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  • 1.
    Foldemo, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bogren, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Needs in outpatients with schizophrenia, assessed by the patients themselves and their parents and staff2004In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 381-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    There has been a change in psychiatric care from a hospital-oriented care system to an outpatient-centred system, which has underlined the importance of support alternatives.

    Methods:

    The sample was drawn from outpatients with schizophrenia at an outpatient clinic in 2001. We used structured interviews when interviewing outpatients, parents and staff. The interview with the patient included the patient’s needs, global function, clinical global impression and insight. Both parents and staff were interviewed about the patient’s needs.

    Results:

    The mean value of GAF was 56 ± 10, CGI 4 ± 1 and 89% of the patients had full insight into their illness. The patients rated the total score of the severity of needs at a mean of 7 ± 4, while the parents’ and staff’s rating was 9 ± 5. The needs ranking between patients and parents and patients and staff showed a correlation of rho = 0.65 (p < 0.01) and parents and staff rho =0.95 (p < 0.01). The parents rated more problems involving physical health and money than the patients.

    Conclusion:

    When planning mental health in the future, it is important to assess the views of the patients, the parents and the staff from a multiple perspective.

  • 2.
    Foldemo, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gullberg, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bogren, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Quality of life and burden in parents of outpatients with schizophrenia2005In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Since the late 1950s, several studies have reported the burden faced by families living with a mentally ill relative. These studies have pointed out the importance of a progressive mental health service, focusing not only on the treatment of the patients, but also on the needs of the relatives. The aims of the present study were to compare the quality of life of parents of outpatients with schizophrenia with a randomly selected reference group and the relation between quality of life and burden on the parents.

    Subjects

    The sample comprised all parents (n=38) of outpatients with schizophrenia at an outpatient clinic in 2001, where the patients had contact at least once a week with both parents and staff. The parents were compared with a reference group (n=698).

    Methods

    The self-rating scale Quality of Life Index (QLI) was used to assess quality of life in both groups. In the case of the parents, semistructured interviews were supplemented by the data collection to assess the degree of burden with the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS). The outpatients were also interviewed to assess their global function with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI).

    Results

    The parents were significantly less satisfied with their overall quality of life (p<0.05). There was a correlation between lower overall quality of life and higher perceived burden r=0.58 (p<0.01). There was also a correlation between lower values on the family subscale and social subscale within the QLI and higher subjective burden r=0.54 (p<0.01) and r=0.52 (p<0.01), respectively.

    Conclusion

    These results indicate that caregiving has an influence on the family situation and on the quality of life of parents. These findings suggest that the professions working with the parents must have an approach focusing not only on the care given to the ill daughter or son, but also on the parents’ situation.

  • 3.
    Green Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Dept. of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences Örebro University.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Dept. of Psychology Uppsala University.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Dept. of Psychology Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Göran Svedin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Social phobia in Swedish adolescents: Prevalence and gender differences2009In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported social phobia in a community sample of Swedish adolescents in junior high school, at the risk-period for developing social phobia. Of particular interest was to investigate gender differences in prevalence across ages. Prevalence of sub-threshold social phobia was also studied. Methods Students in grades 6-8 (aged 12-14) from seventeen schools in five Swedish municipalities were screened by means of a self-report questionnaire, the social phobia screening questionnaire-for children (SPSQ-C). Results Data from a sample of 2,128 students were analysed and showed a point-prevalence rate of 4.4% (95% CI 3.5-5.2) and a significant gender difference (6.6% girls vs. 1.8% boys, P < 0.001). No significant differences in prevalence of probable cases emerged across the ages. At sub-threshold level, marked social fear of at least one social situation was reported by 13.8% of the total group. "Speaking in front of class and "calling someone unfamiliar on the phone were the most feared social situations. In the social phobia group, 91.4% reported impairment in the school-domain due to their social fear. Conclusion Social phobia is a common psychiatric condition in Swedish adolescents, especially in girls. As impairment in the school-domain is reported to a high degree, professionals and teachers need to recognize social phobia in adolescents so that help in overcoming the difficulties can be offered.

  • 4.
    Hensing, G
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Brage, S
    Nygård, JF
    Sandanger, I
    Tellnes, G
    Sickness absence with psychiatric disorders - an increased risk for marginalisation among men?2000In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 35, p. 335-340Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lindell, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment.
    Svedin, CG
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, CPS - Centrum för psykiatri och samhällsmedicin, BUP - Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Physical child abuse in Sweden: A study of police reports between 1986 and 19962001In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 150-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study aims at investigating physical child abuse in Sweden during 1986-1996, a period when alarm was being raised about an increased number of police reports on physical child abuse. The study focuses on abuse committed by a parent or carer and aims at analyzing the victim and the perpetrator, family environment, injuries and judicial consequences of physical abuse. Method: All police reports on physical child abuse (0-14 years old) in a designated police district in Sweden during 1986-1996 were examined, as well as any judicial proceedings that followed. Results: Our research yielded three major findings. Firstly, a large part of the increased number of police reports had to do with violence outside the family: 145 children (0.5 per 1000 children) were found abused within the families, by a parent or a carer. Secondly, there was a tendency toward males abusing boys and females abusing girls, and the biological father was the most frequent suspected perpetrator. Thirdly, 20% of the police reports led to prosecutions, and the investigations were time consuming. Known risk factors for physical abuse, such as unemployment, violent spouse relations, substance and drug abuse and poor mental health were found in several families, often among the prosecuted perpetrators. When examining incidence of physical abuse, Sweden was comparable to the other Scandinavian countries, where legislation and social context are similar. Conclusions: The numbers of physically abused children that have been reported to the police in Sweden has increased during the investigated period. Familiar risk factors are present in our study, accompanied by new findings, such as, for instance, a gender preference towards the abuse victim.

  • 6. Savikko, A
    et al.
    Hensing, G
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Do mental health problems increase sickness absence due to other diseases?2001In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 36, p. 310-316Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Tinghög, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    National Institute for Working Life Stockholm, Sweden/Division of Occupational Health Dept. of Public Health Sciences Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life Stockholm, Sweden/Division of Occupational Health Dept. of Public Health Sciences Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Sweden.
    To what extent may the association between immigrant status and mental illness be explained by socioeconomic factors?2007In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 990-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Immigrants in Sweden have a higher rate of mental illness than the native Swedes. This study investigated to what extent the association between immigrant status and mental illness can be explained by a different distribution of known risk factors for impaired mental health between groups of immigrants and persons born in Sweden.

    Methods The study is based on data from the Swedish PART-study, designed to identify risk factors for, and social consequences of, mental illness. The study population consists of a random sample of 10,423 Swedish citizens, whereof 1,109 were immigrants. The data was collected in the year 2000. The immigrants were divided into three groups based on country of origin (Scandinavians born outside Sweden, Europeans born outside Scandinavia, non-Europeans). The occurrence of mental illness among immigrants and native Swedes were compared not adjusting and adjusting for indicators of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage (education, income, labour market position, etc). Mental illness was approximated with the WHO (ten) wellbeing index scale and depressive symptoms were measured with the major depression inventory scale (MDI).

    Results Immigrants’ excess risk for low subjective wellbeing was completely accounted for by adjustment for known risk factors in all the immigrant groups. However, social-economic disadvantages could not account for the non-European immigrants’ higher prevalence of depression (MDI), although the increased relative risk found in univariate analyses was substantially reduced.

    Conclusions The findings in this study suggest that the association between immigrant status and mental illness appears above all to be an effect of a higher prevalence of social and economic disadvantage.

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