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  • 1.
    Frost Bellgowan, Julie
    et al.
    Laureate Institute Brain Research, OK USA.
    Molfese, Peter
    Haskins Labs Inc, CT USA.
    Marx, Michael
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Thomason, Moriah
    Wayne State University, MI USA.
    Glen, Daniel
    NIMH, MD 20892 USA.
    Santiago, Jessica
    Laureate Institute Brain Research, OK USA.
    Gotlib, Ian H.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Drevets, Wayne C.
    Laureate Institute Brain Research, OK USA; Janssen Pharmaceut, Belgium.
    Hamilton, Paul J.
    Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Laureate Institute Brain Research, OK USA.
    A Neural Substrate for Behavioral Inhibition in the Risk for Major Depressive Disorder2015In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 841-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early developing trait associated with cautiousness and development of clinical depression and anxiety. Little is known about the neural basis of BI and its predictive importance concerning risk for internalizing disorders. We looked at functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN), given their respective roles in self-relational and threat processing, in the risk for internalizing disorders, with an emphasis on determining the functional significance of these networks for BI. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan, during the resting state, children and adolescents 8 to 17 years of age who were either at high familial risk (HR; n = 16) or low familial risk (LR; n = 18) for developing clinical depression and/or anxiety. Whole-brain DMN and SN functional connectivity were estimated for each participant and compared across groups. We also compared the LR and HR groups on levels of BI and anxiety, and incorporated these data into follow-up neurobehavioral correlation analyses. Results: The HR group, relative to the LR group, showed significantly decreased DMN connectivity with the ventral striatum and bilateral sensorimotor cortices. Within the HR group, trait BI increased as DMN connectivity with the ventral striatum and sensorimotor cortex decreased. The HR and LR groups did not differ with respect to SN connectivity. Conclusion: Our findings show, in the risk for internalizing disorders, a negative functional relation between brain regions supporting self-relational processes and reward prediction. These findings represent a potential neural substrate for behavioral inhibition in the risk for clinical depression and anxiety.

  • 2.
    Heiervang, E.
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen, Norway, Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, RBUP Vest, Unifob Helse, PO Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway.
    Stormark, K.M.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen.
    Lundervold, A.J.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Developmental Psychology.
    Goodman, R.
    King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom.
    Posserud, M.-B.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen.
    Ullebo, A.K.
    Ullebø, A.K., Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen.
    Plessen, K.J.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen, Norway, Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Bjelland, I.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen, Norway, Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Lie, S.A.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen.
    Gillberg, C.
    Queen Silvia's Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Psychiatric disorders in Norwegian 8- to 10-year-olds: An epidemiological survey of prevalence, risk factors, and service use2007In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 438-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The Bergen Child Study is a longitudinal study of child mental health from the city of Bergen, Norway. We present methods and results from the first wave of the study, focusing on prevalence of disorders, associations with risk factors, and the use of services. METHOD: The target population included all 9,430 children attending grades 2 to 4 in Bergen schools during the academic year 2002/2003. The main screening instrument was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, whereas diagnoses were based on the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Information about child and family risk factors and service use was also obtained in this second stage. RESULTS: In the first phase, the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was obtained for 9,155 (97%) of the target children and the matching parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 6,297 (67%), 1,011 children (11%) were assessed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment in the second phase. The weighted prevalence for any DSM-IV psychiatric disorder was 7.0% (95% confidence interval 5.6%-8.5%). Disorders were associated with age, gender, learning difficulties, family type, and poverty. Although 75% of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder had been in contact with specialist mental health services, this was true for only 13% of those with pure emotional disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children is relatively low in this Norwegian sample, when assessed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Children with emotional disorders have limited access to specialist services. Copyright 2007 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

  • 3. Klingberg, Torkel
    et al.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Olesen, Pernille
    Johnson, Mats
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Dahlström, Kerstin
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Forssberg, Hans
    Westerberg, Helena
    Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD - A randomized, controlled trial2005In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Deficits in executive functioning, including working memory (WM) deficits, have been suggested to be important in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During 2002 to 2003, the authors conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the effect of improving WM by computerized, systematic practice of WM tasks. Method: Included in the trial were 53 children with ADHD (9 girls, 15 of 53 inattentive subtype), aged 7 to 12 years, without stimulant medication. The compliance criterion (>20 days of training) was met by 44 subjects, 42 of whom were also evaluated at follow-up 3 months later. Participants were randomly assigned to use either the treatment computer program for training WM or a comparison program. The main outcome measure was the span-board task, a visuospatial WM task that was not part of the training program. Results: For the span-board task, there was a significant treatment effect both post-intervention and at follow-up. In addition, there were significant effects for secondary outcome tasks measuring verbal WM, response inhibition, and complex reasoning. Parent ratings showed significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, both post-intervention and at follow-up. Conclusions: This study shows that WM can be improved by training in children with ADHD. This training also improved response inhibition and reasoning and resulted in a reduction of the parent-rated inattentive symptoms of ADHD.

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