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  • 1.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Sodra Alvsborgs Hosp, Sweden.
    Norman Kjellstrom, Anna
    Reg Vastra Gotaland, Sweden.
    Torgerson, Jarl
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Rusner, Marie
    Sodra Alvsborgs Hosp, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Somatic comorbidity in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 1517-1525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the adult population, psychiatric disorders are associated with somatic illness. Explanatory life style factors have been found, but also a failure to recognize somatic illness in this group. Another factor is side effects from long-term use of antipsychotic drugs. Given the psychiatric-somatic comorbidity in the adult population, it is of interest to investigate whether an association exists already during childhood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of somatic illness in children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnose. Data were obtained from the regional health care database Vega, Sweden. Psychiatric and somatic diagnoses obtained during 2011-2013 for individuals aged 3-18 years were extracted. Descriptive statistics were used to examine difference in somatic morbidity between children with and without psychiatric diagnoses. Logistic regression was used in age-stratified models to test the association between psychiatric and somatic diagnoses. Anxiety and behavioral disorders were associated with all somatic conditions investigated at nearly all ages. The same applied to substance use, investigated at age 9-18 years. Affective disorders were associated with all somatic conditions at age 12-18 years. Psychotic conditions were associated with asthma, bowel disorders and myalgia in adolescents. Children with psychiatric disorders are at remarkably high risk for concurrent somatic illness. The associations span across many types of conditions and across all ages. The results support the need for awareness of somatic morbidity in child and adolescent psychiatric clinical settings, and the need for coordinated health care for children with comorbid states.

  • 2.
    Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C.
    et al.
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Heberbrand, Johannes
    University of Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Eliez, Stephan
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Doyle, Maeve B.
    St Davnets Hospital, Ireland.
    Klasen, Henrikje
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Crommen, Sofie
    Flemish Assoc Child and Adolescent Psychiat, Belgium.
    Cetin Cuhadaroglu, Fusun
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Herreros, Oscar
    Hospital University of Virgen de las Nieves, Spain.
    Minderaa, Ruud
    European Soc Child and Adolescent Psychiat, Belgium.
    Karwautz, Andreas
    Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Raynaud, Jean Philippe
    Centre Hospital University of Toulouse, France.
    Editorial Material: European Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: position statement on mental health of child and adolescent refugees in EUROPEAN CHILD and ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, vol 25, issue 7, pp 673-6762016In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 673-676Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 3.
    Barrett, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Ireland; Childrens Univ Hosp, Ireland.
    Jacobs, Brian
    South London and Maudsley Hosp, England; European Union Med Specialists UEMS CAP, Belgium.
    Klasen, Henrikje
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Herguner, Sabri
    Private Practice, Turkey.
    Agnafors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Banjac, Visnja
    Univ Clin Ctr Republ Srpska, Bosnia and Herceg.
    Bezborodovs, Nikita
    Riga Stradins Univ, Latvia.
    Cini, Erica
    East London Fdn Trust, England.
    Hamann, Christoph
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Huscsava, Mercedes M.
    Med Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Kostadinova, Maya
    Univ Hosp Alexandrovska, Bulgaria; DNCC CAMHS, Ireland.
    Kramar, Yuliia
    TMA PSYCHIAT, Ukraine.
    Maravic, Vanja Mandic
    Inst Mental Hlth, Serbia.
    McGrath, Jane
    Cherry Orchard Hosp, Ireland.
    Molteni, Silvia
    Univ Pavia, Italy.
    Moron-Nozaleda, Maria Goretti
    Neurodev Outpatient Clin, Spain; Hosp Infantil Univ Nino Jesus, Spain.
    Mudra, Susanne
    Univ Med Ctr Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.
    Nikolova, Gordana
    Univ Clin Psychiat, North Macedonia.
    Vorkas, Kallistheni Pantelidou
    Cypriot Soc Child and Adolescent Psychiat, Cyprus.
    Prata, Ana Teresa
    Hosp Dona Estefania, Portugal.
    Revet, Alexis
    Univ Toulouse 3, France.
    Joseph, Judeson Royle
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Norway.
    Serbak, Reelika
    Tallinn Childrens Hosp, Estonia.
    Tomac, Aran
    CAMHS Clare, Ireland.
    Van den Steene, Helena
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Xylouris, Georgios
    Gen Childrens Hosp Agia Sophia, Greece.
    Zielinska, Anna
    Med Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Hebebrand, Johannes
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Correction: The child and adolescent psychiatry: study of training in Europe (CAP-STATE) (vol 74, pg 231, 2020)2020In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original article has been corrected.

  • 4. Broberg, AG
    et al.
    Ekeroth, K
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, CPS - Centrum för psykiatri och samhällsmedicin, BUP - Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hansson, K
    Hägglöf, B
    Ivarsson, T
    Larsson, B
    Self-reported competencies and problems among Swedish adolescents: A normative study of the YSR2001In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 186-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to provide a standardisation of self-reported competencies and emotional/behavioural problems among Swedish adolescents, using the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was completed by 2522 adolescents aged 13-18 years, recruited from secondary and upper secondary schools in different regions in Sweden. The results showed that effects of gender and age were small but significant with girls scoring higher than boys on most problem scales, and 15- to 16-year-olds scoring higher than younger and older adolescents on the problem scales. Small effects were also found for residence as well as for parental SES. The correlations between internalising and externalising problems were 0.51 for boys and 0.49 for girls, whereas the correlation between competence and problem scores was low. We conclude that the individual variation in YSR-scores is much greater than can be attributed to factors such as gender, age, SES, or residential area. Consequently, the YSR has the potential to serve as an instrument for assessing individual adolescents' self-reported competencies and problems in Sweden. Given the almost orthogonal relation between self-reported competencies and problems, the competence scale is surprisingly little used in psychopathology research.

  • 5.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Agnafors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aho, Nikolas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents: FKBP5 genotype-early life adversity interaction effects2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1473-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5 genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The FKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health.

  • 6.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    et al.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands Leuphana Univ, Luneburg, Germany.
    Weitz, Erica
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Karyotaki, Eirini
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Garber, Judy
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Psychol & Human Dev, Nashville, TN 37235 USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Karolinska Inst, Psychiat Sect, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of psychological treatment of maternal depression on children and parental functioning: a meta-analysis.2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful treatment of parental depression may have a positive effect on the functioning and psychopathology of their children. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychotherapy for depressed mothers on their children and parental functioning. We used a database of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of psychotherapy for adult depression and selected trials comparing psychotherapy and control conditions in depressed mothers and reporting outcomes in their children and parental functioning. Nine studies were included. The quality of these studies was not optimal and the outcome instruments differed considerably from each other. The therapies resulted in significantly decreased levels of depression (g = 0.66) in the mothers. In the seven studies that reported outcomes on the mental health of children, a significant effect size was also found (g = 0.40). The eight studies examining mother-child interactions resulted in a significant effect size of g = 0.35, and the five studies examining parenting/marital distress had a pooled effect size of g = 0.67. We found that psychotherapy leads to decreased levels of depression in depressed mothers and also found indications that psychotherapy may have a positive effect on the mental health of their children and parenting/marital distress. However, more high-quality research is needed before a definite answer can be given.

  • 7. Ekman, JT
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, CPS - Centrum för psykiatri och samhällsmedicin, BUP - Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Stimulants in AD/HD, a controversial treatment only in Sweden?2000In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 312-313Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Health Science, Section of Nursing Graduate Level, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Öhnström, Gisela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Beliefs regarding medication and side effects influence treatment adherence in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2017In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 559-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is important because, when untreated, it may have serious consequences with lifelong effects. In the case of adolescents on long-term medicine prescription, more knowledge is needed regarding adherence and factors influencing adherence, which was the purpose of this study. Adolescents (n = 101) on ADHD medication ≥6 months were administrated questionnaires at a monitoring appointment: Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), beliefs about medicines (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Adherence was high, the mean value was 88% of the maximum MARS score, and correlated positively with the “BMQ-necessity-concerns differential” but negatively with “BMQ-concerns” and “BMQ-side effects”. Adolescents with more belief in the necessity of the medication, less concerns and less experience of side effects tended to be more adherent to medication prescription (“intentional non-adherence”), while “unintentional non-adherence” (forgetfulness) was associated with how much they perceived that their ADHD affected their lives. In a multiple regression model, the variance of MARS total (R2 = 0.21) and “intentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.24) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “BMQ-experienced side effects”. The variance of “unintentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.12) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “B-IPQ-consequences of ADHD”. In conclusion, adolescents on long-term medication reported good adherence, mainly influenced by more beliefs in the necessity versus concerns of the medications, less experienced side effects and more perceived consequences of ADHD. BMQ could be useful to identify risks of low adherence, which should be counteracted by partially gender-specific interventions.

  • 9.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Anderson, Katie
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Diagnostic procedures in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic literature review2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 329-340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, gold standard diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a lengthy and time consuming process that requires suitably qualified multi-disciplinary team (MDT) personnel to assess behavioural, historical, and parent-report information to determine a diagnosis. A number of different tools have been developed to assist in determination. To optimise the diagnostic procedures, the best diagnostic instruments need to be identified. This study is a systematic review addressing the accuracy, reliability, validity and utility of reported diagnostic tools and assessments. To be included in this review, studies must have (1) identified an ASD diagnostic tool; (2) investigated either diagnostic procedure or the tools or personnel required; (3) be presented in English; (4) be conducted in the Western world; (5) be one of three types of studies [adapted from Samtani et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:1-13, 2011], viz. (a) cohort studies or cross-sectional studies, (b) randomised studies of test accuracy, (c) case-control studies. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were scrutinised for relevant literature published from 2000 inclusive on 20th January 2012. In total, 68 articles were included. 17 tools were assessed. However, many lacked an evidence base of high quality-independent studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) stood out with the largest evidence base and highest sensitivity and specificity. When the ADI-R and ADOS were used in combination they revealed levels of accuracy very similar to the correct classification rates for the current gold standard diagnostic procedure viz. 80.8 % for ASD. There is scope for future studies on the use of the ADI-R and ADOS in combination.

  • 10.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Aho, Nikolas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jones, Annica
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health services utilization in adolescents with social anxiety disorder and experiences of victimization2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings from studies on adults show similarities between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress in the form of recurrent memories and intrusive and distressing images of earlier aversive events. Further, treatment models for SAD in adults have been successfully developed by using transdiagnostic knowledge on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Studies on adolescents are though missing. The present study aimed at exploring the association between PTSS and SAD in Swedish adolescents. A second aim was to study mental health services utilization in relation to these conditions. A total of 5,960 high-school students participated and reported on SAD, life time victimization, PTSS and mental health service utilization. Socially anxious adolescents reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than adolescents not reporting SAD and this difference was seen in victimized as well as non-victimized subjects. Contact with a school counselor was the most common mental health service utilization in subjects with SAD and those with elevated PTSS. In the prediction of contact with a CAP-clinic, significant odds ratios were found for a condition of SAD and elevated PTSS (OR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 3.53–6.73) but not for SAD only. Screening of PTSS in adolescents with SAD is recommended. The service of school counselors is important in detecting and helping young people with SAD and elevated PTSS. Clinical studies on SAD and PTSS in adolescents could aid in modifying treatment models for SAD.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Polytraumatization and Psychological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents2009In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 274-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the impact of traumatic experiences in children and adolescents has focused almost entirely on the effect of single trauma. Research on cumulative traumas been lacking, but Finkelhor (2007) has recently directed the attention to the concept of polyvictimization. As an extension of this concept, this study examined the impact of polytraumatization, operationalized as the number of different potentially traumatic events. The study population comprised two cross-sectional samples of school-aged children (n = 270) and adolescents (n = 400). Information of life-time incidence of traumatic events was collected by the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events (LITE), and psychological symptoms by the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the school children and the self-report Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) for the adolescents. We found that exposure to at least one traumatic event was common in both the samples (63% of the children and 89.5% of the adolescents). The number of different traumatic events, polytraumatization, was highly predictive of symptoms in both samples, and with a few exceptions surpassed the impact of specific events in exploratory analyses. We furthermore replicated previous findings of the important impact of interpersonal over noninterpersonal events on symptoms in both samples, and found an indication that this effect differed by gender in different manners in the two samples. This study emphasizes the significance of both the quantity of traumatic events, polytraumatization, as well as the quality, interpersonal events.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Linda
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Department of Psychology, Linnæus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1245-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  • 13.
    Priebe, Gisela
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth2012In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 569-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority adolescents reported a greater rate of sexual abuse, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment, compared to heterosexual youth. When compared to non-victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised heterosexual adolescents and non-victimised and victimised sexual-minority adolescents reported more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence. Same-sex sexual orientation was related to more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence even when controlled for victimisation and gender. Compared to victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised sexual-minority adolescents were more likely to seek support because of sexual abuse (females) or Internet-related problems (males and females). Results for sexual-minority youth were basically the same whether sexual orientation was assessed as sexual identity or as sexual or emotional attraction. Health care providers are challenged to not only provide the same care to sexual-minority youth who seek counselling or psychiatric treatment for mental health problems or problems related to victimisation that all adolescents should receive but also to find ways to address topics like prevention of sexual abuse and risk-taking behaviour online or off-line.

  • 14.
    Rajan, Gita
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Acad Primary Hlth Care Ctr, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Gunnar
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Publ Hlth Care Serv Comm Adm, Sweden.
    Wandell, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Wahlstrom, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Health care consumption among adolescent girls prior to diagnoses of sexual abuse, a case-control study in the Stockholm Region2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Victims of sexual abuse have more co-morbidities than other persons in the same age and the most affected group are adolescent girls. Little is known about how this is reflected in health care consumption patterns prior to the registered diagnosis. The aim of this investigation was to study health care consumption patterns among girls, 12-17 years old, 1 and 2 years prior to their diagnoses of sexual abuse. Through the Stockholm Region administrative database (VAL), data of co-morbidities, number of health care visits, and prescribed drugs were collected for cases (girls age 12-17 with diagnoses of sexual abuse, n = 519) and controls matched for age and socio-economic status (n = 4920) between 2011-2018. Health care consumption and co-morbidities were significantly higher for the cases compared to controls, with a rise 1 year before the diagnoses: the total number of health care visits (including no shows) 1 year prior to the first recording of the diagnosis was 20.4 (18.1-22.7) for the cases and 6.2 (5.8-6.6) for the controls. The most frequent visits 1 year prior to the diagnosis were to outdoor clinics, with a mean value of 19.1 (16.9-21.3) visits for the cases and 5.7 (5.3-6.1) for the controls, followed by psychiatric clinics with a mean value of 12.7 (10.6-14.8) visits for the cases and 2.0 (1.7-2.3) visits for the controls. The least visited health care clinic 1 year prior to the diagnosis was the emergency ward with a mean value of 1.3 (1.1-1.5) visits for the cases and 0.5 (0.4-0.5) visits for the controls. The most common psychiatric co-morbidities registered among the cases during the first year before the diagnosis of sexual abuse were stress, suicide attempt, and psychosis. Neuroleptics, sleeping pills, antidepressants, and tranquilizers were more frequently dispensed in cases than in controls. Similar patterns were found 2 years prior to the diagnosis. We encourage clinicians to actively ask for exposure of sexual abuse in girls with high health care consumption, making early detection and treatment of sexual abuse available as soon as possible.

  • 15.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Lund .
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Mental health, behaviour problems and incidence of child abuse at the age of 16 years: A prospective longitudinal study of children born at psychosocial risk2005In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 386-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the 1,575 pregnant women registered at the public Antenatal Health Care Service in the city of Linköping, Sweden during 1983, an index group of 78 women was identified that met specific well-defined psychosocial risk criteria related to drug addiction, mental insufficiency, and particular social circumstances of possible relevance to problems of pregnancy and early child development. A further 78 pregnant women who did not meet the inclusion criteria were used as a reference group. The present study is a 16-year follow-up in which 43 (57%) of the original index children and 63 (82%) of the original reference children were examined on indices of mental health, and the presence of child abuse. Their mental health was assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) completed by the mothers and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) completed by the adolescents. The incidence of child abuse and Social Welfare interventions was obtained from Social Welfare records. The index children, especially the boys, displayed significantly poorer mental health as assessed by both CBCL (p<0.05) and YSR (p<0.02). Being an index child increased the odds ratio 16-27 times for different Social Welfare interventions, and child abuse had been investigated in 27% of the index children compared to 1% of the reference children. © Steinkopff Verlag 2005.

  • 16.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Asylum-seeking children with resignation syndrome: catatonia or traumatic withdrawal syndrome?2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 2000s, an increasing number of asylum-seeking children in Sweden fell into a stuporous condition. In the present study, we report 46 consecutive children with the most severe form of this illness where the children were unable to give any response at all, did not react to pain, cold or touching, could not be supported to sit or stand on their feet, could not do anything when requested, and in most cases had enuresis/encopresis. A minority of the children came from war zones (n = 8, 17.4%). A majority belonged to an ethnic or religious minority (n = 32, 69.6%) in their homeland and almost all were persecuted (n = 43, 93.5%). All had either experienced violence themselves or had witnessed or heard about violence against close family members. The age of onset of the first symptom of illness for boys was 11.2 years [CI 9.6-12.8], for girls 11.8 yrs.[CI 10.4-13.2], and the age for falling into stupor for boys was 12.9 years [CI 11.6-14.1] years and was the same for girls, 12.9 years [CI 11.6-14.2] years. Girls tended to have depression before entering the stuporous condition, while the boys tended to have PTSD first (Chi-square = 3.73, p = 0.054). A majority of the children had one (n = 13, 28.3%) or both parents (n = 14, 30.4%) suffering from mental or severe physical disorder. It is discussed whether the presented condition is a separate entity or if the syndrome should be regarded as a variant of catatonia, and whether benzodiazepines should be tried.

  • 17.
    Wennberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Effectiveness of time-related interventions in children with ADHD aged 9-15 years: a randomized contolled study2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 329-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific problems with time and timing that affect daily routines, homework, school work, and social relations have been recognized in children with ADHD. The primary treatments for children with ADHD do not specifically focus on time-related difficulties. The aim of this randomized controlled study (RCT) was to investigate how multimodal interventions, consisting of training in time-processing ability (TPA) and compensation with time-assistive devices (TAD), affect TPA and daily time management (DTM) in children with ADHD and time difficulties, compared with only educational intervention. Thirty-eight children on stable medication for ADHD in the 9–15-year age range were randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The children’s TPA was measured with a structured assessment (KaTid), and the children’s DTM was rated by a parent questionnaire (Time-Parent scale) and by children’s self-reporting (Time-Self-rating). The intervention consisted of time-skill training and compensation with TAD. Data were analysed for differences in TPA and in DTM between the control and intervention groups in the 24-week follow-up. Children in the intervention group increased their TPA significantly (p = 0.019) more compared to the control group. The largest increase was in orientation to time. In addition, the parents in the intervention group rated their children’s DTM as significantly (p = 0.01) improved compared with the parents in the control group. According to the children, their DTM was not significantly changed. In conclusion, a multimodal intervention consisting of time-skill training and TAD improved TPA and DTM in children with ADHD aged 9–15 years.

  • 18.
    Wentz, Elisabet
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden .
    Nyden, A
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Development of an internet-based support and coaching model for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study2012In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 611-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this paper were to develop an internet-based support and coaching model for young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to validate the model. A user-centred design was applied to develop a model for internet-based support and coaching, where individuals received 8-week support via internet (chat). The model was validated by 10 individuals, 15-26 years of age, with ASD and/or ADHD. Self-report questionnaires [Sense of Coherence (SOC), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Montgomery sberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale] were distributed before and after intervention. A structured interview regarding the quality of the model, the Patient perspective of Care and Rehabilitation process (POCR), was used after the intervention. The validation showed significant improvement of SOC, self-esteem and subjective Quality of Life at follow-up and the majority perceived high fulfilment/importance on the POCR. In conclusion, The model can be an important complement to other interventions for young people with ASD and/or ADHD.

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