1996 a total of 953 patients with lymph node negative primary breast cancer were randomised to oral pamidronate (n=460) 150 mg twice daily for 4 years or no adjuvant pamidronate (n=493) in order to investigate whether oral pamidronate can prevent the occurrence of bone metastases and fractures. The patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, loco-regional radiation therapy, but no endocrine treatment. Results. During the follow-up period the number of patients with pure bone metastases was 35 in the control group and 31 in the pamidronate group. The number of patients with a combination of bone and other distant metastases were 22 in the control group and 20 in the pamidronate group. The hazard rate ratio for recurrence in bone in the pamidronate group compared to the control group was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.75-1.40) and p=0.86. No effect was observed on overall survival. In a small subgroup of 27 patients from the study, 12 of whom were treated with pamidronate a significant bone preserving effect was observed on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, but not in the proximal femur. Conclusion. The results from the trial do not support a beneficial effect of oral pamidronate on the occurrence of bone metastases or fractures in patients with primary breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  • 46.
    Kristensen, Ingrid
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden Lund University, Sweden .
    Agrup, Måns
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bergstrom, Per
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Engellau, Jacob
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Haugen, Hedda
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Martinsson, Ulla
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Kristina
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden .
    Taheri-Kadkhoda, Zahra
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Assessment of volume segmentation in radiotherapy of adolescents; a treatment planning study by the Swedish Workgroup for Paediatric Radiotherapy2014In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose. The variability in target delineation for similar cases between centres treating paediatric and adolescent patients, and the apparent differences in interpretation of radiotherapy guidelines in the treatment protocols encouraged us to perform a dummy-run study as a part of our quality assurance work. The aim was to identify and quantify differences in the segmentation of target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) and to analyse the treatment plans and dose distributions. Materials and methods. Four patient cases were selected: Wilms tumour, Hodgkins disease, rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate and chordoma of the skull base. The five participating centres received the same patient-related material. They introduced the cases in their treatment planning system, delineated target volumes and OARs and created treatment plans. Dose-volume histograms were retrieved for relevant structures and volumes and dose metrics were derived and compared, e. g. target volumes and their concordance, dose homogeneity index (HI), treated and irradiated volumes, remaining volume at risk and relevant V x and D x values. Results. We found significant differences in target segmentation in the majority of the cases. The planning target volumes (PTVs) varied two-to four-fold and conformity indices were in the range of 0.3-0.6. This resulted in large variations in dose distributions to OARs as well as in treated and irradiated volumes even though the treatment plans showed good conformity to the PTVs. Potential reasons for the differences in target delineation were analysed. Conclusion. Considerations of the growing child and difficulties in interpretation of the radiotherapy information in the treatment protocols were identified as reasons for the variation. As a result, clarified translated detailed radiotherapy guidelines for paediatric/adolescent patients have been recognised as a way to reduce this variation.

  • 47.
    Kristensen, Ingrid
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University.
    Nilsson, Per
    Lund University Hospital.
    Bergström, Per
    Umeå University.
    Björk-Eriksson, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Engellau, Jacob
    Lund University Hospital.
    Hjelm-Skog, Anna-Lena
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Malmer, Beatrice
    Umeå University.
    Martinsson, Ulla
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    Agrup, Måns
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Telemedicine as a tool for sharing competence in paediatric radiotherapy - Implementation and initial experiences from a Swedish project2009In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 146-152Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lennernas, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Majumder, Khairul
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Damber, Jan-Erik
    Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albertsson, Per
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Erik
    Regional Oncologic Centre, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brandberg, Yvonne
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    Akademiska University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljung, Gunilla
    Mälar Hospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Damm, Ole
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Sten
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Radical prostatectomy versus high-dose irradiation in localized/locally advanced prostate cancer: A Swedish multicenter randomized trial with patient-reported outcomes2015In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 875-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background . Treatment of localized prostate cancer (PC) is controversial. This is the fi rst randomized study compar-ing an open surgery procedure (radical prostatectomy) with a combination of high-dose rate brachytherapy (2 10 Gy) and external beam radiotherapy (25 2 Gy) in PC patients in Sweden 1996 – 2001. The two randomization arms were compared regarding differences in patients-reported outcomes, such as complications and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Material and methods . The patients had localized/locally advanced PC, clinical category T1b – T3a, N0, M0 and PSA 50 ng/ml. All underwent total androgen blockade (six months). Self-reported HRQoL and symptoms including urinary, bowel, and sexual side effects were investigated prospectively before randomization and 12 and 24 months after randomization. A total of 89 patients were randomized and completed the EORTC QLQ C-33 and EORTC PR-25 questionnaires. Results . Over the study period, there were no discernible differences in HRQoL, or complications between the two groups. Emotional functioning, however, improved statistically signifi cantly over time, whereas Social functioning decreased, and fi nancial diffi culties increased. No statistically signifi cant differences in group-by-time interactions were found. The survival rate was 76%. Only eight patients (9%) died of PC. Conclusion . Open radical prostatectomy and the combined high-dose rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation appeared to be comparable in the measured outcomes. It was not possible to draw any conclusion on the effi cacy of the two treatments due to insuffi cient power of the study.

  • 49.
    Lind, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Alevronta, Eleftheria
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Olsson, Caroline
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wilderang, Ulrica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dunberger, Gail
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Ersta Skondal University of Coll, Sweden.
    al-Abany, Massoud
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Defecation into clothing without forewarning and mean radiation dose to bowel and anal-sphincter among gynecological cancer survivors2016In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 1285-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To analyze the relationship between mean radiation dose to the bowels and the anal-sphincter and occurrence of defecation into clothing without forewarning, a specific and serious fecal incontinence symptom after gynecological radiotherapy. Additional potential risk factors associated with the symptom are explored.Material and methods: Data were collected for 519 eligible gynecological cancer survivors, treated with pelvic radiotherapy, with a median follow-up of 5.8 years, using a study-specific questionnaire and medical records. Correlations between defecation into clothing without forewarning and mean dose to organs at risk; the anal-sphincter region, the rectum, the sigmoid and the small intestines were investigated, also taking other risk factors into account.Results: Twelve percent reported having had the symptom at least once in the preceding six months. Mean dosesamp;gt;50Gy to the anal-sphincter region, the rectum, the sigmoid and the small intestines were related to the occurrence of the symptom. Significantly associated risk factors were deliveries with high birth weight, heart failure and lactose and/or gluten intolerance. After adjusting for these factors, mean dosesamp;gt;50Gy to the anal-sphincter region, the sigmoid and the small intestines remained related to the occurrence of the symptom.Conclusion: Mean doses to the bowels and anal-sphincter region are related to the risk of defecation into clothing without forewarning in long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy. Further radiobiological modeling may distinguish which organ(s) contribute most to development of the symptom.

  • 50.
    Lindblom, Emely
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Lax, Ingmar
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana
    Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet.
    Survival and tumour control probability in tumours with heterogeneous oxygenations: A comparison between the linear-quadratic and the universal survival curve models for high doses2014In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 1035-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The validity of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model at high doses has been questioned due to a decreasing agreement between predicted survival and experimental cell survival data. A frequently proposed alternative is the universal survival curve (USC) model, thought to provide a better fit in the high-dose region. The comparison between the predictions of the models has mostly been performed for uniform populations of cells with respect to sensitivity to radiation. This study aimed to compare the two models in terms of cell survival and tumour control probability (TCP) for cell populations with mixed sensitivities related to their oxygenation.

    Methods: The study was performed in two parts. For the first part, cell survival curves were calculated with both models assuming various homogeneous populations of cells irradiated with uniform doses. For the second part, a realistic 3D-model of complex tumour oxygenation was used to study the impact of the differences in cell survival on the modelled tumour control probability. Cellular response was assessed with the LQ and USC models at voxel level and a Poisson TCP model at tumour level.

    Results: For hypoxic tumours, the disputed continuous bend of the LQ survival curve was counteracted by the increased radio-resistance of the hypoxic cells and the survival curves started to diverge only at much higher doses than for oxic tumours. This was also reflected by the TCP curves for hypoxic tumours for which the difference in D50 values for the LQ and USC models was reduced from 5.4 to 0.2 Gy for 1 and 3 fractions respectively in a tumour with only 1.1% hypoxia and from 9.5 to 0.4 Gy in a tumour with 11.1% hypoxia.

    Conclusions: For a large range of fractional doses including hypofractionated schemes, the difference in predicted survival and tumour control probability between the LQ and USC models for tumours with heterogeneous oxygenation was found to be negligible.

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