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  • 1.
    Brohede, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among Swedish women: A population-based study2015In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 58, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a highly distressing and impairing preoccupation with nonexistent or slight defects in appearance. Patients with BDD present to both psychiatric and non-psychiatric physicians. A few studies have assessed BDD prevalence in representative samples of the general population and have demonstrated that this disorder is relatively common. Our primary objective was to assess the prevalence of BDD in the Swedish population because no data are currently available. Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, 2891 randomly selected Swedish women aged 18-60 years participated. The occurrence of BDD was assessed using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), which is a validated self-report measure derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for BDD. In addition, symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The prevalence of BDD among Swedish women was 2.1%. The women with BDD had significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than the women without BDD. Depression (HADS depression score greater than= 8) and anxiety (HADS anxiety score greater than= 8) were reported by 42% and 72% of the women with BDD, respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that BDD is relatively common among Swedish women (2.1%) and that it is associated with significant morbidity.

  • 2.
    Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Schlette, Paul
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Przybeck, Thomas R.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsgren, Thomas
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Robert C.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden/Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden c Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Swedish normative data on personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory1998In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a self-report personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality, which accounts for both normal and abnormal variation in the two major components of personality, temperament and character. Normative data for the Swedish TCI based on a representative Swedish sample of 1,300 adults are presented, and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire are discussed. The structure of the Swedish version replicates the American version well for the means, distribution of scores, and relationships within the between scales and subscales. Further, the Swedish inventory had a reliable factor structure and test-retest performance. The results of this study confirm the theory of temperament and character as a seven-factor model of personality.

  • 3.
    Lexne, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Strain, James J.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Temperament and character in patients with acute abdominal pain2018In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 87, p. 128-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Several conditions presenting with abdominal pain are associated with specific personality factors although it is unclear if this is true also in emergency clinic settings.

    Objective

    To study personality factors among patients with acute abdominal pain in an emergency ward.

    Methods

    Consecutive patients (N = 165) with abdominal symptoms at an emergency clinic were administrated the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Three main groups were identified; specific abdominal diagnoses, (N = 77), non-specific abdominal pain, (N = 67) and organic dyspepsia (N = 21). TCI results were compared between clinical groups and a control group (N = 122).

    Results

    As compared to individuals with specific abdominal diagnoses and controls, those with organic dyspepsia were significantly more anxious (harm avoidance), (p = 0.003), and had lower ability to cooperate (cooperativeness) (p = 0.048 and p = 0.004 respectively). They were also significantly more unpretentious (self-transcendence) compared to individuals with specific abdominal diagnoses (p = 0.048), non-specific abdominal pain (p = 0.012) and controls (p = 0.004) and evidenced less mature character (sum of self-directedness and cooperativeness) compared to those with specific abdominal diagnoses and controls (p = 0.003).

    Conclusion

    Individuals seeking care at an emergency clinic with organic dyspepsia showed a distinguishable pattern of personality features that distinguished them from the other comparison groups. Therefore an evaluation of personality factors may add a new dimension to the diagnostic investigation in the emergency care of abdominal pain and contribute to the optimization of the treatment of organic dyspepsia.

  • 4.
    Richter, Jörg
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescents Mental Health, Regions East and South, N-0405 Oslo, Norway.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory2009In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality disorders (PDs) criteria are still in development. Cloninger's biosocial theory of personality contributed to this discussion. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between extreme expressions on temperament and an immature character according to Cloninger's assumptions. Eight hundred healthy volunteers and 200 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited each from Sweden and Germany, and were asked to complete the Temperament and Character Inventory, which measures 4 temperament and 3 character dimensions. Patients differed from controls on temperament and character dimensions. The combination of low and very low character scores with extreme scores in either novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence was found more often among patients with PD compared with patients without PD and controls; this is more pronounced with an increasing number of extreme temperament scores. The Temperament and Character Inventory represents a useful tool in the diagnostic process of personality disorders.

  • 5.
    Wetterborg, Dan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Langstrom, Niklas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probat Serv RandD Unit, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Borderline personality disorder: Prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity among male offenders on probation in Sweden2015In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 62, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severely disabling condition, associated with substantially increased risk of deliberate self-harm and, particularly in men, also with interpersonal violence and other criminal behavior. Although BPD might be common among prison inmates, little is known about prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity in probationers and parolees. Method: In 2013, a consecutive sample of 109 newly admitted adult male offenders on probation or parole in all three probation offices of Stockholm, Sweden, completed self-report screening questionnaires for BPD and other psychiatric morbidity. Participants scoring over BPD cut-off participated in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Results: We ascertained a final DSM-5 BPD prevalence rate of 19.8% (95% CI: 12.3-27.3%). The most common current comorbid disorders among subjects with BPD were antisocial personality disorder (91%), major depressive disorder (82%), substance dependence (73%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (70%), and alcohol dependence (64%). Individuals diagnosed with BPD had significantly more current psychiatric comorbidity (M = 6.2 disorders) than interviewed participants not fulfilling BPD criteria (M = 3.6). Participants with BPD also reported substantially more symptoms of ADHD, anxiety and depression compared to all subjects without BPD. Conclusions: BPD affected one fifth of probationers and was related to serious mental ill-health known to affect recidivism risk. The findings suggest further study of possible benefits of improved identification and treatment of BPD in offender populations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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