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  • 1.
    Bergfors, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Nyström Kronander, Ulla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Falk, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Valter, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital-East, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    How common are long-lasting, intensely itching vaccination granulomas and contact allergy to aluminium induced by currently used pediatric vaccines? A prospective cohort study2014In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 173, no 10, p. 1297-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency of long-lasting, intensely itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site for aluminium (Al)-adsorbed vaccines (vaccination granulomas) was investigated in a prospective cohort study comprising 4,758 children who received either a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Infanrix®, Pentavac®) alone or concomitant with a pneumococcal conjugate (Prevenar). Both vaccines were adsorbed to an Al adjuvant. Altogether 38 children (0.83 %) with itching granulomas were identified, epicutaneously tested for Al sensitisation and followed yearly. Contact allergy to Al was verified in 85 %. The median duration of symptoms was 22 months in those hitherto recovered. The frequency of granulomas induced by Infanrix® was >0.66 % and by Prevenar >0.35 %. The risk for granulomas increased from 0.63 to 1.18 % when a second Al-adsorbed vaccine was added to the schedule. Conclusion: Long-lasting itching vaccination granulomas are poorly understood but more frequent than previously known after infant vaccination with commonly used diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The risk increases with the number of vaccines given. Most children with itching granulomas become contact allergic to aluminium. Itching vaccination granulomas are benign but may be troublesome and should be recognised early in primary health care to avoid unnecessary investigations, anxiety and mistrust.

  • 2.
    Bergfors, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Department of Paediatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital-East, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Sixty-four children with persistent itching nodules and contact allergy to aluminium after vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines-prognosis and outcome after booster vaccination2013In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent itching subcutaneous nodules and aluminium (Al) allergy have been described after vaccination with Al-adsorbed vaccines but are considered rare. Little is known about the prognosis. Sixty-four children with itching nodules following vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines currently used in Sweden (Infanrix® and Pentavac®) were spontaneously reported to the authors from 1999 and followed for up to 12 years. The median duration of itching was 5 years in the 44 children who were free or almost free from symptoms at the latest follow-up. Typical findings were a long interval between vaccination and onset of symptoms (months or years) and intensified itching during intercurrent infections. Contact allergy to aluminium was demonstrated in 60/63 children (95 %). Neither the incidence nor differences between the two vaccines can be estimated from this study, but vaccine-induced itching nodules are probably more common than hitherto realised. The median interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 8 months in a region where nurses were educated to recognise the condition compared to 2 years in other regions. Booster vaccination with DTP-polio was postponed or declined by 15/40 families in fear for new problems. Out of 25 children who received a booster dose, only two had new itching nodules. Conclusion: Intensely itching subcutaneous nodules (vaccination granulomas) and contact allergy to aluminium may occur after primary vaccination with the two most commonly used DTP vaccines in Europe. The condition is probably underreported. Symptoms may last for at least 4-5 years but eventually seem to subside.

  • 3.
    Heikkinen, Terho
    et al.
    Turku University Hospital.
    Booy, Robert
    University of London.
    Campins, Magda
    Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron.
    Finn, Adam
    University of Bristol.
    Olcén, Per
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Peltola, Heikki
    Helsinki University Central Hospital.
    Rodrigo, Carlos
    University Hospital "Germans Trias I Pujol".
    Schmitt, Heinz-Josef
    Johannes Gutenberg University.
    Schumacher, Fabian
    Università degli Studi di Brescia.
    Teo, Stephen
    University of London.
    Weil-Olivier, Catherine
    Hôpital Louis Mourier.
    Schould healthy children be vaccinated against influenza?2006In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 165, no 4, p. 223-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

          Influenza is often regarded as an illness of the elderly portion of the population because most of the excess mortality associated with influenza epidemics occurs in that age group. However, evidence derived from a large number of clinical studies carried out in different countries and various settings has clearly demonstrated that the burden of influenza is also substantial in children. The attack rates of influenza during annual epidemics are consistently highest in children, and young children are hospitalized for influenza-related illnesses at rates comparable to those for adults with high-risk conditions. Especially among children younger than 3 years of age, influenza frequently predisposes the patient to bacterial complications such as acute otitis media. Children also serve as the main transmitters of influenza in the community. A safe and effective vaccine against influenza has been available for decades, but the vaccine is rarely used even for children with high-risk conditions. Despite several existing problems related to influenza vaccination of children, the current evidence indicates that the advantages of vaccinating young children would clearly outweigh the disadvantages. Considering the total burden of influenza in children, children younger than 3 years of age should be regarded as a high-risk group for influenza, analogously with the age-based definition of high risk among persons 65 years of age or older. Annual influenza vaccination should be recommended to all children from 6 months to 3 years of age.

  • 4.
    Klingberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brekke, Hilde K.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Introduction of fish and other foods during infancy and risk of asthma in the All Babies In Southeast Sweden cohort study2019In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 178, no 3, p. 395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The etiology of asthma includes lifestyle factors. Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods have been suggested to affect asthma risk, but the scientific foundation is not solid. Children from the birth cohort All Babies In Southeast Sweden study were included (n=9727). Breastfeeding duration and timing of introduction of infant formula and food were collected prospectively during the first year. Through linkage to the Swedish Patient Register, 948 children were identified with any asthma until age 15-17years, of which 450 cases were atopic. Breastfeeding duration was not associated to risk of asthma. Introduction of infant formula earlier than at 14weeks of age was associated with higher risk of non-atopic asthma. Introduction of fish before 43weeks of age, as compared to later, was associated with a lower risk of asthma, irrespective of atopic classification. Reverse causation was accounted for but did not explain the results.Conclusion: Introduction of infant formula and timing of introduction of fish seem to impact the long-term risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Emphasis on the growing body of evidence that early introduction of allergens offers protection against atopic disease should be considered in future recommendations.

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