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  • 1.
    Abelius, Martina S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    High cord blood levels of the T-helper 2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 precede allergy development during the first 6 years of life2011In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 495-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to a strong T-helper 2 (Th2)-like environment during fetal development may promote allergy development. Increased cord blood (CB) levels of the Th2-associated chemokine CCL22 were associated with allergy development during the first 2 y of life. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CB Th1- and Th2-associated chemokine levels are associated with allergy development during the first 6 y of life, allowing assessment of respiratory allergic symptoms usually developing in this period. The CB levels of cytokines, chemokines, and total IgE were determined in 56 children of 20 women with allergic symptoms and 36 women without allergic symptoms. Total IgE and allergen-specific IgE antibody levels were quantified at 6, 12, 24 mo, and 6 y of age. Increased CB CCL22 levels were associated with development of allergic sensitization and asthma and increased CCL17 levels with development of allergic symptoms, including asthma. Sensitized children with allergic symptoms showed higher CB CCL17 and CCL22 levels and higher ratios between these Th2-associated chemokines and the Th1-associated chemokine CXCL10 than nonsensitized children without allergic symptoms. A pronounced Th2 deviation at birth, reflected by increased CB CCL17 and CCL22 levels, and increased CCL22/CXCL10 and CCL17/CXCL10 ratios might promote allergy development later in life.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. University of Toronto, Canada.
    You Wu, Richard
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gut microbiota and allergy: the importance of the pregnancy period2015In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 214-219Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited microbial exposure is suggested to underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent countries, and bacterial diversity seems to be more important than specific bacteria taxa. Prospective studies indicate that the gut microbiota composition during the first months of life influences allergy development, and support the theory that factors influencing the early maturation of the immune system might be important for subsequent allergic disease. However, recent research indicates that microbial exposure during pregnancy may be even more important for the preventative effects against allergic disease. This review gives a background of the epidemiology, immunology, and microbiology literature in this field. It focuses on possible underlying mechanisms such as immune-regulated epigenetic imprinting and bacterial translocation during pregnancy, potentially providing the offspring with a pioneer microbiome. We suggest that a possible reason for the initial exposure of bacterial molecular patterns to the fetus in utero is to prime the immune system and/or the epithelium to respond appropriately to pathogens and commensals after birth.

  • 3.
    Björkqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jurstrand, Margaretha
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Clinical Research Center, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fredlund, Hans
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Schollin, Jens
    Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Defective neutrophil oxidative burst in preterm newborns on exposure to coagulase-negative staphylococci2004In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 966-971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutrophil oxidative burst is a product of the regulated assembly of the multicomponent oxidase enzyme. Our aim was to compare the oxidative burst in term (n = 10) and preterm newborns <31 wk gestational age (n = 10) after stimulation with coagulase-negative staphylococci in vitro. Strains of Streptococcus epidermidis with different invasive and slime-producing properties, one strain of S. haemolyticus, and one strain of group B-streptococcus were investigated. A whole-blood flow cytometric assay using the oxidation of hydroethidine to ethidium bromide was used. The oxidative activity in unstimulated neutrophil granulocytes [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs)] was similar in term and preterm newborns, but the preterm newborns showed a significantly lower capacity to up-regulate the oxidative burst intensity after bacterial stimulation (p = 0.004). In the term but not in the preterm group, the oxidative burst intensity after bacterial stimulation correlated with the baseline oxidative burst intensity. After bacterial stimulation, there was a trend toward a greater percentage of activated neutrophils in the term group than in the preterm group, but the difference was less pronounced than that in oxidative burst intensity. Significant differences in oxidative burst response to different bacterial strains were observed (p < 0.001), but the differences could not be correlated exclusively to invasive capacity or slime-producing properties. It is concluded that the baseline oxidative activity is similar in term and preterm PMNLs but that preterm PMNLs have a decreased capacity to increase the oxidative burst in response to bacterial stimulation.

  • 4.
    Bragde, Hanna
    et al.
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Pediatrics, Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Jarlsfelt, Ingvar
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Söderman, Jan
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Gene Expression Profiling of Duodenal Biopsies Discriminates Celiac Disease Mucosa From Normal Mucosa2011In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 530-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celiac disease (CD) is identified by histopathologic changes in the small intestine which normalize during a gluten-free diet. The histopathologic assessment of duodenal biopsies is usually routine but can be difficult. This study investigated gene expression profiling as a diagnostic tool. A total of 109 genes were selected to reflect alterations in crypt-villi architecture, inflammatory response, and intestinal permeability and were examined for differential expression in normal mucosa compared with CD mucosa in pediatric patients. Biopsies were classified using discriminant analysis of gene expression. Fifty genes were differentially expressed, of which eight (APOC3, CYP3A4, OCLN, MAD2L1, MKI67, CXCL11, IL17A, and CTLA4) discriminated normal mucosa from CD mucosa without classification errors using leave-one-out cross-validation (n = 39) and identified the degree of mucosal damage. Validation using an independent set of biopsies (n = 27) resulted in four discrepant cases. Biopsies from two of these cases showed a patchy distribution of lesions, indicating that discriminant analysis based on single biopsies failed to identify CD mucosa. In the other two cases, serology support class according to discriminant analysis and histologic specimens were judged suboptimal but assessable. Gene expression profiling shows promise as a diagnostic tool and for follow-up of CD, but further evaluation is needed.

  • 5.
    Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Garofalo, Roberto P.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology/Allergy/Rheumatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A..
    Chemoattractant factors in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers2000In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 592-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allergy-preventing effect of breast-feeding remains controversial, possibly because of individual variations in the composition of the breast milk. Recently, we showed that allergic mothers had higher concentrations of IL-4 and lower concentrations of ovalbumin-specific IgA in their breast milk than nonallergic mothers. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of chemokines and cytokines that are chemotactic to cells involved in allergic reactions in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations were determined with ELISA in colostrum and mature milk samples from 23 mothers with and 25 mothers without atopic symptoms. IL-8 was detected in all milk samples. RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), eotaxin, and IL-16 were detected in 50%, 76%, and 48%, respectively, in colostrum and less commonly in mature milk. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, however, could not be detected in any of the samples. The concentrations of IL-8 and RANTES were higher in breast milk from allergic, compared with nonallergic, mothers. In conclusion, the presence of chemoattractant factors in breast milk may be responsible for the traffic of leukocytes from the maternal circulation to the breast milk. The higher concentrations of RANTES and IL-8 in allergic mothers may partly explain the controversy regarding the protective effect of breast-feeding against the development of allergy by stronger chemotaxis and activation of cells involved in allergic diseases, and possibly by elevated IgE production.

  • 6.
    Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Garofalo, Roberto P.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology/Allergy/Rheumatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cytokines in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers2000In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allergy-preventing effect of breast-feeding remains controversial, possibly because of individual variations in the composition of the breast milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of cytokines involved in allergic reactions and IgA antibody production in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers. The cytokine concentrations were determined in colostrum and 1-mo milk samples from 24 mothers with, and 25 mothers without, atopic symptoms, using commercial ELISA kits. The immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-β was predominant and was detectable in all milk samples. IL-6 was detected in the majority of colostral and mature milk samples, whereas the other cytokines were less commonly detected. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β, which are all involved in IgA synthesis, correlated with each other and with total IgA concentrations in colostrum. The concentrations of IL-4 were higher in colostrum from allergic than nonallergic mothers, and similar trends were seen for IL-5 and IL-13. In conclusion, transforming growth factor-β and IL-6 were the predominant cytokines in human milk. The correlation between the concentrations of cytokines involved in IgA synthesis, i.e. IL-10, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-β, may explain the stimulatory effect on IgA production in breast-fed babies. Varying concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 may explain some of the controversy regarding the possible allergy-preventive effect of breast-feeding.

  • 7. Eriksson, M
    et al.
    Bodin, L
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Orebro, Sweden Orebro Univ Hosp, Unit Stat & Epidemiol, Orebro, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Schollin, J
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Orebro, Sweden Orebro Univ Hosp, Unit Stat & Epidemiol, Orebro, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Severity-of-illness indices as predictors of 4-year outcome2002In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 2201-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Schollin, J
    Repeated doses of orally given glucose do not cause tolerance when given for neonatal pain relief2003In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 2586-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tomicic, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voor, Tiia
    Children's Clinic of Tartu University Clinics, Tartu, Estonia.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Institute of Environmental Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Slow salivary secretory IgA maturation may relate to low microbial pressure and allergic symptoms in sensitized children2011In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 572-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unknown why allergic symptoms do not develop in all sensitized children. We analyzed prospectively the postnatal secretory IgA (SIgA) development and whether high SIgA levels would protect sensitized infants from developing allergic symptoms. Salivary total IgA and SIgA levels were determined by ELISA, and allergy development was investigated at 3, 6, and 12 mo and at 2 and 5 y in two birth cohorts in Estonia (n = 110) and Sweden (n = 91), two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. Total and SIgA levels increased with age, reaching adult levels at the age of 5. Virtually, all salivary IgA in Estonian children was in the secretory form, while a major part of IgA in Swedish saliva lacked the secretory component up to 2 y of age. In Sweden, high levels of salivary IgA without secretory component correlated inversely with house dust endotoxin levels. High SIgA levels were associated with less development of allergic symptoms in sensitized Swedish children. In conclusion, postnatal maturation of the salivary SIgA system proceeds markedly slower in Swedish than Estonian children, possibly as a consequence of low microbial pressure. SIgA may limit allergy-mediated tissue damage at mucosal surfaces in sensitized individuals.

  • 10.
    Faresjö, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Transfusion Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Garcia, Jorge
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    The immunological effect of photopheresis in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes2005In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 459-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photopheresis has been claimed to have immune-modulating effects, but the mechanisms of action are unknown. This study investigated the immune effect of photopheresis in children with type 1 diabetes, with a focus on the balance of Th1- and Th2-like cytokines. Ten children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (10-17 y) were treated with five double treatments of photopheresis and 10 children matched for disease, age, and gender were given placebo tablets and sham pheresis. Expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA was determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-13 in cell-culture supernatants by ELISA after stimulation with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) (a.a. 247-279), the ABBOS peptide (a.a. 152-169), insulin, phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Photopheresis changed antigen-stimulated immune balance in line with a Th2-like shift. Thus, the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 mRNA expression after in vitro stimulation with a peptide of the autoantigen GAD 65 was reduced after treatment in the photopheresis group. The IFN-γ/IL-4 mRNA expression ratio after in vitro stimulation with insulin was also lower in children treated with photopheresis compared with the placebo group. Photopheresis has an immune-modulating effect in children with type 1 diabetes, causing a Th2-like deviation. Copyright © 2005 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

  • 11.
    Fredly, Siv
    et al.
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway / Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Fugelseth, Drude
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway / Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Nygaard, Cathrine S
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stiris, Tom
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway / Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kvernebo, Knut
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway / Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Noninvasive assessments of oxygen delivery from the microcirculation to skin in hypothermia-treated asphyxiated newborn infants2016In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 902-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become standard treatment for severe and moderate hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy (HIE). Our group has developed an optically based, noninvasive concept of assessing the capacity for oxygen delivery from the microcirculation to the cells of a tissue under investigation. The hypothesis was that mechanisms of reduced oxygen delivery due to reduced metabolism in cooled asphyxiated neonates could be characterized with this concept.

    METHODS:

    The skin of 28 asphyxiated newborn infants was studied on days 1 and 3 during TH and on day 4 following rewarming with laser Doppler perfusion measurements (LDPM), computer-assisted video microscopy (CAVM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Twenty-five healthy neonates served as a control group.

    RESULTS:

    The LDPM decreased during cooling (P < 0.01). Functional capillary density was higher both during and following TH compared with control infants (P < 0.01). Capillary flow velocities were reduced during TH (P < 0.05). The heterogeneity of the flow velocities was larger in the HIE infants than in the control infants. Tissue oxygen extraction was higher during TH (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSION:

    This study indicates that assessments of skin microvascular density, capillary flow velocity, and oxygen extraction can be used to characterize reduced oxygen delivery to cells during TH

  • 12.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Th1 and Th2 chemokines, vaccine induced 1 immunity and allergic disease in infants  after maternal ω-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation2011In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 259-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether the previously reported preventive effect of maternal ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy may be mediated by facilitating a balanced circulating Th2/Th1 chemokine profile in the infant. Vaccine-induced immune responses at 2 y of age were also evaluated. Pregnant women, at risk of having an allergic infant, were randomized to daily supplementation with 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid or placebo from the 25th gestational week through 3.5 mo of breastfeeding. Infant plasma was analyzed for chemokines (cord blood, 3, 12, 24 mo) and anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG (24 mo). High Th2-associated CC-chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) levels were associated with infant allergic disease (p < 0.05). In infants without, but not with, maternal history of allergy, the ω-3 supplementation was related to lower CCL17/CXC-chemokine ligand 11 (CXCL11) (Th2/Th1) ratios (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in nonallergic, but not in allergic infants, ω-3 supplementation was linked with higher Th1-associated CXCL11 levels (p < 0.05), as well as increased IgG titers to diphtheria (p = 0.01) and tetanus (p = 0.05) toxins. Thus, the prospect of balancing the infant immune system toward a less Th2-dominated response, by maternal ω-3 fatty acid supplementation, seems to be influenced by allergic status.

  • 13.
    Gradin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Schollin, J
    Comparison of oral glucose and breast-feeding on neonatal pain response to venipuncture2003In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 2583-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ullsatdius, Eva
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Swerlander, Agneta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Imitation in Eight Infants with Down Syndrome1998In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 780-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitation of tongue protrusion and mouth opening was studied in eight infants with Down's syndrome. Five of the children were observed at approximately 1 mo, seven around 3 mo, and seven at 4 mo. The only significant group result revealed imitation of tongue protrusion at 1 mo. In addition, a descriptive analysis of each child's response pattern during the presentation period showed that all five children observed at 1 mo imitated tongue protrusion and that four of them also seemed to imitate mouth opening. The result for the 3-mo observation was somewhat inconsistent. All but one of the infants increased their response rates of both tongue protrusion and mouth opening when mouth opening was modeled. At 4 mo imitation seems to disappear. Overall, the findings are in agreement with what is known from typically developing children.

  • 15.
    Magnusson, Amanda
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahle, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Andersson, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Cty Hosp Ryhov, Sweden.
    Swolin-Eide, Diana
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Elfvin, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Increased risk of rickets but not fractures during childhood and adolescence following necrotizing enterocolitis among children born preterm in Sweden2019In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to clarify whether children born preterm with a history of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) had an increased risk of rickets, fractures, and/or vitamin D deficiency during childhood and adolescence compared to controls without NEC, matched for gestational age. METHODS: All infants born in Sweden between 1987 and 2009 with a gestational age amp;lt;32 + 0 weeks and a diagnosis of NEC were identified. Totally, 465 children with a history of NEC and 2127 controls were included. International Classification of Diseases codes for all categories of fractures, rickets, vitamin D deficiency, and malnutrition were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 94 of the 465 children with NEC died within 28 days. Of the 2127 controls, 288 died within 28 days. Among the remaining 371 NEC cases, 39 fracture occasions were identified. The 1839 controls had 204 fracture occasions. There was no significant difference in fractures. Rickets was diagnosed in 11 (3%) of the children with a history of NEC compared to 21 (1%) of the controls (odds ratio 2.65, 95% CI 1.26-5.53, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an increased risk of rickets but not fractures during childhood and adolescence in children born preterm and with a history of NEC, compared to matched controls.

  • 16. Olausson, H
    et al.
    Lewitt, MS
    Brismar, K
    Sohlström, Annica
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery .
    Enhanced responsiveness of the insulin-like growth factor system in adult rat offspring from food restricted dams2003In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 39A-39AConference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Flinke, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Medical Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hannerstad, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of clinical chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Studies on human body composition during the first 4 months of life using magnetic resonance imaging and isotope dilution2003In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 906-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing body composition during infancy requires data for the so-called reference infant. Currently available data for this purpose need to be updated and extended using methods based on principles different from those used previously to define the reference infant. Thus, magnetic resonance imaging was applied to full-term healthy boys (n = 25) and girls (n = 21), 4-131 d old, to estimate adipose tissue volume (ATV) and the amounts of s.c. and non-s.c. adipose tissue (AT). Total body water was estimated using isotope dilution. Total body fat (TBF), fat free weight (FFW) and the degree of hydration in FFW were calculated. Increases in weight, TBF, and FFW with age agreed with current reference data, although when compared with the reference, a slightly more rapid increase in % TBF was observed for boys. The degree of hydration in FFW was 78.9 ± 4.5% (n = 45). Both sexes showed significant increases with age in s.c. ATV (14.7 and 13.0 mL/d for boys and girls, respectively) and in non-s.c. ATV (1.58 and 1.26 mL/d, respectively). Subcutaneous ATV was 90.5 ± 1.8% (boys) and 91.1 ± 1,9% (girls) of total ATV. In conclusion, a pronounced increase with age in the amount of AT was demonstrated involving a considerable gain in s.c. fat during early life. Except for % TBF in boys, changes in body composition with age agreed with current reference data.

  • 18.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thuomas, Karl-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wigström, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Description and evaluation of a method based on magnetic resonance imaging to estimate adipose tissue volume and total body fat in infants1998In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 572-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about body fatness is important during nutritional assessment of infants, but current methods to estimate body composition in vivo are often not applicable in infants. Therefore, a new method based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed. This method, which can assess the volume and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) as well as total body fat, was applied in 11 healthy full-term infants. Their total body water was also estimated using the isotope dilution technique. Adipose tissue volume (ATV) was calculated from AT area in 16 images of the body taken by an MRI scanner (1.5 tesla). AT area was assessed using a computer program in which AT criteria was defined by the observer. ATV of the infants was therefore evaluated once by three observers and twice by a fourth observer. The different observers estimated total, s.c., and non-s.c. ATV with a precision that varied between 1.9 and 7.2%, 2.0 and 4.8%, and 4.2 and 40.7%, respectively. Variations during AT area calculations accounted for a large part of the imprecision when assessing total and s.c. ATV. The linear relationship between percent total body water and total ATV in relation to body weight was significant in all evaluations. Although average total ATV varied when estimated by the four observers, there was, within each evaluation, a fairly constant order between infants with respect to their ATV. It is concluded that the MRI procedure represents a useful possibility to assess body fatness in infants.

  • 19.
    Rydén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Faresjo, Maria
    Jonköping University, Sweden Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    General immune dampening is associated with disturbed metabolism at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes2014In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a serious diagnosis with the prospect of grave short- and long-term complications and even death if poorly managed. An attempt has been made to describe how clinical and immunological deviations might influence each other close to the diagnosis of T1D. METHODS: Sixty-nine newly diagnosed T1D children were studied together with a reference group of 30 healthy children. Cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were detected in in vitro culture by multiplex fluorochrome technique. Information of clinical status of the patients such as BMI, weight loss, pubertal stage, duration of symptoms, previous and/or ongoing infections, insulin requirement, and ketoacidosis were gathered together with the analysis of C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: In general, low cytokine secretion was found at diagnosis of T1D. However, high C-peptide, short duration of symptoms, or an infection prior to diagnosis was associated with increased immune activity including proinflammatory, Th2-associated, and Tr1-associated cytokines. In contrast, ketoacidosis and later pubertal stage at onset of disease were more related to a Th1-prone response. CONCLUSION: There is a general immune dampening at diagnosis of T1D, which appears to be related to the metabolic state close to diagnosis.

  • 20.
    Savilahti, Erkki
    et al.
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents Helsinki, Finland.
    Siltanen, Mirjami
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents Helsinki, Finland.
    Kajosaari, Merja
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents Helsinki, Finland.
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Saarinen, Kristiina
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents Helsinki, Finland.
    IgA antibodies, TGF-β1 and -β2, and Soluble CD14 in the colostrum and development of atopy by age 42005In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 1300-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific defense factors in breast milk together with length of breast-feeding and genetic predisposition may modulate the development of allergy. We studied whether IgA, soluble CD14 (sCD14), or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in colostrum could affect the development of atopy in children up to age 4. From a cohort of 4676, we selected four groups of children with either long or short exclusive breast-feeding (>3.5 or <0.5 mo), these groups further differed in the presence or absence of atopic heredity. In colostrum from mothers, we measured total IgA, IgA antibodies to cow's milk (CM) and casein, sCD14, and TGF-β1 and -β2. The children were divided into three groups: those with no atopic symptoms or IgE, those with allergic symptoms, and those with both outcomes. Mothers of infants later showing atopic symptoms or, in addition, having IgE sensitization (verified atopy) had a lower concentration of IgA casein antibodies in their colostrum than did mothers of infants with no indication of atopy at age 4. Low concentration of IgA casein antibodies was a significant risk for verified atopy. sCD14 levels were lower in colostrum of mothers with infants developing atopic symptoms and IgE sensitization than of those of infants with no atopy. Specific IgA antibodies to CM antigens and sCD14 in colostrum significantly associated with the appearance of both symptomatic and verified atopy by age 4. Copyright © 2005 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

  • 21.
    Stigson, Lennart
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Kistner, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Sigurdsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Engstrom, Eva
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Magnusson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Hellstrom, Ann
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Swolin-Eide, Diana
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Bone and fat mass in relation to postnatal levels of insulin-like growth factors in prematurely born children at 4y of age2014In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 544-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Children born prematurely may be at risk of developing osteopenia. This study investigated whether insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the early postnatal period influence bone mass and body composition in prematurely born children. METHODS: A total of 74 control (gestational age greater than36 wk; n = 37) and preterm (gestational age less than32 wk; n = 37) infants were investigated (mean age +/- SD: 4.59 +/- 0.31 y). Bone mineral density, body composition, and markers of bone and mineral metabolism were investigated in relation to postnatal IGF levels. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, we found no differences in bone mass, but significantly less lean mass, increased fat mass, and increased osteocalcin levels in ex-preterm infants. Forward stepwise multiple analysis revealed that higher late postnatal IGF-II levels predict lumbar spine bone mineral content (P less than 0.05) and lean mass (P less than 0.05). When the birth weight standard deviation score was included in the analysis, higher early postnatal IGF-I levels predicted both lumbar spine bone mineral density and bone mineral content (P less than 0.05). Higher early postnatal IGF binding protein-3 (P less than 0.01) predicted increased fat mass at 4-y follow-up. CONCLUSION: Ex-preterm children have normal bone mass but different body composition compared with full-term controls. Higher early IGF-I and late postnatal IGF-II concentrations are positive predictors of lumbar spine bone mass.

  • 22.
    Telang, S
    et al.
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Chico, CA 95929 USA Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Maloney, J
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Chico, CA 95929 USA Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Law, I
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Chico, CA 95929 USA Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundqvist-Gustafsson, H
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Chico, CA 95929 USA Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Oian, M
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Chico, CA 95929 USA Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Eaton, J
    Iron dependent virulence in Escherichia coil - A strain-specific phenomenon2000In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 1642-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Tomicic, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Git
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voor, Tiia
    Children's Clinic of Tartu University Clinics, Tartu University, Estonia.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Institute of Environmental Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fagerås-Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy2010In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 330-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-β2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-γ levels but lower TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-β, particularly TGF-β2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-γ than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

  • 24. Turunen, R
    et al.
    Nupponen, I
    Repo, H
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Andersson, S
    Delayed activation of CD8-positive T-cells in preterm infants to mothers with premature rupture of membranes (PROM)2003In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 2343-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25. Turunen, R
    et al.
    Nupponen, I
    Repo, H
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Andersson, S
    Delayed activation of CD8+T-cells in preterm infants to mothers with prom2003In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 573-573Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Warstedt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Maternal Eicosanoid, Cytokine, and Chemokine Secretion2009In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 212-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of allergic diseases has increased, and,I relation between allergy and dietary fatty acids has been proposed. Modulation of the maternal immune function during pregnancy may have an impact on future clinical outcomes in the child. The aim of this Study was to determine the effects of omega (omega)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) Supplementation during pregnancy on the plasma fatty acid composition in relation to the maternal immune function. Pregnant women with allergic disease in their immediate family were supplemented daily with 2.7 g omega-3 LCPUFA (n = 70) or 2.8 g soybean oil as placebo (n = 75) from the 25th gestational week. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma/serum phospholipids increased in the omega-3-supplemented group, whereas arachidonic acid decreased during intervention. Lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E, secretion from whole blood culture supernatants (it = 59) decreased in a majority of the omega-3-supplemented mothers (18 of 28, p = 0.002). The decreased prostaglandin E-2, production was more pronounced among nonatopic than atopic mothers. The lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and chemokine secretion was not affected. Out results indicate that omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation during the last trimester may dampen certain immune responses involved in allergic inflammation.

  • 27.
    Wearden, ME
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA Linkoping Univ Hosp, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology .
    Terman, Alexei
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric .
    Eaton, John Wallace
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Mitochondria: Potential importance in hyperoxic lung injury2000In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 2244-Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 27 of 27
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