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  • 1.
    Arendt Nielsen, Lars
    et al.
    Laboratory for Experimental Pain Resarch Ahlborg, Denmark.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic musculoskeletal pain (fibromyalgia): the role of central and peripheral sensitization and pain disinhibition2007In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 1521-6942, E-ISSN 1532-1770, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 465-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain has biological, psychological and social components. This review deals with the biological factors, with emphasis on the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Studies on central sensitization of pain-transmitting neurons, changes in endogenous pain modulation that give rise to pain disinhibition, referred pain, pain-related decrease in muscle strength and endurance, and pain generators in deep tissues are reviewed. In FMS there is strong scientific support for the statement that the biological part of the syndrome is a longstanding or permanent change in the function of the nociceptive nervous system that can be equated with a disease. Further research is necessary in order to determine which methods are best for diagnosis of the pain hypersensitivity in clinical practice. FMS may be the far end of a continuum that starts with chronic localized/regional musculoskeletal pain and ends with widespread chronic disabling pain. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Sögaard, Karen
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rosendahl, Lars
    Department of Clinical Operations Birkeröd, Denmark.
    Work related neck-shoulder pain: a review on magnitude, risk factors, biochemical characteristics, clinical picture and preventive interventions2007In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 1521-6942, E-ISSN 1532-1770, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 447-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this review is to scrutinize the physiology of neck-shoulder pain and trapezius myalgia based on the most recent scientific literature. Therefore, systematic literature searches have been conducted. Occurrence of neck-shoulder pain, risk factors for development of neck-shoulder pain, and its work-relatedness are addressed. Furthermore, the latest information on the biochemical milieu within healthy and painful neck-shoulder muscles is reviewed. Finally diagnosis of and intervention for neck and shoulder pain are discussed. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Mannerkorpi, K.
    et al.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Guldhedsgatan 10, SE-413 46 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Chris
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Non-pharmacological treatment of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain2007In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 1521-6942, E-ISSN 1532-1770, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 513-534Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-pharmacological treatment for patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia (FM) aims to enhance overall health. This chapter reviews studies of exercise, education, movement therapies and sensory stimulation. Based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we suggest that aerobic exercise of low to moderate intensity, such as walking and pool exercise, can improve symptoms and distress in patients with CWP and FM, and it may improve physical capacity in sedentary patients. Aerobic exercise of moderate to high intensity has been shown to improve aerobic capacity and tender-point status. Educational programmes have been shown to enhance self-efficacy and health perception. There is no conclusive evidence about the type of educational programme that works best, but a small-group format and interactive discussions appear to be important components. Exercise combined with education appears to produce synergies. Studies of movement therapies (such as qigong) and sensory treatments (such as acupuncture and massage) are few in number. There is today no conclusive evidence about the effects of these treatments in CWP, although positive effects have been reported in a few studies. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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