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  • 1.
    Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.
    et al.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia .
    David, Daniel
    University of Babes Bolyai, Romania Mt Sinai School Med, NY USA .
    Beckers, Tom
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Muris, Peter
    Maastricht University, Netherlands .
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands Leuphana University, Germany .
    Lutz, Wolfgang
    University of Trier, Germany .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Araya, Ricardo
    University of Bristol, England .
    Banos Rivera, Rosa M.
    University of Valencia, Spain .
    Barkham, Michael
    University of Sheffield, England .
    Berking, Matthias
    Leuphana University, Germany University of Marburg, Germany University of Marburg, Germany .
    Berger, Thomas
    University of Bern, Switzerland .
    Botella, Christina
    Jaume I University, Spain .
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Colom, Francesc
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain .
    Essau, Cecilia
    Roehampton University, England .
    Hermans, Dirk
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Hofmann, Stefan G.
    Boston University, MA 02215 USA .
    Knappe, Susanne
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Ollendick, Thomas H.
    Virginia Technical University, VA USA .
    Raes, Filip
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Rief, Winfried
    University of Marburg, Germany University of Marburg, Germany .
    Riper, Heleen
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands .
    Van der Oord, Saskia
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Vervliet, Bram
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Advancing psychotherapy and evidence-based psychological interventions2014In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 23, no S1, p. 58-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological models of mental disorders guide research into psychological and environmental factors that elicit and maintain mental disorders as well as interventions to reduce them. This paper addresses four areas. (1) Psychological models of mental disorders have become increasingly transdiagnostic, focusing on core cognitive endophenotypes of psychopathology from an integrative cognitive psychology perspective rather than offering explanations for unitary mental disorders. It is argued that psychological interventions for mental disorders will increasingly target specific cognitive dysfunctions rather than symptom-based mental disorders as a result. (2) Psychotherapy research still lacks a comprehensive conceptual framework that brings together the wide variety of findings, models and perspectives. Analysing the state-of-the-art in psychotherapy treatment research, component analyses aiming at an optimal identification of core ingredients and the mechanisms of change is highlighted as the core need towards improved efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy, and improved translation to routine care. (3) In order to provide more effective psychological interventions to children and adolescents, there is a need to develop new and/or improved psychotherapeutic interventions on the basis of developmental psychopathology research taking into account knowledge of mediators and moderators. Developmental neuroscience research might be instrumental to uncover associated aberrant brain processes in children and adolescents with mental health problems and to better examine mechanisms of their correction by means of psychotherapy and psychological interventions. (4) Psychotherapy research needs to broaden in terms of adoption of large-scale public health strategies and treatments that can be applied to more patients in a simpler and cost-effective way. Increased research on efficacy and moderators of Internet-based treatments and e-mental health tools (e.g. to support real time clinical decision-making to prevent treatment failure or relapse) might be one promising way forward.

  • 2.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Emotra AB Ltd, Sweden.
    Wahlin, Karl
    Karl Wahlin AB, Sweden.
    Ranstam, Jonas
    Mdas AB, Sweden.
    Improper study design precludes valid effect estimates in important suicide prevention research2019In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 28, no 3, article id e1786Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The observational study design for estimating accuracy of diagnostic tests for suicide risk in clinical work is not ideal, due to the effects of directed suicide prevention to the high-risk group. This is an example of the confounding by indication and protopathic bias, which lead to misinterpretation of the accuracy terms sensitivity and specificity. The simple arithmetic mechanism presented here, forces the conclusion that the accuracy estimates sensitivity and specificity, applied in open prospective trials of surmised diagnostic tests for suicide risk, cannot be normally interpreted as accuracy estimators. Further, the related concept "prediction of suicide" is shown to be fundamentally illogical and should not be used in the present context. All these statements reveal a far-reaching problem within the suicide prevention research: Conclusions regarding the usefulness of diagnostic tests of suicide risk in the vast previous research since decades deserve reinterpretation. Diagnostic tests per se, can possess highly qualitative properties in estimating important suicidological aspects regarding a patient, but, when studied in an open design study, it cannot be demonstrated. This problem concerns rating scales and any biological and psychological tests in medicine, when confounding factors, for example, suicide prevention, influence the outcome because of the test result per se.

  • 3.
    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
    et al.
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Knappe, Susanne
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Araya, Ricardo
    University of Bristol, England .
    Banos Rivera, Rosa M.
    University of Valencia, Spain .
    Barkham, Michael
    University of Sheffield, England .
    Bech, Per
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Beckers, Tom
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Berger, Thomas
    University of Bern, Switzerland .
    Berking, Matthias
    University of Marburg, Germany .
    Berrocal, Carmen
    University of Malaga, Spain .
    Botella, Christina
    Jaume I University, Spain .
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Chouinard, Guy
    St Antoine Hospital, France .
    Colom, Francesc
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain .
    Csillag, Claudio
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Cujipers, Pim
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands Leuphana University, Germany .
    David, Daniel
    University of Babes Bolyai, Romania Department Oncology Science, NY USA .
    Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    A. Essau, Cecilia
    University of Roehampton, England .
    Fava, Giovanni A.
    University of Bologna, Italy .
    Goschke, Thomas
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Hermans, Dirk
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Hofmann, Stefan G.
    Boston University, MA 02215 USA .
    Lutz, Wolfgang
    University of Trier, Germany .
    Muris, Peter
    Maastricht University, Netherlands .
    Ollendick, Thomas H.
    Virginia Technical University, VA USA .
    Raes, Filip
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Rief, Winfried
    University of Marburg, Germany .
    Riper, Heleen
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands .
    Tossani, Eliana
    University of Bologna, Italy .
    van der Oord, Saskia
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Vervliet, Bram
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Haro, Josep M.
    CIBERSAM, Spain Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Spain University of Barcelona, Spain .
    Schumann, Gunter
    Kings Coll London, England Kings Coll London, England .
    The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders2014In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 23, p. 28-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional personalized medicine that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the Science of Behaviour Change, carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders.

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