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  • 1. Brown, C.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    On the physics of the infant feeding bottle and middle ear sequela: Ear disease in infants can be associated with bottle feeding2000Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 13-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When using conventional feeding bottles, negative pressure is generated in the oral cavity, as well as, in the bottle when fluid is removed by sucking. The negative pressure inside the bottle causes the infant to suck excessively and the intraoral negative pressure may subsequently be transmitted to the middle ear via the eustachian tube. Methods: In seven infants, simultaneous pressure recordings were performed in the feeding vessel and the middle ear using three types of feeding bottles. Results: With conventional non-ventilated and under-ventilated bottles a negative pressure formed while the infant sucked and negative intratympanic pressure was frequently generated. Conclusions: It is suggested that this sequence of events may lead to secretory otitis and it's accompanying consequences. In contrast, a fully ventilated bottle showed positive pressure throughout the feeding procedure, which is similar to normal breast-feeding, and negative pressure changes were not recorded in the middle ear.

  • 2. Brunne, M.
    et al.
    Falk, B.
    Hellström, S.
    Magnusson, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Qualitative research methods in otorhinolaryngology.1999Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3. Brunne, M.
    et al.
    Falk, B.
    Hellström, S.
    Magnusson, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    The character and consequenses of disturbing sound sensations in retraction type middle ear disease.1999Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 51, s. 11-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4. Bunne, Marie
    et al.
    Falk, Bernt
    Hellström, Sten
    Magnusson, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Variability of Eustachian tube function in children with secretory otitis media. Evaluations at tube insertion and at follow-up2000Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 131-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Despite the variable clinical course of diseases related to Eustachian tube function, the variability of tubal function has been less focused than outcomes of single tests. This study aimed to compare the passive and active tubal function and its variability in children with secretory otitis media (SOM) at tube insertion and at follow-up. Method: Thirty-eight ears in 19 children aged 4-10 years (mean 7.0 years) with long-standing SOM were examined 4-6 h after tube insertion, at 4 months and at 9 months. The pressure in the middle ear and the nasopharynx were recorded while performing (1) forced opening test, (2) equalization of +100 and −100 daPa, (3) Valsalva test, and (4) sniff test. The procedure was repeated after 30 min. Relationships were analyzed by uni- and multi-variate analysis of variance. Results: From tube insertion to 4 months, the mean forced opening pressure increased from 282±128 to 355±153 daPa (P<0.01), and the mean closing pressure from 91±51 to 126±82 daPa (P<0.01). There was no further change at 9 months. Female gender, serous effusion (in contrast to mucoid), and more than three previous episodes of acute otitis media were related to higher opening and closing pressures. At tube insertion, 60% and 16% equalized +100 and −100 daPa, respectively, and 28% succeeded in performing Valsalva inflation. The sniff test was positive in 32%, indicating a closing failure. These rates did not change significantly over time. For individual ears, outcomes of all tests varied considerably when retested after 30 min; Po changed by ±12% and Pc by ±26%, and 9-29% of the ears changed from a positive to negative response, or vice versa, in the equalization, Valsalva, and sniff tests. Conclusions: The unexpected finding of weaker closing forces at the day of tube insertion and increased tubal resistance at follow-up might be ascribed to changes in the muco-adhesive forces related to the disease and tube treatment. The pronounced intra-individual variability of test outcomes indicates that tubal function is dynamic and variable in ears prone to SOM, which emphasizes that results of single tubal function tests have very low prognostic value.

  • 5.
    Engstrom, Elisabet
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Ors, Marianne
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Sahlen, Birgitta
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Uhlen, Inger
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Computer-assisted reading intervention for children with sensorineural hearing loss using hearing aids: Effects on auditory event-related potentials for and mismatch negativity2019Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 117, s. 17-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The primary aim was to investigate whether computer-assisted reading intervention somehow can affect event-related potentials (ERP) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in hearing impaired (HI) children with hearing aids (HAs) and normal hearing (NH) children. Methods: The study included 15 HI children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using bilateral HAs and 14 NH children as a reference group; all children between the ages of 5 and 8. A multi-feature MMN-paradigm, Optimum-1, with a standard stimulus alternating with 5 different deviants was used. ERPs were recorded pre and post intervention, i.e. one month of repeatedly computer-assisted training (GraphoGame). MMN was calculated from the average ERP of each deviant minus standard. Data were based on samples within a specific time interval, 80-224 ms, and repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze possible interactions. Results: There was a significant difference between groups before training, though, the mean obligatory responses or MMN was not statistically significantly different before versus after training, neither among the NH nor the HI children. Further, the HI children did generally achieve lower levels in GraphoGame compared to the NH children. Altogether, our findings indicate differences between the groups and that training may affect the neurophysiological processing in the brain, gaining the HI children. Both MMN and positive mismatch response (pMMR) were seen among both the HA and NH children, irrespective to deviant type. Individually, changes of the MMN and pMMR after training seem unpredictable. Conclusion: There are statistically significant differences in both the obligatory responses in ERP and the MMNs between the NH and HI groups before the computer-assisted training. Though, these differences disappear after the intervention. This suggests possible training effects regarding the central auditory processing among the HI children.

  • 6.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Child behavior and quality of life before and after tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy2009Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 73, nr 9, s. 1254-1262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Compare two techniques for pediatric tonsil surgery with respect to postoperative pain and morbidity and changes in sleep behavior, health related quality of life (HRQL) and benefits due to surgery. Methods: 67 children (4.5-5.5 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing with or without recurrent tonsillitis were randomized to either regular tonsillectomy (TE) (n = 32) or intracapsular tonsillectomy/tonsillotomy (TT) (n = 35) with Radiofrequency surgical technique (ellman Int.). Before TT/TE, the parents completed a validated Quality of Life survey of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, the OSA-18 (Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18) and a standardized assessment of their childrens behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Six months after surgery, the parents repeated these measurements, and assessed the health related benefits of the surgery using the Glasgow Childrens Benefit Inventory (GCBI). Results: In the TT group, the children recorded less pain from the first day after surgery onwards, used fewer doses of painkillers and were pain-free 3 days earlier than the children in the TE group. Six months after surgery, there were no significant difference between TT and TE with regard to snoring and ENT-infections. The differences in the total scores and in all the individual domains between the initial OSA-18 and post-surgery scores were all significant (P andlt; 0.0001). The improvement in the total problem score measured with CBCL was also significant (P andlt; 0.01) and there was no difference between the TT and TE children. The improvements in all subscores of the GCBI indicated a significant health benefit of both TT and TE. Conclusions: TT with RF-surgery causes less pain and postoperative morbidity than regular TE and has an equal effect on snoring and recurrent infections. Pre-school children with tonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing all show an impact on HRQL and behavior before surgery and improve dramatically just as much after TT as after TE. Therefore TT would be considered for treatment of small children.

  • 7.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Pre-surgical Child Behavior Ratings and Pain Management after Two Different Techniques of Tonsil Surger2006Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 70, nr 10, s. 1749-1758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare child behavior before surgery with experience of pain and anxiety in relation to two techniques of tonsil surgery, to relate previous experiences of surgery/tonsillitis with anxiety and pain, and to compare the children's, parent's and nurse's rating of pain.

    Method

    Ninety-two children (5–15 years) with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and with or without recurrent tonsillitis were randomized to partial tonsil resection/tonsillotomy (TT) or full tonsillectomy (TE). Measures: Parents: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children: State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) and seven-point Faces Pain Scale (FPS). Parents/staff: seven-point Verbal Pain Rating Scale (VPRS). Pain relievers were opoids, paracetamol and diclophenac.

    Results

    These children with SDB scored significantly higher on CBCL than did normative groups, but no connection was observed between CBCL rating and experience of pain. There was no relation between pre-operative anxiety and pain. The post-operative anxiety level (STAIC) correlated with pain. The TE-group scored higher on STAIC after surgery. Previous experience of surgery or tonsillitis did not influence post-operative pain. The TE-group rated higher experience of pain despite more medication. The nurses scored pain lower than the parents/children and under-medicated.

    Conclusion

    SDB may influence children's behavior, but with no relation to post-operative pain. The surgical method predicts pain better than does the child's behavior rating. The nurses underestimated the pain experienced by the child.

  • 8.
    Frölander, Hans Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Örebro University; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Örebro University; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Marshall, Jan D.
    Jackson laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Rönnåsen, Berit
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Örebro University; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Falkensson, Lil
    National Resource Centre, Lund, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Theory-of-mind in adolescents and young adults with Alström syndrome2014Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 530-536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The study focuses on theory-of-mind in adolescents and young adults with Alström syndrome (ALMS). ALMS, an autosomal recessive syndrome causes juvenile blindness, sensorineural hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, endocrinological disorders and metabolic dysfunction. Theory-of-mind (ToM) refers to the ability to impute mental states to one self and to others. Clinical observations have revealed an increased occurrence of deviances in mental state understanding in ALMS. In the present study ToM will be examined and related to working memory (WM), verbal ability and sensory loss.

    METHODS:

    Twelve young individuals (16-37 years) with ALMS and 24 nondisabled individuals matched on age, gender and educational level participated. ToM was assessed by means of a multiple task that taxes the ability to understand thoughts and feelings of story characters'. WM was examined by means of a reading span task and verbal ability by means of a vocabulary test.

    RESULTS:

    The ALMS group performed at significantly lower levels in ToM tasks and displayed a higher variability in performance than the control group. Individuals with ALMS and a relatively poor level performance provided fewer correct mental state inferences in ToM tasks than ALMS individuals with relatively higher performance levels. ALMS individuals with relatively high performance levels made as many correct inferences in ToM tasks as the control group, but their inferences were more often incomplete. Vocabulary skills and educational level, but not WM-capacity predicted ToM performance. Degree of deafblindness did not have an impact on ToM. Age of onset of visual loss but not hearing loss related to ToM.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The individuals with ALMS display a high degree of heterogeneity in terms of ToM, where some individuals reached performance levels comparable to nondisabled individuals. The results are discussed with respect to how cognitive and verbal abilities and factors related to the disability affect ToM.

  • 9.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap.
    Cognitive skills in children with Usher syndrome type 1 and cochlear implants2012Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 76, nr 10, s. 1449-1457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Usher syndrome is a genetic condition causing deaf-blindness and is one of the most common causes of syndromic deafness. Individuals with USH1 in Sweden born during the last 15 years have typically received cochlear implants (CI) as treatment for their congenital, profound hearing loss. Recent research in genetics indicate that the cause of deafness in individuals with Usher type 1 (USH1) could be beneficial for the outcome with cochlear implants (CI). This population has not previously been the focus of cognitive research.

    Objective: The present study aims to examine the phonological and lexical skills and working memory capacity (WMC) in children with USH1 and CI and to compare their performance with children with NH, children with hearing-impairment using hearing-aids and to children with non-USH1 deafness using CI. The participants were 7 children aged 7-16 years with USH1 and CI.

    Methods: The participants performed 10 sets of tasks measuring phonological and lexical skills and working memory capacity.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that children with USH1 and CI as a group in general have a similar level of performance on the cognitive tasks as children with hearing impairment and hearing aids. The group with USH1 and CI has a different performance profile on the tests of working memory, phonological skill and lexical skill than children with non-USH1 deafness using CI, on tasks of phonological working memory and phonological skill.

  • 10.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Linder, Arne
    ENT Department, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Markström, Agneta
    Respiratory Unit, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institute, Danderyds Hospital (KIDS), Sweden.
    Long-term effects of intracapsular partial tonsillectomy (tonsillotomy) compared with full tonsillectomy2005Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 463-469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare the long-term effects (six years after surgery) of two techniques for pediatric tonsil surgery with respect to snoring, apneas, eating difficulties, infections and general health. The two methods were intracapsular partial tonsillectomy (tonsillotomy, "TT") using CO 2-laser technique and traditional (total) blunt dissection tonsillectomy (TE). Study design: A questionnaire distributed by mail to the parents of children, who, in 1998, were included in a prospective clinical randomized study in one tertiary care ENT clinic. Method: A 10 question survey follow-up of 41 children, between 9 and 15 years of age, who originally, six years earlier had been randomized to either TT with CO2-laser (n = 21) or TE (n = 20). The main indication for the surgery was a history of sleep related breathing distress (SRBD). Before the present study, all of the children had participated in earlier follow-ups at six months and one year after surgery. Results: All the children in both groups answered the questionnaire. There were no significant differences between the answers from the two groups in any respects: the effect on snoring and apneas was equally stable for both groups. The number of children who remained free from snoring decreased from 40 after the first year to 25 after six years (11 TT, 14 TE). Snoring in the recurrent cases was not rated to be as frequent or as loud as before the surgery. Infections of the upper respiratory tract (URI) that had been treated with antibiotics occurred to the same extent in both groups. None had eating difficulties. The patients' satisfaction with the results of the surgery was high or very high in 18/21 TT and 20 TE cases, and the vast majority of the parents rated their children's present health status as improved compared with the preoperative condition. Conclusion: Tonsillotomy with CO2-laser seems to be a reliable method for tonsil surgery with substantially less primary morbidity than conventional tonsillectomy and with the same positive long-term effects after six years.

  • 11.
    Irander, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Borres, M.P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden Thermo Fisher Science, Sweden .
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects2014Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 78, nr 4, s. 618-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) is a family of proteins, which are proposed to participate in the innate immune defense against infections in the upper aero-digestive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosa( function and smoking habits. Methods: The participants, recruited from a cohort followed from infancy, were re-examined at the age of 18 years regarding allergy development. Based on medical histories and skin prick tests the participants were classified into groups with persistent allergic rhinitis (n = 18), intermittent allergic rhinitis (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 13). Seven subjects (3, 2 and 2 in each group, respectively) reported smoking habits. The SPLUNC1 levels in nasal lavage fluids were analyzed by Western blot. Changes in the volume of the proper nasal cavity before and after physical exercise (Vol2(increase)) were analyzed by acoustic rhinometiy. Results: Compared to the control group the SPLUNC1 level was significantly lower in the persistent allergy group (3.8 +/- 3.4 OD vs. 1.3 +/- 1.5 OD; p = 0.02), but not in the intermittent allergy group without current exposure to allergens (3.6 +/- 4.7 OD). No differences were found in Vol2(increase) between any of the allergy groups and controls. In smokers Vol2(increase) was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01) and the SPLUNC1 levels were lower compared to non-smokers. A significant correlation was found between SPLUNC1 and vol2(increase) (pless than0.01; r = 0.53) in non-smokers. Conclusions: Current allergen exposure has an impact on SPLUNC1 expression in nasal lavage fluid, why allergy ought to be considered in study populations where analyses of SPLUNC1 levels are included in the reports. The normal nasal decongestion after exercise was not affected by allergy in contrast to smoking habits. The correlation between SPLUNC1 levels and Vol2(increase) in non-smokers may indicate involvement of SPLUNC1 in the regulation of the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Complementary studies are needed to confirm the smoke-related reduction of SPLUNC1 expression and to analyze the possible participation of SPLUNC1 in the nasal mucosa regulation.

  • 12. Johansson, Ewa
    et al.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Tonsillectomy - Clinical consequences twenty years after surgery?2003Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 67, nr 9, s. 981-988Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tonsillectomy (T) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on children. Long-term follow-up studies concerning its consequences are lacking. This study is the first study done on a group of patients that underwent T in their childhood, about 20 years ago. The investigation is a cohort study, which followed-up 18 patients who were tonsillectomized 20 years ago. It was to be determined whether these subjects suffer from more respiratory tract infections (or other infections) today, than people who are not tonsillectomized. A group of 54 age-matched subjects were selected for comparison. A questionnaire was mailed to the study population. No significant differences were found between the groups in the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection (URI). The mean number of URI's was approximately [MSOffice1]2.5 per year in both groups. The duration of the URI's was identical in each group. A high temperature was present to the same extent in each group. Absence from work, number of visits to physicians and the use of antibiotics were the same in each group. However, the prevalence of chronic disease was greater in the T-group than in the comparison group. The difference was significant with a Relative Risk of 9.41 and a Confidence Interval differing from 1 (1.13

  • 13.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University / Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Karolinska University Hospital / Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lexical and semantic ability in groups of children with cochlear implants, language impairment and autism spectrum disorder2014Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 253-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Lexical-semantic ability was investigated among children aged 6–9 years with cochlear implants (CI) and compared to clinical groups of children with language impairment (LI) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as to age-matched children with normal hearing (NH). In addition, the influence of age at implantation on lexical-semantic ability was investigated among children with CI.

    Methods

    97 children divided into four groups participated, CI (n = 34), LI (n = 12), ASD (n = 12), and NH (n = 39). A battery of tests, including picture naming, receptive vocabulary and knowledge of semantic features, was used for assessment. A semantic response analysis of the erroneous responses on the picture-naming test was also performed.

    Results

    The group of children with CI exhibited a naming ability comparable to that of the age-matched children with NH, and they also possessed a relevant semantic knowledge of certain words that they were unable to name correctly. Children with CI had a significantly better understanding of words compared to the children with LI and ASD, but a worse understanding than those with NH. The significant differences between groups remained after controlling for age and non-verbal cognitive ability.

    Conclusions

    The children with CI demonstrated lexical-semantic abilities comparable to age-matched children with NH, while children with LI and ASD had a more atypical lexical-semantic profile and poorer sizes of expressive and receptive vocabularies. Dissimilar causes of neurodevelopmental processes seemingly affected lexical-semantic abilities in different ways in the clinical groups.

  • 14. Löfstrand-Tideström, Britta
    et al.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    The development of snoring and sleep related breathing distress from 4 to 6 years in a cohort of Swedish children2007Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 71, nr 7, s. 1025-1033Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Snoring is common among both children and adults and a sign of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Adenotonsillectomy is often the solution offered, although the effect is uncertain. There are also some who say that young children who snore will outgrow it even without treatment. The present investigation compares snoring and co-founding symptoms in parental reports for a cohort of children at age 4 and at age 6 years. Method: A cohort of 4 year old chidren (615) was investigated with respect to SDB [B. Löfstrand-Tideström, B. Thilander, J. Ahlqvist-Rastad, O. Jakobsson, E. Hultcrantz, Breathing obstruction in relation to craniofacial and dental arch morphology in 4 year old children, Eur. J. Orthod. 21 (1999) 323-332]. Each child was given a questionnaire. Those reporting significant symptoms also received a clinical and an orthodontic examination. Forty-eight children were diagnosed with SDB, of these 28 were operated with adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. After 2 years, the same questionnaire was administered and the same children as before were further examined as well as those newly reporting significant symptoms. The results from the two occasions were compared. Results: Eighty-three percent (509) of the original cohort participated. The frequency of snoring had changed from 53 to 46% for the group as a whole (p < 0.05). Significant gender differences in co-founding symptoms were seen. Severity of snoring had changed on an individual basis in half of the cases, some recovered, others got worse. Of the children with SDB at 4 years who were operated, 14/28, did not snore at all, compared to 3/18 of the non-operated (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Children who snore at the age 4 seldom "grow out of it" by age 6 and still show other signs of sleep related distress as well. Surgery does not always cure the snoring, thus postoperative follow-up is important. Since new cases develop during this age period, early intervention is not enough. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.
    et al.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Zhao, Fei
    University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Danesh, Ali A.
    Florida Atlantic University, United States.
    Duprey, Rachel
    Ystrad Mynach Hospital, Aneurin Bevan Health Board, United Kingdom.
    The genetic basis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD)2011Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 151-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder where outer hair cell function within the cochlea is normal, but inner hair cell and/or the auditory nerve function is disrupted. It is a heterogeneous disorder which can have either congenital or acquired causes. Furthermore, the aetiology of auditory neuropathy is vast, which may include prematurity, hyperbilirubinaemia, anoxia, hypoxia, congenital brain anomalies, ototoxic drug exposure, and genetic factors. It is estimated that approximately 40% of cases have an underlying genetic basis, which can be inherited in both syndromic and non syndromic conditions. This review paper provides an overview of the genetic conditions associated with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs) and highlights some of the defective genes that have been found to be linked to the pathological auditory changes.Method: Literature search was conducted using a number of resources including textbooks, professional journals and the relevant websites. Results:  The largest proportion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs) is due to genetic factors which can be syndromic, non-syndromic or mitochondrial related. The inheritance pattern can include all the four main types of inheritances such as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked and mitochondrial. Conclusion: This paper has provided an overview of mutation with some of the genes and/or loci discovered to be the cause for auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs). It has been noted that different gene mutations may trigger different pathological changes in patients with this disorder. These discoveries have provided us with vital information as to the sites of pathology in auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs), and the results highlight the heterogeneity of the disorder.

  • 16.
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ors, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Rosenlunds sjukhus, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Computer-assisted training of phoneme–grapheme correspondence for children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Effects on phonological processing skills2013Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 77, nr 12, s. 2049-2057Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Examine deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children's phonological processing skills in relation to a reference group of children with normal hearing (NH) at two baselines pre intervention. Study the effects of computer-assisted phoneme–grapheme correspondence training in the children. Specifically analyze possible effects on DHH children's phonological processing skills.

    Methods

    The study included 48 children who participated in a computer-assisted intervention study, which focuses on phoneme–grapheme correspondence. Children were 5, 6, and 7 years of age. There were 32 DHH children using cochlear implants (CI) or hearing aids (HA), or both in combination, and 16 children with NH. The study had a quasi-experimental design with three test occasions separated in time by four weeks; baseline 1 and 2 pre intervention, and 3 post intervention. Children performed tasks measuring lexical access, phonological processing, and letter knowledge. All children were asked to practice ten minutes per day at home supported by their parents.

    Results

    NH children outperformed DHH children on the majority of tasks. All children improved their accuracy in phoneme–grapheme correspondence and output phonology as a function of the computer-assisted intervention. For the whole group of children, and specifically for children with CI, a lower initial phonological composite score was associated with a larger phonological change between baseline 2 and post intervention. Finally, 18 DHH children, whereof 11 children with CI, showed specific intervention effects on their phonological processing skills, and strong effect sizes for their improved accuracy of phoneme–grapheme correspondence.

    Conclusion

    For some DHH children phonological processing skills are boosted relatively more by phoneme–grapheme correspondence training. This reflects the reciprocal relationship between phonological change and exposure to and manipulations of letters.

  • 17.
    Rahman, Anisur
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Unge, Magnus
    Karolinska University Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, Petri
    Karolinska University Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dirckx, Joris
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Hultcrantz, Malou
    Karolinska University Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Healing time, long-term result and effects of stem cell treatment in acute tympanic membrane perforation2007Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 71, nr 7, s. 1129-1137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The incidence of otitis media in children between the age of 2 and 6 years is well documented. Repeated attacks may cause acute and chronic perforations. The surgical treatment for repairing chronic perforation is quite uncomfortable for the patients of this age group because of the invasiveness of this treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term influence of embryonic stem cells on acute perforations and the effect of gelatin as a vehicle for applied stem cells. The possibility of teratogenic effects of the stem cells was also observed.

    Methods

    Bilateral laser myringotomy was performed in 17 adult Sprague–Dawley rats, divided into two groups. Gelatin, a substance suitable as vehicle for bioactive material was used bilaterally around the perforation in group A, to serve as a scaffold for repairing tissue. The stem cells were used in the right tympanic membrane perforation leaving the left tympanic membrane as a control. The animals in group B received the same treatment except for the use of gelatin and in addition received an immuno-suppressive agent. After half a year of observation the mechanical stiffness of the tympanic membrane was measured by moiré interferometry for group B and the morphological study was performed by light microscopy for both groups A and B and electron microscopy for group A.

    Results

    Stem cell treated ears did not show any enhanced healing of the perforation although a marked thickening of the lamina propria was observed compared with control group. After half a year the strength and the stiffness of the tympanic membrane was almost the same for both treated and untreated ears. No evidence of teratoma was found after half a year.

    Conclusion

    This study suggests that the stem cells stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue and fibers in the lamina propria, possibly mediated by secreted substances, although the stiffness properties do not seem to be altered. The use of gelatin does not seem to enhance the healing process of the tympanic membrane perforation.

  • 18.
    Sundqvist, Annette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Utvecklingspsykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Jönsson, Radoslava
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital/University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Understanding minds: Early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment2014Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 538-544Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment.

    Methods

    Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social–emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n = 18).

    Results

    Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests.

    Conclusion

    The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development.

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